alphaTub84B

Summary

Gene Symbol: alphaTub84B
Description: alpha-Tubulin at 84B
Alias: ALPHA 84C, Alpha-Tubulin84B, BEST:LD32507, CG1913, DM1alpha, DTA1, Dmel\CG1913, TBA1_DROME, Talpha1, Tub, Tub 84B, Tub1C, Tuba84B, Tubalpha1, a-tub84B, a1t, aTub84B, alpha-Tub, alpha-Tub84B, alpha-tub, alpha-tub84B, alpha-tubulin, alpha-tubulin 84B, alpha1, alpha1t, alpha1tub, alpha1tub84B, alpha84B, alphaT, alphaTUB, alphaTUB84B, alphaTub, alphaTub1, alphaTub84, alphat-1, alphatub, alphatub84B, anon-EST:Liang-1.59, anon-EST:Liang-2.30, chr3R:2914276..2914416, clone 1.59, clone 2.30, l(3)84Bd, l(3)g3, ms(3)nc33, nc33, tub, tubA84B, tubalpha1, tubulin, alpha-Tubulin at 84B, CG1913-PA, Tubulin-alpha1, alpha tubulin, alpha tubulin 84B, alpha-Tubulin, alpha-Tubulin 84B, alpha-tubulin 1, alpha-tubulin84B, alpha1 tubulin, alpha1-tubulin, alphaT, alphaTub84B-PA, alphaTubulin 84B, alphaTubulin84B, alpha[[1]] tubulin, alpha[[1]]-tubulin, alphatubulin, tubulin, tubulin 1 alpha-chain, tubulin 1alpha, tubulin alpha1, tubulin alpha1 promoter, tubulin(alpha1), tubulin1alpha, tubulin84B
Species: fruit fly
Products:     alphaTub84B

Top Publications

  1. Bucciarelli E, Giansanti M, Bonaccorsi S, Gatti M. Spindle assembly and cytokinesis in the absence of chromosomes during Drosophila male meiosis. J Cell Biol. 2003;160:993-9 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the association of Aurora B with chromosomes is not a prerequisite for its accumulation at the central spindle, or for its function during cytokinesis. ..
  2. Slep K, Rogers S, Elliott S, Ohkura H, Kolodziej P, Vale R. Structural determinants for EB1-mediated recruitment of APC and spectraplakins to the microtubule plus end. J Cell Biol. 2005;168:587-98 pubmed
    ..These results provide a structural understanding of how EB1 binds two regulators of microtubule-based cell polarity. ..
  3. Rogers S, Rogers G, Sharp D, Vale R. Drosophila EB1 is important for proper assembly, dynamics, and positioning of the mitotic spindle. J Cell Biol. 2002;158:873-84 pubmed
    ..Our results reveal crucial roles for EB1 in mitosis, which we postulate involves its ability to promote the growth and interactions of microtubules within the central spindle and at the cell cortex. ..
  4. Hallen M, Ho J, Yankel C, Endow S. Fluorescence recovery kinetic analysis of gamma-tubulin binding to the mitotic spindle. Biophys J. 2008;95:3048-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we use it to analyze gamma-tubulin binding to the mitotic spindle and centrosomes to determine the role of gamma-tubulin in microtubule nucleation ..
  5. Rebollo E, Roldán M, Gonzalez C. Spindle alignment is achieved without rotation after the first cell cycle in Drosophila embryonic neuroblasts. Development. 2009;136:3393-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, predetermined spindle orientation is not restricted to larval NBs. On the contrary, it actually applies to all but the first cell cycle of embryonic NBs. ..
  6. Rolls M, Albertson R, Shih H, Lee C, Doe C. Drosophila aPKC regulates cell polarity and cell proliferation in neuroblasts and epithelia. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:1089-98 pubmed
  7. Martinez Campos M, Basto R, Baker J, Kernan M, Raff J. The Drosophila pericentrin-like protein is essential for cilia/flagella function, but appears to be dispensable for mitosis. J Cell Biol. 2004;165:673-83 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the flagella in mutant sperm are nonmotile. Thus, D-PLP is essential for the formation of functional cilia and flagella in flies. ..
  8. Matthews K, Kaufman T. Developmental consequences of mutations in the 84B alpha-tubulin gene of Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 1987;119:100-14 pubmed
    Developmental effects of six mutations in the gene encoding the majority of alpha-tubulin in all tissues at all stages of Drosophila melanogaster development have been examined...
  9. Baker J, Theurkauf W, Schubiger G. Dynamic changes in microtubule configuration correlate with nuclear migration in the preblastoderm Drosophila embryo. J Cell Biol. 1993;122:113-21 pubmed
    ..We propose that cortical migration is driven by microtubule-dependent forces that repel adjacent nuclei, leading to an expansion of the nuclear ellipsoid established by axial expansion. ..

More Information

Publications77

  1. Hoyle H, Turner F, Raff E. Axoneme-dependent tubulin modifications in singlet microtubules of the Drosophila sperm tail. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2008;65:295-313 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that axonemes are the substrate for these tubulin C-terminal modifications. Axoneme architecture is required, but full length, motile axonemes are not necessary...
  2. Matthews K, Rees D, Kaufman T. A functionally specialized alpha-tubulin is required for oocyte meiosis and cleavage mitoses in Drosophila. Development. 1993;117:977-91 pubmed
    ..proteins contribute to microtubules during oogenesis and early embryogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster: alpha TUB84B, alpha TUB84D, and alpha TUB67C. alpha TUB67C is unique in two respects...
  3. Bonaccorsi S, Giansanti M, Gatti M. Spindle self-organization and cytokinesis during male meiosis in asterless mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. J Cell Biol. 1998;142:751-61 pubmed
    ..However, immunostaining with antibodies directed either to gamma tubulin or centrosomin revealed that these proteins do not accumulate in the centrosomes, as occurs in wild-type...
  4. Cullen C, Deak P, Glover D, Ohkura H. mini spindles: A gene encoding a conserved microtubule-associated protein required for the integrity of the mitotic spindle in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 1999;146:1005-18 pubmed
    ..The absence of centrosomal staining in interphase of the cellularized embryos suggests that the interactions between Msps protein and microtubules or centrosomes may be regulated during the cell cycle. ..
  5. Royou A, Field C, Sisson J, Sullivan W, Karess R. Reassessing the role and dynamics of nonmuscle myosin II during furrow formation in early Drosophila embryos. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:838-50 pubmed
    ..We suggest that cellularization can be divided into two distinct processes: furrow ingression, driven by microtubule mediated vesicle delivery, and basal closure, which is mediated by actin/myosin based constriction. ..
  6. Megraw T, Li K, Kao L, Kaufman T. The centrosomin protein is required for centrosome assembly and function during cleavage in Drosophila. Development. 1999;126:2829-39 pubmed
    ..poles in the mutants contain little or no detectable amounts of the centrosomal proteins CP60, CP190 and (gamma)-tubulin and late stage embryos often do not have astral microtubules at their spindle poles...
  7. Matthews K, Miller D, Kaufman T. Developmental distribution of RNA and protein products of the Drosophila alpha-tubulin gene family. Dev Biol. 1989;132:45-61 pubmed
    The developmental pattern of gene expression of the Drosophila melanogaster alpha-tubulin family has been examined in detail at both the mRNA and protein levels...
  8. Dix C, Raff J. Drosophila Spd-2 recruits PCM to the sperm centriole, but is dispensable for centriole duplication. Curr Biol. 2007;17:1759-64 pubmed
    ..We speculate that the SPD-2 family of proteins might only be absolutely essential for the recruitment of centriole duplication factors and PCM to the centriole(s) that enter the egg with the fertilizing sperm...
  9. Herrmann S, Amorim I, Sunkel C. The POLO kinase is required at multiple stages during spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Chromosoma. 1998;107:440-51 pubmed
    ..Immunostaining of polo mutant cells with alpha-tubulin shows several abnormalities of the meiotic spindle, including a significantly reduced central spindle...
  10. Endow S, Chandra R, Komma D, Yamamoto A, Salmon E. Mutants of the Drosophila ncd microtubule motor protein cause centrosomal and spindle pole defects in mitosis. J Cell Sci. 1994;107 ( Pt 4):859-67 pubmed
    ..Together with previous work, our findings indicate that ncd is important in maintaining spindle poles in mitosis as well as in meiosis. ..
  11. Betschinger J, Mechtler K, Knoblich J. The Par complex directs asymmetric cell division by phosphorylating the cytoskeletal protein Lgl. Nature. 2003;422:326-30 pubmed
    ..Lgl promotes cortical localization of Miranda, and we propose that phosphorylation of Lgl by aPKC at the apical neuroblast cortex restricts Lgl activity and Miranda localization to the opposite, basal side of the cell. ..
  12. Lucas E, Raff J. Maintaining the proper connection between the centrioles and the pericentriolar matrix requires Drosophila centrosomin. J Cell Biol. 2007;178:725-32 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Cnn maintains the proper connection between the centrioles and the PCM; this connection is required for accurate centriole segregation in somatic cells but is not essential for the asymmetric division of neuroblasts...
  13. Giansanti M, Farkas R, Bonaccorsi S, Lindsley D, Wakimoto B, Fuller M, et al. Genetic dissection of meiotic cytokinesis in Drosophila males. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:2509-22 pubmed
    ..Examination of preparations stained for tubulin, anillin, KLP3A, and F-actin revealed discrete defects in the components of the cytokinetic apparatus, suggesting ..
  14. Mathe E, Inoue Y, Palframan W, Brown G, Glover D. Orbit/Mast, the CLASP orthologue of Drosophila, is required for asymmetric stem cell and cystocyte divisions and development of the polarised microtubule network that interconnects oocyte and nurse cells during oogenesis. Development. 2003;130:901-15 pubmed
    ..The localisation of CLIP-190 to such microtubules and to the fusome is dependent upon Orbit/Mast to which it is complexed. ..
  15. Yamashita Y, Jones D, Fuller M. Orientation of asymmetric stem cell division by the APC tumor suppressor and centrosome. Science. 2003;301:1547-50 pubmed
  16. Callaini G, Riparbelli M. Fertilization in Drosophila melanogaster: centrosome inheritance and organization of the first mitotic spindle. Dev Biol. 1996;176:199-208 pubmed
    ..A low frequency of polyspermy is also observed during fertilization in D. melanogaster. ..
  17. Wakefield J, Bonaccorsi S, Gatti M. The drosophila protein asp is involved in microtubule organization during spindle formation and cytokinesis. J Cell Biol. 2001;153:637-48 pubmed
    ..both meiotic and mitotic divisions of asp mutants, microtubule nucleation occurs from the centrosome, and gamma-tubulin localizes correctly. However, spindle pole focusing and organization are severely affected...
  18. Raff J, Jeffers K, Huang J. The roles of Fzy/Cdc20 and Fzr/Cdh1 in regulating the destruction of cyclin B in space and time. J Cell Biol. 2002;157:1139-49 pubmed
    ..These observations have important implications for the mechanisms of the spindle checkpoint. ..
  19. Wang H, Ouyang Y, Somers W, Chia W, Lu B. Polo inhibits progenitor self-renewal and regulates Numb asymmetry by phosphorylating Pon. Nature. 2007;449:96-100 pubmed
    ..Our results reveal a biochemical link between the cell cycle and the asymmetric protein localization machinery, and indicate that Polo can inhibit progenitor self-renewal by regulating the localization and function of Numb. ..
  20. Bhat M, Philp A, Glover D, Bellen H. Chromatid segregation at anaphase requires the barren product, a novel chromosome-associated protein that interacts with Topoisomerase II. Cell. 1996;87:1103-14 pubmed
    ..We propose that this association is required for proper chromosomal segregation by facilitating the decatenation of chromatids at anaphase. ..
  21. Rebollo E, Sampaio P, Januschke J, Llamazares S, Varmark H, Gonzalez C. Functionally unequal centrosomes drive spindle orientation in asymmetrically dividing Drosophila neural stem cells. Dev Cell. 2007;12:467-74 pubmed
    ..Apical aster maintenance requires the function of Pins. These results reveal that spindle orientation in Drosophila larval NBs is determined very early in the cell cycle, and is mediated by asymmetric centrosome function. ..
  22. Albertson R, Doe C. Dlg, Scrib and Lgl regulate neuroblast cell size and mitotic spindle asymmetry. Nat Cell Biol. 2003;5:166-70 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Dlg/Scrib/Lgl are important in regulating cortical polarity, cell size asymmetry and mitotic spindle asymmetry in Drosophila neuroblasts. ..
  23. Mahoney N, Goshima G, Douglass A, Vale R. Making microtubules and mitotic spindles in cells without functional centrosomes. Curr Biol. 2006;16:564-9 pubmed
    ..Here, we performed live-cell microscopy of GFP-tubulin to examine spindle formation in Drosophila S2 cells after RNAi depletion of either gamma-tubulin, a microtubule ..
  24. Brittle A, Ohkura H. Mini spindles, the XMAP215 homologue, suppresses pausing of interphase microtubules in Drosophila. EMBO J. 2005;24:1387-96 pubmed
    ..Our study provides the first direct evidence to support a hypothesis that this family of MAPs acts as an antipausing factor to exhibit both microtubule stabilising and destabilising activities. ..
  25. Maiato H, Rieder C, Khodjakov A. Kinetochore-driven formation of kinetochore fibers contributes to spindle assembly during animal mitosis. J Cell Biol. 2004;167:831-40 pubmed
    ..However, centrosomes facilitate the proper orientation of K-fibers toward spindle poles by integrating them into a common spindle. ..
  26. Hughes S, Beeler J, Seat A, Slaughter B, Unruh J, Bauerly E, et al. Gamma-tubulin is required for bipolar spindle assembly and for proper kinetochore microtubule attachments during prometaphase I in Drosophila oocytes. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002209 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies of Drosophila oocytes failed to detect the native form of the germline-specific ?-tubulin (?Tub37C) in meiosis I spindles, and genetic studies have yielded conflicting data regarding the role of ?Tub37C ..
  27. Natzle J, McCarthy B. Regulation of Drosophila alpha- and beta-tubulin genes during development. Dev Biol. 1984;104:187-98 pubmed
    Both the alpha and the beta subunit of tubulin in Drosophila melanogaster are encoded by small multigene families...
  28. Frescas D, Mavrakis M, Lorenz H, DeLotto R, Lippincott Schwartz J. The secretory membrane system in the Drosophila syncytial blastoderm embryo exists as functionally compartmentalized units around individual nuclei. J Cell Biol. 2006;173:219-30 pubmed
  29. Bettencourt Dias M, Rodrigues Martins A, Carpenter L, Riparbelli M, Lehmann L, Gatt M, et al. SAK/PLK4 is required for centriole duplication and flagella development. Curr Biol. 2005;15:2199-207 pubmed
    ..Drosophila cells tolerate the lack of centrioles and undertake mitosis but cannot form basal bodies and hence flagella. Human cells depleted of SAK show error-prone mitosis, likely to underlie its tumor-suppressor role. ..
  30. Grevengoed E, Fox D, Gates J, Peifer M. Balancing different types of actin polymerization at distinct sites: roles for Abelson kinase and Enabled. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:1267-79 pubmed
    ..We also examined other actin regulators. Loss of Abl leads to changes in the localization of the Arp2/3 complex and the formin Diaphanous, and mutations in diaphanous or capping protein beta enhance abl phenotypes. ..
  31. Kawaguchi S, Zheng Y. Characterization of a Drosophila centrosome protein CP309 that shares homology with Kendrin and CG-NAP. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:37-45 pubmed
    ..this novel Drosophila centrosome protein, centrosome protein of 309 kDa (CP309), cofractionates with the gamma-tubulin ring complex and the centrosome-complementing activity...
  32. Grieder N, de Cuevas M, Spradling A. The fusome organizes the microtubule network during oocyte differentiation in Drosophila. Development. 2000;127:4253-64 pubmed
    ..We have investigated how the microtubule network polarizes using a GFP-tubulin construct that allows germ-cell microtubules to be visualized with greater sensitivity than in previous studies...
  33. Colombié N, Cullen C, Brittle A, Jang J, Earnshaw W, Carmena M, et al. Dual roles of Incenp crucial to the assembly of the acentrosomal metaphase spindle in female meiosis. Development. 2008;135:3239-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the two functions of Incenp are part of the mechanisms that compensate for the lack of centrosomes during meiotic spindle formation. ..
  34. Martins T, Maia A, Steffensen S, Sunkel C. Sgt1, a co-chaperone of Hsp90 stabilizes Polo and is required for centrosome organization. EMBO J. 2009;28:234-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings suggest that Sgt1 is involved in the stabilization of Polo allowing normal centrosome maturation, entry and progression though mitosis. ..
  35. Logarinho E, Bousbaa H, Dias J, Lopes C, Amorim I, Antunes Martins A, et al. Different spindle checkpoint proteins monitor microtubule attachment and tension at kinetochores in Drosophila cells. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:1757-71 pubmed
  36. Kuchinke U, Grawe F, Knust E. Control of spindle orientation in Drosophila by the Par-3-related PDZ-domain protein Bazooka. Curr Biol. 1998;8:1357-65 pubmed
    ..The PDZ domains of Bazooka provide several protein-protein interfaces, which possibly participate in the assembly of a multiprotein complex at the apical pole. ..
  37. Bucciarelli E, Pellacani C, Naim V, Palena A, Gatti M, Somma M. Drosophila Dgt6 interacts with Ndc80, Msps/XMAP215, and gamma-tubulin to promote kinetochore-driven MT formation. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1839-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent work has suggested that additional spindle MTs can be nucleated by gamma-tubulin ring complexes (gamma-TuRCs) that associate laterally with preexisting spindle MTs, leading to spindle ..
  38. Hutchens J, Hoyle H, Turner F, Raff E. Structurally similar Drosophila alpha-tubulins are functionally distinct in vivo. Mol Biol Cell. 1997;8:481-500 pubmed
    We used transgenic analysis in Drosophila to compare the ability of two structurally similar alpha-tubulin isoforms to support microtubule assembly in vivo...
  39. Doerflinger H, Benton R, Shulman J, St Johnston D. The role of PAR-1 in regulating the polarised microtubule cytoskeleton in the Drosophila follicular epithelium. Development. 2003;130:3965-75 pubmed
    ..Although the direct targets of PAR-1 are unknown, we suggest that it functions by regulating the plus ends, possibly by capping them at the basal cortex. ..
  40. Lee S, Kolodziej P. Short Stop provides an essential link between F-actin and microtubules during axon extension. Development. 2002;129:1195-204 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Shot coordinates regulated interactions between F-actin and microtubules that are crucial for neuronal morphogenesis. ..
  41. Januschke J, Gervais L, Gillet L, Keryer G, Bornens M, Guichet A. The centrosome-nucleus complex and microtubule organization in the Drosophila oocyte. Development. 2006;133:129-39 pubmed
    ..Remarkably, the centrosomal components, gamma-tubulin and Drosophila pericentrin-like protein also strongly accumulate at the periphery of this nucleus...
  42. Venkei Z, Gaspar I, Toth G, Szabad J. alpha4-Tubulin is involved in rapid formation of long microtubules to push apart the daughter centrosomes during earlyx Drosophila embryogenesis. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:3238-48 pubmed
    Although alpha4-tubulin comprises only about one-fifth of the alpha-tubulin pool in every Drosophila egg, in the absence of alpha4-tubulin - in eggs of the kavar(0)/- hemizygous females - only a tassel of short microtubules forms with ..
  43. Nielsen M, Caserta J, Kidd S, Phillips C. Functional constraint underlies 60 million year stasis of Dipteran testis-specific beta-tubulin. Evol Dev. 2006;8:23-9 pubmed
    ..find a highly stringent structure/function relationship between the Drosophila melanogaster testis-specific tubulin beta2 and the spermtail axoneme, such that small changes in the beta2 protein render it unable to generate a ..
  44. Savoian M, Rieder C. Mitosis in primary cultures of Drosophila melanogaster larval neuroblasts. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:3061-72 pubmed
    ..Analysis of neuroblasts containing various GFP-tagged proteins (e.g. histone, fizzy, fizzy-related and alpha-tubulin) reveals that attaching kinetochores exhibit sudden, rapid pole-directed motions and that congressing and ..
  45. Subramanian A, Prokop A, Yamamoto M, Sugimura K, Uemura T, Betschinger J, et al. Shortstop recruits EB1/APC1 and promotes microtubule assembly at the muscle-tendon junction. Curr Biol. 2003;13:1086-95 pubmed
    ..This is achieved by Shot association with the cytoplasmic faces of the basal hemiadherens junction and with the EB1/APC1 complex. ..
  46. do Carmo Avides M, Glover D. Abnormal spindle protein, Asp, and the integrity of mitotic centrosomal microtubule organizing centers. Science. 1999;283:1733-5 pubmed
    ..This was corrected by addition of purified Asp protein. Thus, Asp appears to hold together the microtubule-nucleating gamma-tubulin ring complexes that organize the mitotic centrosome.
  47. Harris T, Peifer M. The positioning and segregation of apical cues during epithelial polarity establishment in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2005;170:813-23 pubmed
    ..These results reveal key steps in the assembly of the apical domain in Drosophila. ..
  48. Li K, Kaufman T. The homeotic target gene centrosomin encodes an essential centrosomal component. Cell. 1996;85:585-96 pubmed
    ..We propose that cnn provides an example of homeotic genes directly regulating the accumulation of essential cellular proteins to carry out segment-specific morphogenetic functions. ..
  49. Gunawardane R, Martin O, Cao K, Zhang L, Dej K, Iwamatsu A, et al. Characterization and reconstitution of Drosophila gamma-tubulin ring complex subunits. J Cell Biol. 2000;151:1513-24 pubmed
    The gamma-tubulin ring complex (gammaTuRC) is important for microtubule nucleation from the centrosome...
  50. Sampaio P, Rebollo E, Varmark H, Sunkel C, Gonzalez C. Organized microtubule arrays in gamma-tubulin-depleted Drosophila spermatocytes. Curr Biol. 2001;11:1788-93 pubmed
    To assess the role of gamma-tubulin in spindle assembly in vivo, we have followed meiosis progression by immunofluorescence and time-lapse video microscopy in gammaTub23C(PI) mutant spermatocytes...
  51. Shimada Y, Yonemura S, Ohkura H, Strutt D, Uemura T. Polarized transport of Frizzled along the planar microtubule arrays in Drosophila wing epithelium. Dev Cell. 2006;10:209-22 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, there appeared to be a bias in the P-D MTs, with slightly more plus ends oriented distally. The hypothesis of polarized vesicular trafficking of Fz is discussed. ..
  52. Roos J, Hummel T, Ng N, Klämbt C, Davis G. Drosophila Futsch regulates synaptic microtubule organization and is necessary for synaptic growth. Neuron. 2000;26:371-82 pubmed
    ..These data suggest a common microtubule-based growth mechanism at the synapse and growth cone. ..
  53. Trotta N, Orso G, Rossetto M, Daga A, Broadie K. The hereditary spastic paraplegia gene, spastin, regulates microtubule stability to modulate synaptic structure and function. Curr Biol. 2004;14:1135-47 pubmed
    ..By using antibodies against posttranslationally modified alpha-Tubulin, we find that Dspastin regulates microtubule stability...
  54. Rebollo E, Llamazares S, Reina J, Gonzalez C. Contribution of noncentrosomal microtubules to spindle assembly in Drosophila spermatocytes. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:E8 pubmed
    ..These observations are consistent with a model in which centrosomal and noncentrosomal microtubules contribute to the assembly and are required for the robustness of the cell division spindle in cells that contain centrosomes. ..
  55. Basto R, Brunk K, Vinadogrova T, Peel N, Franz A, Khodjakov A, et al. Centrosome amplification can initiate tumorigenesis in flies. Cell. 2008;133:1032-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, centrosome amplification can initiate tumorigenesis in flies. ..
  56. Gho M, Bellaiche Y, Schweisguth F. Revisiting the Drosophila microchaete lineage: a novel intrinsically asymmetric cell division generates a glial cell. Development. 1999;126:3573-84 pubmed
    ..This revised description of the sense organ lineage provides the basis for future studies on how polarity and fate are regulated in asymmetrically dividing cells. ..
  57. Moritz M, Braunfeld M, Sedat J, Alberts B, Agard D. Microtubule nucleation by gamma-tubulin-containing rings in the centrosome. Nature. 1995;378:638-40 pubmed
    ..gamma-Tubulin is the only component of the PCM that is so far implicated in microtubule nucleation...
  58. Griffis E, Stuurman N, Vale R. Spindly, a novel protein essential for silencing the spindle assembly checkpoint, recruits dynein to the kinetochore. J Cell Biol. 2007;177:1005-15 pubmed
    ..However, dynein's nonkinetochore functions are unaffected by Spindly depletion. Our findings indicate that Spindly is a novel regulator of mitotic dynein, functioning specifically to target dynein to kinetochores. ..
  59. Schnorrer F, Luschnig S, Koch I, NUSSLEIN VOLHARD C. Gamma-tubulin37C and gamma-tubulin ring complex protein 75 are essential for bicoid RNA localization during drosophila oogenesis. Dev Cell. 2002;3:685-96 pubmed
    ..They encode maternal gamma-Tubulin37C (gammaTub37C) and gamma-tubulin ring complex protein 75 (Dgrip75), both of which are gamma-tubulin ring complex components...
  60. Basto R, Lau J, Vinogradova T, Gardiol A, Woods C, Khodjakov A, et al. Flies without centrioles. Cell. 2006;125:1375-86 pubmed
    ..Thus, centrioles are essential for the formation of centrosomes, cilia, and flagella, but, remarkably, they are not essential for most aspects of Drosophila development. ..
  61. Fuse N, Hisata K, Katzen A, Matsuzaki F. Heterotrimeric G proteins regulate daughter cell size asymmetry in Drosophila neuroblast divisions. Curr Biol. 2003;13:947-54 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the multiple equal cleavages of G beta mutant neuroblasts accompany neural defects; this finding suggests indispensable roles of eccentric division in assuring the stem cell properties of neuroblasts. ..
  62. Mennella V, Rogers G, Rogers S, Buster D, Vale R, Sharp D. Functionally distinct kinesin-13 family members cooperate to regulate microtubule dynamics during interphase. Nat Cell Biol. 2005;7:235-45 pubmed
    ..Our data also suggest that KLP10A is deposited on microtubules by the plus-end tracking protein, EB1. Our findings support a model in which these two members of the kinesin-13 family divide the labour of microtubule depolymerization. ..
  63. Lemos C, Sampaio P, Maiato H, Costa M, Omel yanchuk L, Liberal V, et al. Mast, a conserved microtubule-associated protein required for bipolar mitotic spindle organization. EMBO J. 2000;19:3668-82 pubmed
    ..The defects observed in the mutant alleles and the intracellular localization of the protein suggest that Mast plays an essential role in centrosome separation and organization of the bipolar mitotic spindle. ..
  64. Goshima G, Nedelec F, Vale R. Mechanisms for focusing mitotic spindle poles by minus end-directed motor proteins. J Cell Biol. 2005;171:229-40 pubmed
    ..From these results and simulations, we propose a model on how two minus end-directed motors cooperate to ensure spindle pole coalescence during mitosis. ..
  65. Sharp D, Brown H, Kwon M, Rogers G, Holland G, Scholey J. Functional coordination of three mitotic motors in Drosophila embryos. Mol Biol Cell. 2000;11:241-53 pubmed
    ..During anaphase, however, Ncd appears to have no effect on spindle pole movements, suggesting that its activity is down-regulated at this time, allowing dynein and KLP61F to drive spindle elongation during anaphase B. ..
  66. Nielsen M, Gadagkar S, Gutzwiller L. Tubulin evolution in insects: gene duplication and subfunctionalization provide specialized isoforms in a functionally constrained gene family. BMC Evol Biol. 2010;10:113 pubmed publisher
    ..Homarus americanus (lobster) outgroup, these were generated through gene duplication events on major beta and alpha tubulin ancestors, followed by subfunctionalization in expression domain...
  67. Bellaiche Y, Radovic A, Woods D, Hough C, Parmentier M, O Kane C, et al. The Partner of Inscuteable/Discs-large complex is required to establish planar polarity during asymmetric cell division in Drosophila. Cell. 2001;106:355-66 pubmed
    ..Finally, Baz and the Dlg/Pins complex are required for the asymmetric localization of Numb. Thus, the Dlg/Pins complex responds to Fz signaling to establish planar asymmetry in the pI cell. ..
  68. Izumi Y, Ohta N, Itoh Furuya A, Fuse N, Matsuzaki F. Differential functions of G protein and Baz-aPKC signaling pathways in Drosophila neuroblast asymmetric division. J Cell Biol. 2004;164:729-38 pubmed
    ..We thus suggest that the two apical signaling pathways have overlapping but different roles in asymmetric NB division. ..