Gene Symbol: AkhR
Description: Adipokinetic hormone receptor
Alias: AKH-R, AKHR, AkhR/GRHR, Akhr, BEST:GH19447, CG11325, DAKHR, DAKHR-1, DGRHR, Dmel\CG11325, GRHR, GRHR/CG11325, GnRHR, akhr, adipokinetic hormone receptor, AKH receptor, AkhR-PA, AkhR-PB, AkhR-PC, AkhR-PD, CG11325-PA, CG11325-PB, CG11325-PC, CG11325-PD, Drm-AKH receptor-1, gonadotrophin-releasing hormone receptor, gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor, hormone receptor
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Beller M, Bulankina A, Hsiao H, Urlaub H, Jackle H, Kühnlein R. PERILIPIN-dependent control of lipid droplet structure and fat storage in Drosophila. Cell Metab. 2010;12:521-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We generated flies devoid of all PERILIPIN family members and show that they exhibit impaired yet functional body fat regulation. Our data reveal the existence of a basal and possibly ancient lipid homeostasis system. ..
  2. Bharucha K, Tarr P, Zipursky S. A glucagon-like endocrine pathway in Drosophila modulates both lipid and carbohydrate homeostasis. J Exp Biol. 2008;211:3103-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that mutation of the Drosophila adipokinetic hormone receptor (AKHR), a functional analog of the mammalian glucagon receptor, leads to abnormal accumulation of both ..
  3. Hauser F, Søndergaard L, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular cloning, genomic organization and developmental regulation of a novel receptor from Drosophila melanogaster structurally related to gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors for vertebrates. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;249:822-8 pubmed
    ..This paper is the first report on the molecular cloning of a member of the GnRH receptor family from invertebrates. ..
  4. Staubli F, Jorgensen T, Cazzamali G, Williamson M, Lenz C, Sondergaard L, et al. Molecular identification of the insect adipokinetic hormone receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:3446-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, the insect AKH receptors are structurally and evolutionarily related to the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors from vertebrates...
  5. Park Y, Kim Y, Adams M. Identification of G protein-coupled receptors for Drosophila PRXamide peptides, CCAP, corazonin, and AKH supports a theory of ligand-receptor coevolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:11423-8 pubmed
    ..These findings support a theory of coevolution for NMU and Drosophila PRXa peptides and their respective receptors. ..
  6. Gronke S, Müller G, Hirsch J, Fellert S, Andreou A, Haase T, et al. Dual lipolytic control of body fat storage and mobilization in Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e137 pubmed
    ..We generated a Drosophila mutant lacking the receptor (AKHR) of the adipokinetic hormone signaling pathway, an insect lipolytic pathway related to ss-adrenergic signaling in ..
  7. Baumbach J, Xu Y, Hehlert P, Kühnlein R. G?q, G?1 and Plc21C control Drosophila body fat storage. J Genet Genomics. 2014;41:283-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Biochemical evidence supports that Akh signals via a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) called Akh receptor (AkhR) using cyclic-AMP (cAMP) and Ca(2+) second messengers to induce storage lipid release from fat body cells...
  8. Palm W, Sampaio J, Brankatschk M, Carvalho M, Mahmoud A, Shevchenko A, et al. Lipoproteins in Drosophila melanogaster--assembly, function, and influence on tissue lipid composition. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002828 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies define major routes of interorgan lipid transport in Drosophila and uncover surprising tissue-specific differences in lipoprotein lipid utilization...
  9. Iijima K, Zhao L, Shenton C, Iijima Ando K. Regulation of energy stores and feeding by neuronal and peripheral CREB activity in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8498 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a transgenic CRE-luciferase reporter, we further demonstrated that disruption of the adipokinetic hormone receptor, which is functionally related to mammalian glucagon and beta-adrenergic signaling, in the fat body ..

More Information


  1. Wiemerslage L, Gohel P, Maestri G, Hilmarsson T, Mickael M, Fredriksson R, et al. The Drosophila ortholog of TMEM18 regulates insulin and glucagon-like signaling. J Endocrinol. 2016;229:233-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This work is the first to experimentally describe the metabolic consequences of TMEM18 knockdown, and further supports its association with obesity. ..
  2. Wang B, Moya N, Niessen S, Hoover H, Mihaylova M, Shaw R, et al. A hormone-dependent module regulating energy balance. Cell. 2011;145:596-606 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal a hormone-regulated pathway that functions in parallel with the nutrient-sensing SIRT1 pathway to maintain energy balance. ..
  3. Kim J, Neufeld T. Dietary sugar promotes systemic TOR activation in Drosophila through AKH-dependent selective secretion of Dilp3. Nat Commun. 2015;6:6846 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, IPCs integrate multiple cues to regulate the secretion of distinct insulin subtypes under varying nutrient conditions. ..
  4. Jourjine N, Mullaney B, Mann K, Scott K. Coupled Sensing of Hunger and Thirst Signals Balances Sugar and Water Consumption. Cell. 2016;166:855-866 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we identify a hormone receptor and an osmolality-sensitive ion channel that underlie this regulation...
  5. Lebreton S, Witzgall P, Olsson M, Becher P. Dietary glucose regulates yeast consumption in adult Drosophila males. Front Physiol. 2014;5:504 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these results show the importance of insulin in the regulation of yeast consumption in response to starvation in adult D. melanogaster males. ..
  6. Gáliková M, Diesner M, Klepsatel P, Hehlert P, Xu Y, Bickmeyer I, et al. Energy Homeostasis Control in Drosophila Adipokinetic Hormone Mutants. Genetics. 2015;201:665-83 pubmed publisher
    ..During adulthood, however, AKH regulates body fat content and the hemolymph sugar level as well as nutritional and oxidative stress responses. Finally, we provide evidence for a negative autoregulatory loop in Akh gene regulation. ..
  7. Alfa R, Park S, Skelly K, Poffenberger G, Jain N, Gu X, et al. Suppression of insulin production and secretion by a decretin hormone. Cell Metab. 2015;21:323-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose Lst as an index member of an ancient hormone class called decretins, which suppress insulin output. ..
  8. Adolph K. A thrombospondin homologue in Drosophila melanogaster: cDNA and protein structure. Gene. 2001;269:177-84 pubmed
    ..Alignment of the amino acid sequences of the Drosophila TSP with human TSP1-TSP4 and COMP demonstrated a high degree of homology between the four Type II repeats, seven Type III repeats, and C-terminal domain. ..
  9. Waterson M, Chung B, Harvanek Z, Ostojic I, Alcedo J, Pletcher S. Water sensor ppk28 modulates Drosophila lifespan and physiology through AKH signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:8137-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, loss of ppk28 increased neuronal glucagon-like adipokinetic hormone (AKH) signaling, and the AKH receptor was necessary for ppk28 mutant effects...
  10. Sarup P, Sørensen P, Loeschcke V. The long-term effects of a life-prolonging heat treatment on the Drosophila melanogaster transcriptome suggest that heat shock proteins extend lifespan. Exp Gerontol. 2014;50:34-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the heat shock response, and Hsp70 in particular, may be central to the heat-induced increase in the average lifespan in flies that are exposed to mild heat stress early in life. ..
  11. Righi V, Apidianakis Y, Mintzopoulos D, Astrakas L, Rahme L, Tzika A. In vivo high-resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy of Drosophila melanogaster at 14.1 T shows trauma in aging and in innate immune-deficiency is linked to reduced insulin signaling. Int J Mol Med. 2010;26:175-84 pubmed
    ..pathway, which is analogous to insulin receptor substrate1-4 (IRS1-4) in mammals and less to those of adipokinetic hormone receptor (akhr) mutant flies, which have an obese phenotype...
  12. Bryson Richardson R, Logan D, Currie P, Jackson I. Large-scale analysis of gene structure in rhodopsin-like GPCRs: evidence for widespread loss of an ancient intron. Gene. 2004;338:15-23 pubmed
    ..Together, these two lines of evidence provide compelling evidence for the widespread loss of introns during the evolution of the mammalian GPCR-A family. ..
  13. Chandrashekara K, Popli S, Shakarad M. Curcumin enhances parental reproductive lifespan and progeny viability in Drosophila melanogaster. Age (Dordr). 2014;36:9702 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that curcumin can not only correct a key step in the citric acid cycle and help in the release of additional energy but also permanently correct developmental and morphogenetic processes. ..
  14. Caers J, Peeters L, Janssen T, De Haes W, Gäde G, Schoofs L. Structure-activity studies of Drosophila adipokinetic hormone (AKH) by a cellular expression system of dipteran AKH receptors. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2012;177:332-7 pubmed publisher
    Structure-activity studies for the adipokinetic hormone receptor of insects were for the first time performed in a cellular expression system...
  15. Hentze J, Carlsson M, Kondo S, Nässel D, Rewitz K. The Neuropeptide Allatostatin A Regulates Metabolism and Feeding Decisions in Drosophila. Sci Rep. 2015;5:11680 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that AstA is involved in assigning value to these nutrients to coordinate metabolic and feeding decisions, responses that are important to balance food intake according to metabolic needs. ..
  16. Rasmussen M, Leander M, Ons S, Nichols R. Conserved molecular switch interactions in modeled cardioactive RF-NH2 peptide receptors: Ligand binding and activation. Peptides. 2015;71:259-67 pubmed publisher
    ..b>AKH receptor motifs were not representative of a RF-NH2 subfamily...
  17. Metaxakis A, Tain L, Grönke S, Hendrich O, Hinze Y, Birras U, et al. Lowered insulin signalling ameliorates age-related sleep fragmentation in Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2014;12:e1001824 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings highlight the importance of different IIS/TOR components as potential therapeutic targets for pharmacological treatment of age-related sleep fragmentation in humans. ..
  18. Inagaki H, Panse K, Anderson D. Independent, reciprocal neuromodulatory control of sweet and bitter taste sensitivity during starvation in Drosophila. Neuron. 2014;84:806-20 pubmed publisher
    ..In this way, state-intensity-dependent, reciprocal regulation of appetitive and aversive peripheral gustatory sensitivity permits flexible, adaptive feeding decisions. ..
  19. Rajan A, Perrimon N. Of flies and men: insights on organismal metabolism from fruit flies. BMC Biol. 2013;11:38 pubmed publisher
  20. Choi S, Lim D, Chung J. Feeding and Fasting Signals Converge on the LKB1-SIK3 Pathway to Regulate Lipid Metabolism in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005263 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these data suggest that fasting stimuli specifically control the kinase activity of LKB1 and establish the LKB1-SIK3 pathway as a converging point between feeding and fasting signals to control lipid homeostasis in Drosophila. ..
  21. Cao H, Wiemerslage L, Marttila P, Williams M, Schiöth H. Bis-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate Increases Insulin Expression and Lipid Levels in Drosophila melanogaster. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2016;119:309-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that long-term DEHP feeding may induce diabetes-like dysfunctions. These findings provide a molecular background of how DEHP may have detrimental effects on metabolic functions. ..
  22. Matsuda H, Yamada T, Yoshida M, Nishimura T. Flies without trehalose. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:1244-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These diet-dependent phenotypes of Tps1 mutants demonstrate the critical role of trehalose during development in Drosophila and reveal how animals adapt to changes in nutrient availability. ..
  23. Eveland M, Brokamp G, Lue C, Harbison S, Leips J, De Luca M. Knockdown expression of Syndecan in the fat body impacts nutrient metabolism and the organismal response to environmental stresses in Drosophila melanogaster. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;477:103-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these findings strongly suggest that Drosophila fat body Sdc is involved in a mechanism that shifts resources to different physiological functions according to nutritional status. ..
  24. Cazzamali G, Hauser F, Kobberup S, Williamson M, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular identification of a Drosophila G protein-coupled receptor specific for crustacean cardioactive peptide. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;303:146-52 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we identified a gene sequence in the genomic database from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae that very likely codes for a crustacean cardioactive peptide receptor. ..