alpha-Spec

Summary

Gene Symbol: alpha-Spec
Description: alpha Spectrin
Alias: 3A9, CG1977, Dmel\CG1977, FBtr0072789, FCP-B, Spec, Spectrin, alfa-Spec, alpha, alpha spectrin, alpha-SPEC, alpha-Sp, alpha-Spc, alpha-Spe, alpha-Spect, alpha-Spectrin, alpha-spec, alpha-spectrin, alphaSp, alphaSpec, alphaSpectrin, anon-EST:fe2E2, dre3, klo, l(3)04276, l(3)62Bd, l(3)alpha-Spec, l(3)dre3, spectrin, alpha spectrin, CG1977-PA, CG1977-PB, CG1977-PC, CG1977-PD, aSpc 3A9, alpha-SPECTRIN, alpha-Spec-PA, alpha-Spec-PB, alpha-Spec-PC, alpha-Spec-PD, alpha-spectrin II, alphaSpectrin, anon-fast-evolving-2E2, klotzchen, spectrin
Species: fruit fly
Products:     alpha-Spec

Top Publications

  1. Featherstone D, Davis W, Dubreuil R, Broadie K. Drosophila alpha- and beta-spectrin mutations disrupt presynaptic neurotransmitter release. J Neurosci. 2001;21:4215-24 pubmed
    ..To test these hypotheses, we characterized Drosophila mutants lacking either alpha- or beta-spectrin. The Drosophila genome contains only one alpha-spectrin and one conventional beta-spectrin gene, making it an ..
  2. Schulte J, Tepass U, Auld V. Gliotactin, a novel marker of tricellular junctions, is necessary for septate junction development in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2003;161:991-1000 pubmed
    ..We propose a model, whereby Gli acts at tricellular junctions to bind, anchor, or compact SJ strands apically during SJ development. ..
  3. Magie C, Pinto Santini D, Parkhurst S. Rho1 interacts with p120ctn and alpha-catenin, and regulates cadherin-based adherens junction components in Drosophila. Development. 2002;129:3771-82 pubmed
    ..Here we show interactions between Drosophila Rho1 and the adherens junction components alpha-catenin and p120(ctn)...
  4. Djiane A, Yogev S, Mlodzik M. The apical determinants aPKC and dPatj regulate Frizzled-dependent planar cell polarity in the Drosophila eye. Cell. 2005;121:621-631 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model whereby the dPatj/aPKC complex regulates PCP by inhibiting Fz1 in cells where it should not be active. ..
  5. Garbe D, Das A, Dubreuil R, Bashaw G. beta-Spectrin functions independently of Ankyrin to regulate the establishment and maintenance of axon connections in the Drosophila embryonic CNS. Development. 2007;134:273-84 pubmed
    alpha- and beta-Spectrin are major components of a submembrane cytoskeletal network connecting actin filaments to integral plasma membrane proteins...
  6. Liu M, Lim T, Cai Y. The Drosophila female germline stem cell lineage acts to spatially restrict DPP function within the niche. Sci Signal. 2010;3:ra57 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data reveal that the reciprocal crosstalk between the GSCs and the somatic cells defines the spatial limits of DPP action and therefore the extent of the GSC niche. ..
  7. Pielage J, Fetter R, Davis G. Presynaptic spectrin is essential for synapse stabilization. Curr Biol. 2005;15:918-28 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that presynaptic spectrin is an essential scaffold that is required to maintain synapse stability at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (..
  8. Dobens L, Martin Blanco E, Martinez Arias A, Kafatos F, Raftery L. Drosophila puckered regulates Fos/Jun levels during follicle cell morphogenesis. Development. 2001;128:1845-56 pubmed
    ..Consistent with this, overexpression of a dominant negative DRac1 resulted in lower levels of Fos/Jun. ..
  9. Sisson J, Field C, Ventura R, Royou A, Sullivan W. Lava lamp, a novel peripheral golgi protein, is required for Drosophila melanogaster cellularization. J Cell Biol. 2000;151:905-18 pubmed
    ..Biochemical analysis demonstrates that Lva physically interacts with the MMAPs Spectrin and CLIP190...

More Information

Publications75

  1. Baksa K, Parke T, Dobens L, Dearolf C. The Drosophila STAT protein, stat92E, regulates follicle cell differentiation during oogenesis. Dev Biol. 2002;243:166-75 pubmed
    ..We conclude that stat92E is necessary for the early differentiation of follicle cells and for proper germ line cell encapsulation during Drosophila oogenesis. ..
  2. Xie T, Spradling A. decapentaplegic is essential for the maintenance and division of germline stem cells in the Drosophila ovary. Cell. 1998;94:251-60 pubmed
    ..We constructed mutant germline stem cell clones to show that the dpp signal is directly received by germline stem cells. Thus, dpp signaling helps define a niche that controls germline stem cell proliferation. ..
  3. Brodu V, Casanova J. The RhoGAP crossveinless-c links trachealess and EGFR signaling to cell shape remodeling in Drosophila tracheal invagination. Genes Dev. 2006;20:1817-28 pubmed
    ..Our results identify a developmental pathway linking cell fate genes and cell signaling pathways to intracellular modifications during tracheal cell invagination. ..
  4. Lighthouse D, Buszczak M, Spradling A. New components of the Drosophila fusome suggest it plays novel roles in signaling and transport. Dev Biol. 2008;317:59-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Alpha-spectrin and the adducin-like protein Hu-li tai shao (Hts) are required to maintain fusome integrity, synchronize ..
  5. Dubreuil R, Byers T, Branton D, Goldstein L, Kiehart D. Drosophilia spectrin. I. Characterization of the purified protein. J Cell Biol. 1987;105:2095-102 pubmed
    We purified a protein from Drosophila S3 tissue culture cells that has many of the diagnostic features of spectrin from vertebrate organisms: (a) The protein consists of two equimolar subunits (Mr = 234 and 226 kD) that can be reversibly ..
  6. Pielage J, Cheng L, Fetter R, Carlton P, Sedat J, Davis G. A presynaptic giant ankyrin stabilizes the NMJ through regulation of presynaptic microtubules and transsynaptic cell adhesion. Neuron. 2008;58:195-209 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that a presynaptic Ank2-L lattice links synaptic membrane proteins and spectrin to the underlying microtubule cytoskeleton to organize and stabilize the presynaptic terminal.
  7. de Cuevas M, Lee J, Spradling A. alpha-spectrin is required for germline cell division and differentiation in the Drosophila ovary. Development. 1996;122:3959-68 pubmed
    ..developing germline cysts are spanned by a large cytoplasmic structure called a fusome, containing alpha-spectrin and the adducin-like product of the hu-li tai shao (hts) gene...
  8. Das A, Base C, Manna D, Cho W, Dubreuil R. Unexpected complexity in the mechanisms that target assembly of the spectrin cytoskeleton. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:12643-53 pubmed publisher
    The spectrin cytoskeleton assembles within discrete regions of the plasma membrane in a wide range of animal cell types...
  9. Zarnescu D, Thomas G. Apical spectrin is essential for epithelial morphogenesis but not apicobasal polarity in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 1999;146:1075-86 pubmed
    ..The spectrin-based membrane skeleton is thought to be a key player in the establishment and/or maintenance of cell shape and ..
  10. Dubreuil R, Frankel J, Wang P, Howrylak J, Kappil M, Grushko T. Mutations of alpha spectrin and labial block cuprophilic cell differentiation and acid secretion in the middle midgut of Drosophila larvae. Dev Biol. 1998;194:1-11 pubmed
    Mutations in Drosophila alpha spectrin cause larval lethality and defects in cell shape and adhesion (J. Lee et al., 1993, J. Cell Biol. 123, 1797-1809)...
  11. Byers T, Brandin E, Lue R, Winograd E, Branton D. The complete sequence of Drosophila beta-spectrin reveals supra-motifs comprising eight 106-residue segments. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:6187-91 pubmed
    The alpha and beta chains of spectrin are homologous, yet they have acquired different structural features that work in synergy to give the multimer its overall properties...
  12. Chartier A, Zaffran S, Astier M, Semeriva M, Gratecos D. Pericardin, a Drosophila type IV collagen-like protein is involved in the morphogenesis and maintenance of the heart epithelium during dorsal ectoderm closure. Development. 2002;129:3241-53 pubmed
    ..The protein has the hallmarks of a type IV collagen alpha-chain and is mainly expressed in the pericardial cells at the onset of dorsal closure...
  13. Shivdasani A, Ingham P. Regulation of stem cell maintenance and transit amplifying cell proliferation by tgf-beta signaling in Drosophila spermatogenesis. Curr Biol. 2003;13:2065-72 pubmed
  14. Cox D, Chao A, Lin H. piwi encodes a nucleoplasmic factor whose activity modulates the number and division rate of germline stem cells. Development. 2000;127:503-14 pubmed
  15. Bhat M, Izaddoost S, Lu Y, Cho K, Choi K, Bellen H. Discs Lost, a novel multi-PDZ domain protein, establishes and maintains epithelial polarity. Cell. 1999;96:833-45 pubmed
    ..Hence, DLT is required to establish and maintain cell polarity and participates in different molecular complexes that define apical and lateral membrane domains. ..
  16. Wang L, Li Z, Cai Y. The JAK/STAT pathway positively regulates DPP signaling in the Drosophila germline stem cell niche. J Cell Biol. 2008;180:721-8 pubmed publisher
    ..JAK/STAT signaling may also regulate dpp expression in the male GSC niche, suggesting a common origin of female and male GSC niches. ..
  17. Hülsmeier J, Pielage J, Rickert C, Technau G, Klämbt C, Stork T. Distinct functions of alpha-Spectrin and beta-Spectrin during axonal pathfinding. Development. 2007;134:713-22 pubmed
    ..Important elements controlling the shape of cells are the Spectrin proteins that are expressed as a subcortical cytoskeletal meshwork linking specific membrane receptors with F-..
  18. Byers T, Dubreuil R, Branton D, Kiehart D, Goldstein L. Drosophila spectrin. II. Conserved features of the alpha-subunit are revealed by analysis of cDNA clones and fusion proteins. J Cell Biol. 1987;105:2103-10 pubmed
    Drosophila alpha-spectrin cDNA sequences were isolated from a lambda gt11 expression library...
  19. Lee J, Coyne R, Dubreuil R, Goldstein L, Branton D. Cell shape and interaction defects in alpha-spectrin mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. J Cell Biol. 1993;123:1797-809 pubmed
    We show that the alpha-spectrin gene is essential for larval survival and development by characterizing several alpha-spectrin mutations in Drosophila...
  20. Ramachandran P, Barria R, Ashley J, Budnik V. A critical step for postsynaptic F-actin organization: regulation of Baz/Par-3 localization by aPKC and PTEN. Dev Neurobiol. 2009;69:583-602 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies have suggested that the actin-binding proteins Spectrin and Coracle play a critical role in NMJ development and the anchoring of glutamate receptors most likely through ..
  21. Thomas G, Newbern E, Korte C, Bales M, Muse S, Clark A, et al. Intragenic duplication and divergence in the spectrin superfamily of proteins. Mol Biol Evol. 1997;14:1285-95 pubmed
    Many structural, signaling, and adhesion molecules contain tandemly repeated amino acid motifs. The alpha-actinin/spectrin/dystrophin superfamily of F-actin-crosslinking proteins contains an array of triple alpha-helical motifs (spectrin ..
  22. Lee J, Brandin E, Branton D, Goldstein L. alpha-Spectrin is required for ovarian follicle monolayer integrity in Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 1997;124:353-62 pubmed
    To understand the role of the spectrin-based membrane skeleton in generating epithelial polarity, we characterized the distribution of membrane skeletal components in Drosophila ovarian follicle cells and in somatic clones of mutant cells ..
  23. Yan Y, Winograd E, Viel A, Cronin T, Harrison S, Branton D. Crystal structure of the repetitive segments of spectrin. Science. 1993;262:2027-30 pubmed
    The elongated proteins of the spectrin family (dystrophin, alpha-actinin, and spectrin) contain tandemly repeated segments and form resilient cellular meshworks by cross-linking actin filaments...
  24. Pielage J, Fetter R, Davis G. A postsynaptic spectrin scaffold defines active zone size, spacing, and efficacy at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. J Cell Biol. 2006;175:491-503 pubmed
    ..In this study, we document a role for the postsynaptic Spectrin skeleton in this process...
  25. Jin Y. Synaptogenesis: insights from worm and fly. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2002;12:71-9 pubmed
  26. Phillips M, Thomas G. Brush border spectrin is required for early endosome recycling in Drosophila. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:1361-70 pubmed
    ..microvilli supported by F-actin bundles that protrude into the apical cytoplasm, where they are crosslinked by spectrin and myosin II to form the terminal web...
  27. Lee M, Paik S, Lee M, Kim Y, Kim S, Nahm M, et al. Drosophila Atlastin regulates the stability of muscle microtubules and is required for synapse development. Dev Biol. 2009;330:250-62 pubmed publisher
    ..ER and Golgi morphogenesis in muscles and reduces the synaptic levels of the scaffold proteins Dlg and alpha-spectrin. We also provide evidence that Atl functions with the microtubule-severing protein Spastin to disassemble ..
  28. Lamb R, Ward R, Schweizer L, Fehon R. Drosophila coracle, a member of the protein 4.1 superfamily, has essential structural functions in the septate junctions and developmental functions in embryonic and adult epithelial cells. Mol Biol Cell. 1998;9:3505-19 pubmed
    ..1 superfamily members. These studies provide insights into a range of in vivo functions for coracle in developing embryos and adults. ..
  29. Spradling A, de Cuevas M, Drummond Barbosa D, Keyes L, Lilly M, Pepling M, et al. The Drosophila germarium: stem cells, germ line cysts, and oocytes. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1997;62:25-34 pubmed
  30. Mosca T, Schwarz T. The nuclear import of Frizzled2-C by Importins-beta11 and alpha2 promotes postsynaptic development. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:935-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Wnt-activated growth of the postsynaptic membrane is mediated by the synapse-to-nucleus translocation and active nuclear import of Fz2-C via a selective Importin-beta11/alpha2 pathway. ..
  31. Deng H, Lee J, Goldstein L, Branton D. Drosophila development requires spectrin network formation. J Cell Biol. 1995;128:71-9 pubmed
    The head-end associations of spectrin give rise to tetramers and make it possible for the molecule to form networks. We analyzed the head-end associations of Drosophila spectrin in vitro and in vivo...
  32. Haglund K, Nezis I, Lemus D, Grabbe C, Wesche J, Liestøl K, et al. Cindr interacts with anillin to control cytokinesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Curr Biol. 2010;20:944-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Cindr and Anillin cooperate to promote intercellular bridge stability during incomplete cytokinesis in Drosophila melanogaster. ..
  33. Dubreuil R, Grushko T. Genetic studies of spectrin: new life for a ghost protein. Bioessays. 1998;20:875-8 pubmed
    b>Spectrin, together with actin and a number of other accessory proteins, forms a submembrane cytoskeletal network in the human erythrocyte ghost...
  34. Pielage J, Stork T, Bunse I, Kl mbt C. The Drosophila cell survival gene discs lost encodes a cytoplasmic Codanin-1-like protein, not a homolog of tight junction PDZ protein Patj. Dev Cell. 2003;5:841-51 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila, the genomic organization of dlt is unusual. dlt shares its first untranslated exon with alpha-spectrin, and both genes are coexpressed throughout development...
  35. Kiger A, White Cooper H, Fuller M. Somatic support cells restrict germline stem cell self-renewal and promote differentiation. Nature. 2000;407:750-4 pubmed
  36. Nam S, Choi K. Domain-specific early and late function of Dpatj in Drosophila photoreceptor cells. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:1501-7 pubmed
    ..Our study provides evidence that Dpatj has domain-specific early and late functions in regulating the localization and stability of the Crb-Sdt complex in photoreceptor cells. ..
  37. Dubreuil R, Byers T, Stewart C, Kiehart D. A beta-spectrin isoform from Drosophila (beta H) is similar in size to vertebrate dystrophin. J Cell Biol. 1990;111:1849-58 pubmed
    ..Here we describe a spectrin isoform from Drosophila that consists of a conventional alpha spectrin subunit complexed with a novel high molecular weight beta subunit (430 kD) that we term beta H...
  38. Pesacreta T, Byers T, Dubreuil R, Kiehart D, Branton D. Drosophila spectrin: the membrane skeleton during embryogenesis. J Cell Biol. 1989;108:1697-709 pubmed
    The distribution of alpha-spectrin in Drosophila embryos was determined by immunofluorescence using affinity-purified polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies...
  39. Dubreuil R, Maddux P, Grushko T, MacVicar G. Segregation of two spectrin isoforms: polarized membrane-binding sites direct polarized membrane skeleton assembly. Mol Biol Cell. 1997;8:1933-42 pubmed
    b>Spectrin isoforms are often segregated within specialized plasma membrane subdomains where they are thought to contribute to the development of cell surface polarity...
  40. Edwards K, Kiehart D. Drosophila nonmuscle myosin II has multiple essential roles in imaginal disc and egg chamber morphogenesis. Development. 1996;122:1499-511 pubmed
    ..These results show that myosin II is responsible for a surprisingly diverse array of cell shape changes throughout development. ..
  41. Médina E, Williams J, Klipfell E, Zarnescu D, Thomas G, Le Bivic A. Crumbs interacts with moesin and beta(Heavy)-spectrin in the apical membrane skeleton of Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 2002;158:941-51 pubmed
    ..The apical spectrin-based membrane skeleton (SBMS) is a protein network that is essential for epithelial morphogenesis and ZA ..
  42. Ong S, Tan C. Germline cyst formation and incomplete cytokinesis during Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis. Dev Biol. 2010;337:84-98 pubmed publisher
    ..This work establishes a foundation for identifying genes specific for IC and for elucidating the molecular mechanism underlying this aspect of germline cyst formation. ..
  43. Sliter T, Henrich V, Tucker R, Gilbert L. The genetics of the Dras3-Roughened-ecdysoneless chromosomal region (62B3-4 to 62D3-4) in Drosophila melanogaster: analysis of recessive lethal mutations. Genetics. 1989;123:327-36 pubmed
    ..This developmental block is overcome by dietary 20-hydroxyecdysone, suggesting that a second locus in the region in addition to l(3)ecd may play a role in the regulation of late larval ecdysteroid levels. ..
  44. de Cuevas M, Spradling A. Morphogenesis of the Drosophila fusome and its implications for oocyte specification. Development. 1998;125:2781-9 pubmed
    ..Based on these observations, we argue that the oocyte is specified at the first cyst division. ..
  45. Dubreuil R, Wang P, Dahl S, Lee J, Goldstein L. Drosophila beta spectrin functions independently of alpha spectrin to polarize the Na,K ATPase in epithelial cells. J Cell Biol. 2000;149:647-56 pubmed
    ..The results establish a role for beta spectrin in determining the subcellular distribution of the Na, K ATPase and, unexpectedly, this role is independent of alpha spectrin.
  46. Tanentzapf G, Smith C, McGlade J, Tepass U. Apical, lateral, and basal polarization cues contribute to the development of the follicular epithelium during Drosophila oogenesis. J Cell Biol. 2000;151:891-904 pubmed
    ..adherens junctions caused by armadillo (beta-catenin) mutations results in a disruption of the lateral spectrin and actin cytoskeleton...
  47. Mosca T, Hong W, Dani V, Favaloro V, Luo L. Trans-synaptic Teneurin signalling in neuromuscular synapse organization and target choice. Nature. 2012;484:237-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the presynaptic microtubule and postsynaptic spectrin cytoskeletons are severely disrupted, suggesting a mechanism whereby Teneurins organize the cytoskeleton, which ..
  48. Benton R, St Johnston D. Drosophila PAR-1 and 14-3-3 inhibit Bazooka/PAR-3 to establish complementary cortical domains in polarized cells. Cell. 2003;115:691-704 pubmed
    ..Thus, antagonism of Bazooka by PAR-1/14-3-3 may represent a general mechanism for establishing complementary cortical domains in polarized cells. ..
  49. Giansanti M, Bonaccorsi S, Williams B, Williams E, Santolamazza C, Goldberg M, et al. Cooperative interactions between the central spindle and the contractile ring during Drosophila cytokinesis. Genes Dev. 1998;12:396-410 pubmed
    ..These observations all indicate that proper actin assembly is necessary for centrosome separation and migration. ..
  50. Cox D, Chao A, Baker J, Chang L, Qiao D, Lin H. A novel class of evolutionarily conserved genes defined by piwi are essential for stem cell self-renewal. Genes Dev. 1998;12:3715-27 pubmed
    ..Decreasing C. elegans piwi expression reduces the proliferation of GSC-equivalent cells. Thus, piwi represents a novel class of genes required for GSC division in diverse organisms. ..
  51. Knust E. Control of epithelial cell shape and polarity. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2000;10:471-5 pubmed
    ..largely dependent on the actin cytoskeleton and the membrane-associated cell cortex---a dense network comprising spectrin and other related proteins...
  52. Kumar V, Fricke R, Bhar D, Reddy Alla S, Krishnan K, Bogdan S, et al. Syndapin promotes formation of a postsynaptic membrane system in Drosophila. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:2254-64 pubmed publisher
  53. Albrecht S, Altenhein B, Paululat A. The transmembrane receptor Uncoordinated5 (Unc5) is essential for heart lumen formation in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 2011;350:89-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings support the idea that Unc5 is crucial for lumen formation and thereby represents a repulsive cue acting during Drosophila heart tube formation. ..
  54. Hoover K, Bryant P. Drosophila Yurt is a new protein-4.1-like protein required for epithelial morphogenesis. Dev Genes Evol. 2002;212:230-8 pubmed
    ..A mammalian homolog of Yurt is up-regulated in metastatic melanoma cells. These novel cytoskeletal proteins appear to play important roles in epithelial cell movements and in the morphogenetic tissue changes that depend on them. ..
  55. Yamashita Y, Jones D, Fuller M. Orientation of asymmetric stem cell division by the APC tumor suppressor and centrosome. Science. 2003;301:1547-50 pubmed
  56. Chen T, Chen G, Funkhouser L, Nam S. Membrane domain modulation by Spectrins in Drosophila photoreceptor morphogenesis. Genesis. 2009;47:744-50 pubmed publisher
    Spectrins are major proteins in the cytoskeletal network of most cells. In Drosophila, beta(Heavy)-Spectrin encoded by the karst gene functions together with Crb during photoreceptor morphogenesis...
  57. Lin H, Spradling A. A novel group of pumilio mutations affects the asymmetric division of germline stem cells in the Drosophila ovary. Development. 1997;124:2463-76 pubmed
    ..We have also identified a second and novel gene, piwi, whose mutations abolish germline stem cell division. ..
  58. Wang M, Champion L, Biessmann H, Mason J. Mapping a mutator, mu2, which increases the frequency of terminal deletions in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Gen Genet. 1994;245:598-607 pubmed
    ..In the course of these experiments, three additional, presumptive mutant alleles were identified, suggesting that other mutator alleles remain undiscovered in many standard laboratory stocks. ..
  59. Lin H, Spradling A. Fusome asymmetry and oocyte determination in Drosophila. Dev Genet. 1995;16:6-12 pubmed
    ..During cyst formation, a region of specialized, spectrin-rich cytoplasm called the fusome traverses the intercellular connections (ring canals), linking individual ..
  60. Kiger A, Jones D, Schulz C, Rogers M, Fuller M. Stem cell self-renewal specified by JAK-STAT activation in response to a support cell cue. Science. 2001;294:2542-5 pubmed
  61. Schulz C, Wood C, Jones D, Tazuke S, Fuller M. Signaling from germ cells mediated by the rhomboid homolog stet organizes encapsulation by somatic support cells. Development. 2002;129:4523-34 pubmed
    ..The micro-environment provided by the surrounding somatic cells may, in turn, regulate differentiation of the germ cells they enclose. ..
  62. Massaro C, Pielage J, Davis G. Molecular mechanisms that enhance synapse stability despite persistent disruption of the spectrin/ankyrin/microtubule cytoskeleton. J Cell Biol. 2009;187:101-17 pubmed publisher
    Loss of spectrin or ankyrin in the presynaptic motoneuron disrupts the synaptic microtubule cytoskeleton and leads to disassembly of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ)...
  63. Ong S, Foote C, Tan C. Mutations of DMYPT cause over constriction of contractile rings and ring canals during Drosophila germline cyst formation. Dev Biol. 2010;346:161-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that there may be two parallel mechanisms to prevent the contractile rings from being completely closed, physical resistance and inhibition of myosin II activity via DMYPT. ..
  64. Petronczki M, Knoblich J. DmPAR-6 directs epithelial polarity and asymmetric cell division of neuroblasts in Drosophila. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:43-9 pubmed
  65. Ghosh Roy A, Kulkarni M, Kumar V, Shirolikar S, Ray K. Cytoplasmic dynein-dynactin complex is required for spermatid growth but not axoneme assembly in Drosophila. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:2470-83 pubmed
    ..Cylindrical spectrin-rich elongation cones form at their distal ends during the growth...
  66. Dubreuil R, Byers T, Sillman A, Bar Zvi D, Goldstein L, Branton D. The complete sequence of Drosophila alpha-spectrin: conservation of structural domains between alpha-spectrins and alpha-actinin. J Cell Biol. 1989;109:2197-205 pubmed
    We report the complete sequence of Drosophila alpha-spectrin and show that it is similar to vertebrate nonerythroid spectrins...