Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: alphaTub84D
Description: alpha-Tubulin at 84D
Alias: ALPHA 84D, CG2512, D.m.ALPHA-84D, DTA4, Dmel\CG2512, Tub, Tub1A, aTub84D, alpha-Tub, alpha-Tub84D, alpha-tub, alpha-tub84D, alpha-tubulin, alpha3, alpha3t, alpha84D, alphaTUB, alphaTUB84D, alphaTub, alphaTub3, alphaTub84, alpha-Tubulin at 84D, CG2512-PA, Tubulin-alpha3, alpha tubulin, alpha-Tubulin, alphaT, alphaTub84D-PA, alphaTubulin 84D, alphatubulin, tubulin, tubulin alpha-3 chain, tubulin alpha3, tubulin at 84D
Species: fruit fly
- Gho M, Bellaiche Y, Schweisguth F. Revisiting the Drosophila microchaete lineage: a novel intrinsically asymmetric cell division generates a glial cell. Development. 1999;126:3573-84 pubmed..This revised description of the sense organ lineage provides the basis for future studies on how polarity and fate are regulated in asymmetrically dividing cells. ..
- Roos J, Hummel T, Ng N, Klämbt C, Davis G. Drosophila Futsch regulates synaptic microtubule organization and is necessary for synaptic growth. Neuron. 2000;26:371-82 pubmed..These data suggest a common microtubule-based growth mechanism at the synapse and growth cone. ..
- Matthews K, Rees D, Kaufman T. A functionally specialized alpha-tubulin is required for oocyte meiosis and cleavage mitoses in Drosophila. Development. 1993;117:977-91 pubmed..contribute to microtubules during oogenesis and early embryogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster: alpha TUB84B, alpha TUB84D, and alpha TUB67C. alpha TUB67C is unique in two respects...
- Betschinger J, Mechtler K, Knoblich J. The Par complex directs asymmetric cell division by phosphorylating the cytoskeletal protein Lgl. Nature. 2003;422:326-30 pubmed..Lgl promotes cortical localization of Miranda, and we propose that phosphorylation of Lgl by aPKC at the apical neuroblast cortex restricts Lgl activity and Miranda localization to the opposite, basal side of the cell. ..
- Zheng Y, Wong M, Alberts B, Mitchison T. Nucleation of microtubule assembly by a gamma-tubulin-containing ring complex. Nature. 1995;378:578-83 pubmedThe highly conserved protein gamma-tubulin is required for microtubule nucleation in vivo...
- Nielsen M, Caserta J, Kidd S, Phillips C. Functional constraint underlies 60 million year stasis of Dipteran testis-specific beta-tubulin. Evol Dev. 2006;8:23-9 pubmed..find a highly stringent structure/function relationship between the Drosophila melanogaster testis-specific tubulin beta2 and the spermtail axoneme, such that small changes in the beta2 protein render it unable to generate a ..
- Endow S, Chandra R, Komma D, Yamamoto A, Salmon E. Mutants of the Drosophila ncd microtubule motor protein cause centrosomal and spindle pole defects in mitosis. J Cell Sci. 1994;107 ( Pt 4):859-67 pubmed..Together with previous work, our findings indicate that ncd is important in maintaining spindle poles in mitosis as well as in meiosis. ..
- Bucciarelli E, Pellacani C, Naim V, Palena A, Gatti M, Somma M. Drosophila Dgt6 interacts with Ndc80, Msps/XMAP215, and gamma-tubulin to promote kinetochore-driven MT formation. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1839-45 pubmed publisher..Recent work has suggested that additional spindle MTs can be nucleated by gamma-tubulin ring complexes (gamma-TuRCs) that associate laterally with preexisting spindle MTs, leading to spindle ..
- Kawaguchi S, Zheng Y. Characterization of a Drosophila centrosome protein CP309 that shares homology with Kendrin and CG-NAP. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:37-45 pubmed..this novel Drosophila centrosome protein, centrosome protein of 309 kDa (CP309), cofractionates with the gamma-tubulin ring complex and the centrosome-complementing activity...
- do Carmo Avides M, Glover D. Abnormal spindle protein, Asp, and the integrity of mitotic centrosomal microtubule organizing centers. Science. 1999;283:1733-5 pubmed..This was corrected by addition of purified Asp protein. Thus, Asp appears to hold together the microtubule-nucleating gamma-tubulin ring complexes that organize the mitotic centrosome.
- Bucciarelli E, Giansanti M, Bonaccorsi S, Gatti M. Spindle assembly and cytokinesis in the absence of chromosomes during Drosophila male meiosis. J Cell Biol. 2003;160:993-9 pubmed..This suggests that the association of Aurora B with chromosomes is not a prerequisite for its accumulation at the central spindle, or for its function during cytokinesis. ..
- Rolls M, Albertson R, Shih H, Lee C, Doe C. Drosophila aPKC regulates cell polarity and cell proliferation in neuroblasts and epithelia. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:1089-98 pubmed
- Cullen C, Deak P, Glover D, Ohkura H. mini spindles: A gene encoding a conserved microtubule-associated protein required for the integrity of the mitotic spindle in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 1999;146:1005-18 pubmed..The absence of centrosomal staining in interphase of the cellularized embryos suggests that the interactions between Msps protein and microtubules or centrosomes may be regulated during the cell cycle. ..
- Matthews K, Miller D, Kaufman T. Developmental distribution of RNA and protein products of the Drosophila alpha-tubulin gene family. Dev Biol. 1989;132:45-61 pubmedThe developmental pattern of gene expression of the Drosophila melanogaster alpha-tubulin family has been examined in detail at both the mRNA and protein levels...
- Kuchinke U, Grawe F, Knust E. Control of spindle orientation in Drosophila by the Par-3-related PDZ-domain protein Bazooka. Curr Biol. 1998;8:1357-65 pubmed..The PDZ domains of Bazooka provide several protein-protein interfaces, which possibly participate in the assembly of a multiprotein complex at the apical pole. ..
- Baker J, Theurkauf W, Schubiger G. Dynamic changes in microtubule configuration correlate with nuclear migration in the preblastoderm Drosophila embryo. J Cell Biol. 1993;122:113-21 pubmed..We propose that cortical migration is driven by microtubule-dependent forces that repel adjacent nuclei, leading to an expansion of the nuclear ellipsoid established by axial expansion. ..
- Brent A, MacQueen A, Hazelrigg T. The Drosophila wispy gene is required for RNA localization and other microtubule-based events of meiosis and early embryogenesis. Genetics. 2000;154:1649-62 pubmed..We propose that the wispy gene product functions directly in several microtubule-based events in meiosis and early embryogenesis and speculate about its possible mode of action. ..
- Shen J, Dahmann C. Extrusion of cells with inappropriate Dpp signaling from Drosophila wing disc epithelia. Science. 2005;307:1789-90 pubmed..This loss correlates with extensive cytoskeletal changes followed by basal epithelial extrusion. We propose that Dpp promotes cell survival within disc epithelia by affecting cytoskeletal organization. ..
- Lee S, Kolodziej P. Short Stop provides an essential link between F-actin and microtubules during axon extension. Development. 2002;129:1195-204 pubmed..These results suggest that Shot coordinates regulated interactions between F-actin and microtubules that are crucial for neuronal morphogenesis. ..
- Galindo M, Pueyo J, Fouix S, Bishop S, Couso J. Peptides encoded by short ORFs control development and define a new eukaryotic gene family. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e106 pubmed publisher..Our results open a new avenue for the annotation and functional analysis of genes and sequenced genomes, in which thousands of short ORFs are still uncharacterised...
- Hughes S, Beeler J, Seat A, Slaughter B, Unruh J, Bauerly E, et al. Gamma-tubulin is required for bipolar spindle assembly and for proper kinetochore microtubule attachments during prometaphase I in Drosophila oocytes. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002209 pubmed publisher..Previous studies of Drosophila oocytes failed to detect the native form of the germline-specific ?-tubulin (?Tub37C) in meiosis I spindles, and genetic studies have yielded conflicting data regarding the role of ?Tub37C ..
- Megraw T, Li K, Kao L, Kaufman T. The centrosomin protein is required for centrosome assembly and function during cleavage in Drosophila. Development. 1999;126:2829-39 pubmed..poles in the mutants contain little or no detectable amounts of the centrosomal proteins CP60, CP190 and (gamma)-tubulin and late stage embryos often do not have astral microtubules at their spindle poles...
- Kylsten P, Saint R. Imaginal tissues of Drosophila melanogaster exhibit different modes of cell proliferation control. Dev Biol. 1997;192:509-22 pubmed..melanogaster development, but also reveals that at least one additional mechanism is utilized to control G2-phase length and thus cell proliferation in different developmental contexts. ..
- Silva E, Tiong S, Pedersen M, Homola E, Royou A, Fasulo B, et al. ATM is required for telomere maintenance and chromosome stability during Drosophila development. Curr Biol. 2004;14:1341-7 pubmed
- Riparbelli M, Whitfield W, Dallai R, Callaini G. Assembly of the zygotic centrosome in the fertilized Drosophila egg. Mech Dev. 1997;65:135-44 pubmed..gamma-Tubulin was also found in association with the posterior end of the sperm nucleus during spermiogenesis, but was not ..
- Fichelson P, Jagut M, Lepanse S, Lepesant J, Huynh J. lethal giant larvae is required with the par genes for the early polarization of the Drosophila oocyte. Development. 2010;137:815-24 pubmed publisher..We conclude that, despite sharing many similarities with other model systems at the genetic and cellular levels, the polarization of the early oocyte relies on a specific subset of polarity proteins. ..
- Doerflinger H, Benton R, Shulman J, St Johnston D. The role of PAR-1 in regulating the polarised microtubule cytoskeleton in the Drosophila follicular epithelium. Development. 2003;130:3965-75 pubmed..Although the direct targets of PAR-1 are unknown, we suggest that it functions by regulating the plus ends, possibly by capping them at the basal cortex. ..
- Helps N, Brewis N, Lineruth K, Davis T, Kaiser K, Cohen P. Protein phosphatase 4 is an essential enzyme required for organisation of microtubules at centrosomes in Drosophila embryos. J Cell Sci. 1998;111 ( Pt 10):1331-40 pubmed..A reduction in the staining of gamma-tubulin at centrosomes in cmm embryos suggests a conformational change or relocation of this protein, which is known to ..
- Schulte J, Sepp K, Jorquera R, Wu C, Song Y, Hong P, et al. DMob4/Phocein regulates synapse formation, axonal transport, and microtubule organization. J Neurosci. 2010;30:5189-203 pubmed publisher..These findings suggest a novel role for Phocein proteins in the regulation of axonal transport, neurite elongation, synapse formation, and microtubule organization...
- Keller Larkin M, Deng W, Holder K, Tworoger M, Clegg N, Ruohola Baker H. Role of Notch pathway in terminal follicle cell differentiation during Drosophila oogenesis. Dev Genes Evol. 1999;209:301-11 pubmed
- Wang C, Li S, Januschke J, Rossi F, Izumi Y, Garcia Alvarez G, et al. An ana2/ctp/mud complex regulates spindle orientation in Drosophila neuroblasts. Dev Cell. 2011;21:520-33 pubmed publisher..Our findings reveal that the centrosomal proteins Ana2 and Ctp regulate Mud function to orient the mitotic spindle during NB asymmetric division. ..
- Mirouse V, Dastugue B, Couderc J. The Drosophila Toucan protein is a new mitotic microtubule-associated protein required for spindle microtubule stability. Genes Cells. 2005;10:37-46 pubmed..In contrast, astral microtubules are not disturbed by Toc depletion. Taken together, our results show that Toucan is a microtubule-associated protein specifically required for the stability of spindle microtubules throughout mitosis. ..
- Ben Yaacov S, Le Borgne R, Abramson I, Schweisguth F, Schejter E. Wasp, the Drosophila Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome gene homologue, is required for cell fate decisions mediated by Notch signaling. J Cell Biol. 2001;152:1-13 pubmed..The nature of the Wsp mutant phenotypes, coupled with genetic interaction studies, identifies an essential role for Wsp in lineage decisions mediated by the Notch signaling pathway. ..
- Koppen T, Weckmann A, Muller S, Staubach S, Bloch W, Dohmen R, et al. Proteomics analyses of microvesicles released by Drosophila Kc167 and S2 cells. Proteomics. 2011;11:4397-410 pubmed publisher..The analyses revealed a significant overlap of the Kc167 and S2 vesicle proteomes and confirmed a close correlation with non-mammalian and mammalian exosomes. ..
- Kalfayan L, Wensink P. Developmental regulation of Drosophila alpha-tubulin genes. Cell. 1982;29:91-8 pubmedTranscripts from the four different Drosophila melanogaster alpha-tubulin genes were detected by filter hybridization experiments that used subcloned fragments from each gene as hybridization probes...
- Findeisen P, MÃ¼hlhausen S, Dempewolf S, Hertzog J, Zietlow A, Carlomagno T, et al. Six subgroups and extensive recent duplications characterize the evolution of the eukaryotic tubulin protein family. Genome Biol Evol. 2014;6:2274-88 pubmed publisher..However, a taxonomically broad and whole-genome-based analysis of the tubulin protein family has never been performed, and thus, the number of subfamilies, their taxonomic distribution, and ..
- Fahmy K, Akber M, Cai X, Koul A, Hayder A, Baumgartner S. Î±Tubulin 67C and Ncd are essential for establishing a cortical microtubular network and formation of the Bicoid mRNA gradient in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e112053 pubmed publisher..Our data strongly corroborate the ARTS model and explain the occurrence of the bcd mRNA gradient. ..
- Mischke D, Pardue M. Organization and expression of alpha-tubulin genes in Drosophila melanogaster. One member of the alpha-tubulin multigene family is transcribed in both oogenesis and later embryonic development. J Mol Biol. 1982;156:449-66 pubmed
- de Carcer G, do Carmo Avides M, Lallena M, Glover D, Gonzalez C. Requirement of Hsp90 for centrosomal function reflects its regulation of Polo kinase stability. EMBO J. 2001;20:2878-84 pubmed
- Wasser M, Chia W. The Drosophila EAST protein associates with a nuclear remnant during mitosis and constrains chromosome mobility. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:1733-43 pubmed..We propose that EAST constitutes a component of a nucleoskeleton that helps to constrain the mobility of chromosomes in interphase, mitosis and meiosis. ..
- Wu C, Sakai K, Saito M, Hotta Y. Giant Drosophila neurons differentiated from cytokinesis-arrested embryonic neuroblasts. J Neurobiol. 1990;21:499-507 pubmed..The cells of increased sizes in this culture system are more accessible to physiological and cell biological analyses and could facilitate future studies of the Drosophila nervous system. ..
- Raff E. Genetics of microtubule systems. J Cell Biol. 1984;99:1-10 pubmedIn most eucaryotes the tubulin genes comprise small multigene families with approximately equal numbers of genes for alpha- and beta-tubulin, the structural proteins of microtubules...
- Kner P, Chhun B, Griffis E, Winoto L, Gustafsson M. Super-resolution video microscopy of live cells by structured illumination. Nat Methods. 2009;6:339-42 pubmed publisher..We demonstrate the microscope by video imaging of tubulin and kinesin dynamics in living Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells in the total internal reflection mode.
- Rodrigues Martins A, Riparbelli M, Callaini G, Glover D, Bettencourt Dias M. Revisiting the role of the mother centriole in centriole biogenesis. Science. 2007;316:1046-50 pubmed..The mother centriole is not a bona fide template but a platform for a set of regulatory molecules that catalyzes and regulates daughter centriole assembly...
- Jin X, Sun X, Song Q. Woc gene mutation causes 20E-dependent alpha-tubulin detyrosination in Drosophila melanogaster. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2005;60:116-29 pubmed..present study, we investigated the effect of the woc gene mutation on the expression and tyrosination of alpha-tubulin in the woc(rgl) mutant...
- Martinez Campos M, Basto R, Baker J, Kernan M, Raff J. The Drosophila pericentrin-like protein is essential for cilia/flagella function, but appears to be dispensable for mitosis. J Cell Biol. 2004;165:673-83 pubmed..Moreover, the flagella in mutant sperm are nonmotile. Thus, D-PLP is essential for the formation of functional cilia and flagella in flies. ..
- Vazquez Pianzola P, Adam J, Haldemann D, Hain D, Urlaub H, Suter B. Clathrin heavy chain plays multiple roles in polarizing the Drosophila oocyte downstream of Bic-D. Development. 2014;141:1915-26 pubmed publisher..Moreover, we also uncovered a novel, presumably endocytosis-independent, role of Chc in the establishment of microtubule polarity in stage 6 oocytes. ..
- Ashley J, Packard M, Ataman B, Budnik V. Fasciclin II signals new synapse formation through amyloid precursor protein and the scaffolding protein dX11/Mint. J Neurosci. 2005;25:5943-55 pubmed..These results provide a novel mechanism by which cell adhesion molecules are regulated and provide fresh insights into the normal operation of APP during synapse development. ..
- Matthews K, Kaufman T. Developmental consequences of mutations in the 84B alpha-tubulin gene of Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 1987;119:100-14 pubmedDevelopmental effects of six mutations in the gene encoding the majority of alpha-tubulin in all tissues at all stages of Drosophila melanogaster development have been examined...
- Endow S, Komma D. Assembly and dynamics of an anastral:astral spindle: the meiosis II spindle of Drosophila oocytes. J Cell Sci. 1998;111 ( Pt 17):2487-95 pubmed..gamma-Tubulin transiently localizes to the central spindle pole body, implying that the body acts as a microtubule nucleating ..
- Wei J, Hortsch M, Goode S. Neuroglian stabilizes epithelial structure during Drosophila oogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2004;230:800-8 pubmed..Our data also suggest that Ig superfamily members have significant functional redundancy in maintaining epithelial polarity, with individual members playing subtle, unique roles during epithelial morphogenesis. ..
- Mollinari C, Lange B, Gonzalez C. Miranda, a protein involved in neuroblast asymmetric division, is associated with embryonic centrosomes of Drosophila melanogaster. Biol Cell. 2002;94:1-13 pubmed..on purified syncytial centrosomes shows that Miranda is located on the pericentriolar material along with gamma-tubulin. Taken all together, our data indicate for the first time that Miranda belongs to a growing class of proteins ..
- Stevenson V, Kramer J, Kuhn J, Theurkauf W. Centrosomes and the Scrambled protein coordinate microtubule-independent actin reorganization. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:68-75 pubmed..Our results indicate that centrosomes may coordinate assembly of cortical actin caps through a microtubule-independent mechanism, and that Scrambled mediates a second microtubule-independent process that drives mitotic furrow assembly. ..
- Zhang G, Breuer M, Förster A, Egger Adam D, Wodarz A. Mars, a Drosophila protein related to vertebrate HURP, is required for the attachment of centrosomes to the mitotic spindle during syncytial nuclear divisions. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:535-45 pubmed publisher..We propose that Mars is an important linker between the spindle and the centrosomes that is required for proper spindle organization during the rapid mitotic cycles in early embryogenesis. ..
- Colombié N, Cullen C, Brittle A, Jang J, Earnshaw W, Carmena M, et al. Dual roles of Incenp crucial to the assembly of the acentrosomal metaphase spindle in female meiosis. Development. 2008;135:3239-46 pubmed publisher..We propose that the two functions of Incenp are part of the mechanisms that compensate for the lack of centrosomes during meiotic spindle formation. ..
- Meignin C, Dastugue B, Vaury C. Intercellular communication between germ line and somatic line is utilized to control the transcription of ZAM, an endogenous retrovirus from Drosophila melanogaster. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:3799-806 pubmed
- Wilson P. Centrosome inheritance in the male germ line of Drosophila requires hu-li tai-shao function. Cell Biol Int. 2005;29:360-9 pubmed..Collectively, these results indicate that hts function is necessary for centrosome inheritance in spermatocytes as well as for male fertility. ..
- Moon W, Hazelrigg T. The Drosophila microtubule-associated protein mini spindles is required for cytoplasmic microtubules in oogenesis. Curr Biol. 2004;14:1957-61 pubmed..Our findings reveal a new role for msps in cell patterning and raise the possibility that other family members may perform similar functions. ..
- Grevengoed E, Fox D, Gates J, Peifer M. Balancing different types of actin polymerization at distinct sites: roles for Abelson kinase and Enabled. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:1267-79 pubmed..We also examined other actin regulators. Loss of Abl leads to changes in the localization of the Arp2/3 complex and the formin Diaphanous, and mutations in diaphanous or capping protein beta enhance abl phenotypes. ..
- Swan A, Nguyen T, Suter B. Drosophila Lissencephaly-1 functions with Bic-D and dynein in oocyte determination and nuclear positioning. Nat Cell Biol. 1999;1:444-9 pubmed
- Nicolai M, Delbecque J, Delachambre J, Lenoir Rousseaux J. Is tubulin the sole antigen recognized by a putative anti-bursicon antibody?. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 1999;122:39-45 pubmed..Again, the isolated clones were found, after cDNA sequencing, to correspond to tubulin. Our results suggest that, although the 01C10 mAb could possibly still have a great affinity for a polypeptide ..
- Royou A, Field C, Sisson J, Sullivan W, Karess R. Reassessing the role and dynamics of nonmuscle myosin II during furrow formation in early Drosophila embryos. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:838-50 pubmed..We suggest that cellularization can be divided into two distinct processes: furrow ingression, driven by microtubule mediated vesicle delivery, and basal closure, which is mediated by actin/myosin based constriction. ..
- Berdnik D, Knoblich J. Drosophila Aurora-A is required for centrosome maturation and actin-dependent asymmetric protein localization during mitosis. Curr Biol. 2002;12:640-7 pubmed..aurA(37) mutant cells also fail to recruit Centrosomin (Cnn) and gamma-Tubulin to centrosomes during mitosis, leading to spindle morphology defects...
- Bettencourt Dias M, Rodrigues Martins A, Carpenter L, Riparbelli M, Lehmann L, Gatt M, et al. SAK/PLK4 is required for centriole duplication and flagella development. Curr Biol. 2005;15:2199-207 pubmed..Drosophila cells tolerate the lack of centrioles and undertake mitosis but cannot form basal bodies and hence flagella. Human cells depleted of SAK show error-prone mitosis, likely to underlie its tumor-suppressor role. ..
- Reed B, Orr Weaver T. The Drosophila gene morula inhibits mitotic functions in the endo cell cycle and the mitotic cell cycle. Development. 1997;124:3543-53 pubmed..Thus morula serves a dual function as a cell cycle regulator that promotes exit from mitosis and maintains the absence of mitosis during the endo cycle, possibly by activating the cyclin destruction machinery. ..
- Röper K, Brown N. A spectraplakin is enriched on the fusome and organizes microtubules during oocyte specification in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2004;14:99-110 pubmed..Shot associates with the fusome and is required for microtubule organization. We suggest that it does this directly, via its microtubule binding GAS2 domain. ..
- Sakaguchi A, Steward R. Aberrant monomethylation of histone H4 lysine 20 activates the DNA damage checkpoint in Drosophila melanogaster. J Cell Biol. 2007;176:155-62 pubmed..We therefore propose that monomethylated H4K20 is involved in the maintenance of proper higher order structure of DNA and is consequently essential for chromosome condensation. ..
- Wang X, Shaw W, Tsang H, Reid E, O Kane C. Drosophila spichthyin inhibits BMP signaling and regulates synaptic growth and axonal microtubules. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:177-85 pubmed
- Loppin B, Berger F, Couble P. Paternal chromosome incorporation into the zygote nucleus is controlled by maternal haploid in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2001;231:383-96 pubmed..The mh phenotype is highly reminiscent of the early developmental defects observed in eggs fertilized by ms(3)K81 mutant males and in eggs produced in incompatible crosses of Drosophila harboring the endosymbiont bacteria Wolbachia. ..
- Wagner N, Weber D, Seitz S, Krohne G. The lamin B receptor of Drosophila melanogaster. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:2015-28 pubmed..We conclude that dLBR is not a limiting component of the nuclear architecture in Drosophila cells during the first 2 days of development. ..
- Theurkauf W, Baum H, Bo J, Wensink P. Tissue-specific and constitutive alpha-tubulin genes of Drosophila melanogaster code for structurally distinct proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83:8477-81 pubmedWe have determined the nucleotide sequences of all four Drosophila alpha-tubulin genes (alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 3, and alpha 4)...