Gene Symbol: Akh
Description: Adipokinetic hormone
Alias: AKH, AKH1, CG1171, Dmel\CG1171, Drm-AKH, Hrth, akh, dAkh, adipokinetic hormone, Akh-PA, CG1171-PA, Hypertrehaloseaemic-hormone, adipo- kinetic hormone, adipokinetic hormone-like
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Rulifson E, Kim S, Nusse R. Ablation of insulin-producing neurons in flies: growth and diabetic phenotypes. Science. 2002;296:1118-20 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, the phenotype of flies lacking IPCs includes certain features of diabetes mellitus. ..
  2. Rosenkilde C, Cazzamali G, Williamson M, Hauser F, Søndergaard L, DeLotto R, et al. Molecular cloning, functional expression, and gene silencing of two Drosophila receptors for the Drosophila neuropeptide pyrokinin-2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;309:485-94 pubmed
    ..The two Drosophila pyrokinin receptors are, to our knowledge, the first invertebrate pyrokinin receptors to be identified. ..
  3. Schaffer M, Noyes B, Slaughter C, Thorne G, Gaskell S. The fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster contains a novel charged adipokinetic-hormone-family peptide. Biochem J. 1990;269:315-20 pubmed
    A member of the RPCH/AKH (red-pigment-concentrating hormone/adipokinetic hormone) family of arthropod neuropeptides was identified in the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, and its structure was determined by automated Edman degradation ..
  4. Baggerman G, Cerstiaens A, De Loof A, Schoofs L. Peptidomics of the larval Drosophila melanogaster central nervous system. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:40368-74 pubmed
    ..This neuropeptide expression profiling study also opens perspectives for other eukaryotic model systems, for which genome projects are completed or in progress. ..
  5. Lee G, Park J. Hemolymph sugar homeostasis and starvation-induced hyperactivity affected by genetic manipulations of the adipokinetic hormone-encoding gene in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2004;167:311-23 pubmed
    ..In delving into the roles of the Drosophila Akh (dAkh) gene, its developmental expression patterns were examined and the physiological functions of the AKH-producing ..
  6. Baggerman G, Boonen K, Verleyen P, De Loof A, Schoofs L. Peptidomic analysis of the larval Drosophila melanogaster central nervous system by two-dimensional capillary liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. J Mass Spectrom. 2005;40:250-60 pubmed
    ..This clearly demonstrates that the two-dimensional capillary LC approach enhances the coverage of the peptidomic analysis. ..
  7. Wegener C, Reinl T, Jänsch L, Predel R. Direct mass spectrometric peptide profiling and fragmentation of larval peptide hormone release sites in Drosophila melanogaster reveals tagma-specific peptide expression and differential processing. J Neurochem. 2006;96:1362-74 pubmed
    ..Our results show that the peptidome of the neurohaemal organs is tagma-specific and does not change during metamorphosis. We also provide evidence for the first case of differential prohormone processing in Drosophila. ..
  8. Kim S, Rulifson E. Conserved mechanisms of glucose sensing and regulation by Drosophila corpora cardiaca cells. Nature. 2004;431:316-20 pubmed
    ..They also produce adipokinetic hormone, a polypeptide with glucagon-like functions...
  9. Iversen A, Cazzamali G, Williamson M, Hauser F, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular identification of the first insect ecdysis triggering hormone receptors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;299:924-31 pubmed
    ..Ecdysis (cuticle shedding) is an important behaviour, allowing growth and metamorphosis in insects and other arthropods. Our paper is the first report on the molecular identification of ecdysis triggering hormone receptors from insects. ..

More Information


  1. Iversen A, Cazzamali G, Williamson M, Hauser F, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular cloning and functional expression of a Drosophila receptor for the neuropeptides capa-1 and -2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;299:628-33 pubmed
    ..Because capa-1 and -2 and related insect neuropeptides stimulate fluid secretion in insect Malpighian (renal) tubules, the identification of this first insect capa receptor will advance our knowledge on insect renal function. ..
  2. Yew J, Wang Y, Barteneva N, Dikler S, Kutz Naber K, Li L, et al. Analysis of neuropeptide expression and localization in adult drosophila melanogaster central nervous system by affinity cell-capture mass spectrometry. J Proteome Res. 2009;8:1271-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Neuropeptide profiling also was performed on targeted populations of cells which were enriched with immunoaffinity purification using a genetically expressed marker. ..
  3. J rgensen L, Hauser F, Cazzamali G, Williamson M, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular identification of the first SIFamide receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;340:696-701 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper is the first report on the identification of a SIFamide receptor...
  4. Birse R, Johnson E, Taghert P, Nassel D. Widely distributed Drosophila G-protein-coupled receptor (CG7887) is activated by endogenous tachykinin-related peptides. J Neurobiol. 2006;66:33-46 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that DTKR is a DTK receptor in Drosophila and that this ligand-receptor system plays multiple functional roles. ..
  5. Cazzamali G, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular cloning and functional expression of the first insect FMRFamide receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:12073-8 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this article is the first report on the molecular identification of an invertebrate FMRFamide receptor. ..
  6. Predel R, Wegener C, Russell W, Tichy S, Russell D, Nachman R. Peptidomics of CNS-associated neurohemal systems of adult Drosophila melanogaster: a mass spectrometric survey of peptides from individual flies. J Comp Neurol. 2004;474:379-92 pubmed
  7. Park Y, Kim Y, Adams M. Identification of G protein-coupled receptors for Drosophila PRXamide peptides, CCAP, corazonin, and AKH supports a theory of ligand-receptor coevolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:11423-8 pubmed
    ..GPCRs in the vasopressin receptor group respond to crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP), corazonin, or adipokinetic hormone (AKH), none of which are PRXa peptides...
  8. Choi Y, Lee G, Hall J, Park J. Comparative analysis of Corazonin-encoding genes (Crz's) in Drosophila species and functional insights into Crz-expressing neurons. J Comp Neurol. 2005;482:372-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Two pairs of ectopic Crz cells were detected in the adult brains of behaviorally arrhythmic Clock(Jrk) or cycle(02) mutants, suggesting that CLOCK and CYCLE proteins negatively regulate Crz transcription in a cell-specific manner...
  9. Staubli F, Jorgensen T, Cazzamali G, Williamson M, Lenz C, Sondergaard L, et al. Molecular identification of the insect adipokinetic hormone receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:3446-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we have identified the first insect AKH receptors, namely those from the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster and the silkworm Bombyx mori...
  10. Cazzamali G, Hauser F, Kobberup S, Williamson M, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular identification of a Drosophila G protein-coupled receptor specific for crustacean cardioactive peptide. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;303:146-52 pubmed
    ..4 x 10(-10)M). Other known Drosophila neuropeptides, such as adipokinetic hormone, did not activate the receptor...
  11. Belgacem Y, Martin J. Hmgcr in the corpus allatum controls sexual dimorphism of locomotor activity and body size via the insulin pathway in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e187 pubmed
    ..These results provide evidence: (i) that HMGCR expression is controlled by the InR and (ii) that InR and HMGCR specifically in the ca, are involved in the control of body size and sexual dimorphism of locomotor activity. ..
  12. Nassel D, Enell L, Santos J, Wegener C, Johard H. A large population of diverse neurons in the Drosophila central nervous system expresses short neuropeptide F, suggesting multiple distributed peptide functions. BMC Neurosci. 2008;9:90 pubmed publisher
    ..To unravel possible functional diversity we have mapped the distribution of transcript of the snpf gene and its peptide products in the central nervous system (CNS) of Drosophila in relation to other neuronal markers...
  13. Marella S, Mann K, Scott K. Dopaminergic modulation of sucrose acceptance behavior in Drosophila. Neuron. 2012;73:941-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate the marked specificity of dopamine signaling and provide a foundation to examine neural mechanisms of feeding modulation in the fly. ..
  14. De Velasco B, Shen J, Go S, Hartenstein V. Embryonic development of the Drosophila corpus cardiacum, a neuroendocrine gland with similarity to the vertebrate pituitary, is controlled by sine oculis and glass. Dev Biol. 2004;274:280-94 pubmed
    ..We discuss the parallels between neuroendocrine development in Drosophila and vertebrates. ..
  15. Sajwan S, Sidorov R, Stašková T, Žaloudíková A, Takasu Y, Kodrík D, et al. Targeted mutagenesis and functional analysis of adipokinetic hormone-encoding gene in Drosophila. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2015;61:79-86 pubmed publisher
    ..We employed Transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) mutagenesis and isolated an Akh(1) mutant carrying a small deletion in the gene that resulted in a truncated peptide; the second aa (Leu) was ..
  16. Hentze J, Carlsson M, Kondo S, Nässel D, Rewitz K. The Neuropeptide Allatostatin A Regulates Metabolism and Feeding Decisions in Drosophila. Sci Rep. 2015;5:11680 pubmed publisher
    ..conserved in Drosophila, where homeostasis and energy mobilization are regulated by the glucagon-related adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and the Drosophila insulin-like peptides (DILPs)...
  17. Alfa R, Park S, Skelly K, Poffenberger G, Jain N, Gu X, et al. Suppression of insulin production and secretion by a decretin hormone. Cell Metab. 2015;21:323-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose Lst as an index member of an ancient hormone class called decretins, which suppress insulin output. ..
  18. Sidyelyeva G, Wegener C, Schoenfeld B, Bell A, Baker N, McBride S, et al. Individual carboxypeptidase D domains have both redundant and unique functions in Drosophila development and behavior. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2010;67:2991-3004 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of CP domain-1 or -2 reduced the levels of Lys/Arg-extended adipokinetic hormone intermediates...
  19. Gáliková M, Diesner M, Klepsatel P, Hehlert P, Xu Y, Bickmeyer I, et al. Energy Homeostasis Control in Drosophila Adipokinetic Hormone Mutants. Genetics. 2015;201:665-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to AKH, the second peptide, which is processed from the Akh encoded prohormone [termed "adipokinetic hormone precursor-related peptide" (APRP)] is functionally orphan...
  20. Mattaliano M, Montana E, Parisky K, Littleton J, Griffith L. The Drosophila ARC homolog regulates behavioral responses to starvation. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2007;36:211-21 pubmed
    ..This suggests that there are multiple modes of communication between the pars and the ring gland that control starvation-induced behavioral responses. ..
  21. Cazzamali G, Saxild N, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular cloning and functional expression of a Drosophila corazonin receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;298:31-6 pubmed
    ..We have previously identified the first insect AKH receptors from the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster and the silkworm Bombyx mori (Staubli et al...
  22. Johnson E, Bohn L, Taghert P. Drosophila CG8422 encodes a functional diuretic hormone receptor. J Exp Biol. 2004;207:743-8 pubmed
    ..The identification of a Drosophila receptor for the DH neuropeptide provides a basis for genetic analysis of this critical factor's roles in maintaining physiological homeostasis. ..
  23. Šerý M, Frydrychová R, Krůček T, Korandová M, Szakosová K. Effect of low doses of herbicide paraquat on antioxidant defense in Drosophila. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2015;88:235-48 pubmed publisher
    ..5 μM paraquat leads to an increase in locomotion activity. Because susceptibility to paraquat was enhanced by mating, the study supports the hypothesis of elevation of stress sensitivity as a physiological cost of reproduction. ..
  24. Chatterjee A, Tanoue S, Houl J, Hardin P. Regulation of gustatory physiology and appetitive behavior by the Drosophila circadian clock. Curr Biol. 2010;20:300-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The similarity in gustatory system organization and feeding behavior in flies and mammals, as well as diurnal changes in taste sensitivity in humans, suggest that our results are relevant to the situation in humans. ..
  25. Egerod K, Reynisson E, Hauser F, Williamson M, Cazzamali G, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular identification of the first insect proctolin receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;306:437-42 pubmed
    ..The Drosophila receptor reported here is the first invertebrate proctolin receptor to be identified. ..
  26. Rhea J, Wegener C, Bender M. The proprotein convertase encoded by amontillado (amon) is required in Drosophila corpora cardiaca endocrine cells producing the glucose regulatory hormone AKH. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000967 pubmed publisher
    ..cell-type specific inactivation and rescue experiments, and we show that amon is required in the islet-like adipokinetic hormone (AKH)-producing cells that regulate sugar homeostasis...
  27. Ruaud A, Lam G, Thummel C. The Drosophila NR4A nuclear receptor DHR38 regulates carbohydrate metabolism and glycogen storage. Mol Endocrinol. 2011;25:83-91 pubmed publisher
  28. Katewa S, Demontis F, Kolipinski M, Hubbard A, Gill M, Perrimon N, et al. Intramyocellular fatty-acid metabolism plays a critical role in mediating responses to dietary restriction in Drosophila melanogaster. Cell Metab. 2012;16:97-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of adipokinetic hormone (dAKH), the functional ortholog of glucagon, enhances fat metabolism, spontaneous activity, and life span...
  29. Lushchak O, Carlsson M, Nässel D. Food odors trigger an endocrine response that affects food ingestion and metabolism. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2015;72:3143-55 pubmed publisher
    ..increase in circulating glucose, and a rapid upregulation of genes encoding the glucagon-like hormone adipokinetic hormone (AKH), four insulin-like peptides (DILPs) and some target genes in peripheral tissues...
  30. Hector C, Bretz C, Zhao Y, Johnson E. Functional differences between two CRF-related diuretic hormone receptors in Drosophila. J Exp Biol. 2009;212:3142-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The functional characterization of this diuretic hormone receptor in Drosophila demonstrates a high degree of conservation of CRF-like signaling. ..
  31. Teleman A, Maitra S, Cohen S. Drosophila lacking microRNA miR-278 are defective in energy homeostasis. Genes Dev. 2006;20:417-22 pubmed
    ..We provide evidence that miR-278 mutants are insulin resistant and that miR-278 acts through regulation of the expanded transcript. ..
  32. Matsuda H, Yamada T, Yoshida M, Nishimura T. Flies without trehalose. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:1244-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These diet-dependent phenotypes of Tps1 mutants demonstrate the critical role of trehalose during development in Drosophila and reveal how animals adapt to changes in nutrient availability. ..
  33. Wiemerslage L, Gohel P, Maestri G, Hilmarsson T, Mickael M, Fredriksson R, et al. The Drosophila ortholog of TMEM18 regulates insulin and glucagon-like signaling. J Endocrinol. 2016;229:233-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This work is the first to experimentally describe the metabolic consequences of TMEM18 knockdown, and further supports its association with obesity. ..
  34. Zemanova M, Stašková T, Kodrik D. Role of adipokinetic hormone and adenosine in the anti-stress response in Drosophila melanogaster. J Insect Physiol. 2016;91-92:39-47 pubmed publisher
    The role of adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and adenosine in the anti-stress response was studied in Drosophila melanogaster larvae and adults carrying a mutation in the Akh gene (Akh(1)), the adenosine receptor gene (AdoR(1)), or in both of ..
  35. Baumbach J, Xu Y, Hehlert P, Kühnlein R. G?q, G?1 and Plc21C control Drosophila body fat storage. J Genet Genomics. 2014;41:283-92 pubmed publisher
    Adaptive mobilization of body fat is essential for energy homeostasis in animals. In insects, the adipokinetic hormone (Akh) systemically controls body fat mobilization...
  36. Sellami A, Wegener C, Veenstra J. Functional significance of the copper transporter ATP7 in peptidergic neurons and endocrine cells in Drosophila melanogaster. FEBS Lett. 2012;586:3633-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The strength of this effect differed from one cell type to another; it was very pronounced for AKH and corazonin, but much less so for SIFamide and myosuppressin...
  37. Kaun K, Chakaborty Chatterjee M, Sokolowski M. Natural variation in plasticity of glucose homeostasis and food intake. J Exp Biol. 2008;211:3160-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, rovers have lower adipokinetic hormone (akh) mRNA levels than sitters...
  38. Wegener C, Gorbashov A. Molecular evolution of neuropeptides in the genus Drosophila. Genome Biol. 2008;9:R131 pubmed publisher
    ..The last common ancestor of Drosophila obviously had a set of neuropeptides and peptide hormones identical to that of modern fruit flies. This is remarkable, since drosophilid flies have adapted to very different environments. ..
  39. Waterson M, Chung B, Harvanek Z, Ostojic I, Alcedo J, Pletcher S. Water sensor ppk28 modulates Drosophila lifespan and physiology through AKH signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:8137-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, loss of ppk28 increased neuronal glucagon-like adipokinetic hormone (AKH) signaling, and the AKH receptor was necessary for ppk28 mutant effects...
  40. Zuberova M, Fenckova M, Simek P, Janeckova L, Dolezal T. Increased extracellular adenosine in Drosophila that are deficient in adenosine deaminase activates a release of energy stores leading to wasting and death. Dis Model Mech. 2010;3:773-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The adenosine works in this regard through the adenosine receptor as an anti-insulin hormone in parallel to adipokinetic hormone, a glucagon counterpart in flies...
  41. Lee G, Kim K, Kikuno K, Wang Z, Choi Y, Park J. Developmental regulation and functions of the expression of the neuropeptide corazonin in Drosophila melanogaster. Cell Tissue Res. 2008;331:659-73 pubmed
    ..Terminals of the DLP neurons are found in the retrocerebral complex that produces juvenile hormone and adipokinetic hormone. Significant reduction of trehalose levels in adults lacking DLP neurons suggests that DLP neurons are ..
  42. Pool A, Scott K. Feeding regulation in Drosophila. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2014;29:57-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These neuromodulators in turn promote or inhibit discrete feeding behavioral subprograms. This review highlights the links between physiological needs, neuromodulatory states, and feeding decisions. ..
  43. Sellami A, Isabel G, Veenstra J. Expression of the mu opioid receptor in Drosophila and its effects on trehalose and glycogen when expressed by the AKH neuroendocrine cells. Peptides. 2010;31:1383-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, flies which expressed the mu opioid receptor in the AKH or corazonin endocrine cells increased rather than decreased trehalose levels and this was independent of opioid ..
  44. Kim J, Neufeld T. Dietary sugar promotes systemic TOR activation in Drosophila through AKH-dependent selective secretion of Dilp3. Nat Commun. 2015;6:6846 pubmed publisher
    ..Sugar levels are not sensed directly by the IPCs, but rather by the adipokinetic hormone (AKH)-producing cells of the corpora cardiaca, and we demonstrate that AKH signalling is required in the ..
  45. Salisbury J, Boggio K, Hsu Y, Quijada J, Sivachenko A, Gloeckner G, et al. A rapid MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry workflow for Drosophila melanogaster differential neuropeptidomics. Mol Brain. 2013;6:60 pubmed publisher
    ..While the data analysis methods should be compatible with other sample preparations, the presented sample preparation method was sufficient to identify previously unconfirmed D. melanogaster neuropeptides. ..
  46. Rajan A, Perrimon N. Of flies and men: insights on organismal metabolism from fruit flies. BMC Biol. 2013;11:38 pubmed publisher
  47. Caers J, Peeters L, Janssen T, De Haes W, Gäde G, Schoofs L. Structure-activity studies of Drosophila adipokinetic hormone (AKH) by a cellular expression system of dipteran AKH receptors. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2012;177:332-7 pubmed publisher
    Structure-activity studies for the adipokinetic hormone receptor of insects were for the first time performed in a cellular expression system...
  48. Johnson E, Shafer O, Trigg J, Park J, Schooley D, Dow J, et al. A novel diuretic hormone receptor in Drosophila: evidence for conservation of CGRP signaling. J Exp Biol. 2005;208:1239-46 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it appears that both the molecular details as well as the functional organization of CGRP signaling have been conserved. ..
  49. Cao H, Wiemerslage L, Marttila P, Williams M, Schiöth H. Bis-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate Increases Insulin Expression and Lipid Levels in Drosophila melanogaster. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2016;119:309-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that long-term DEHP feeding may induce diabetes-like dysfunctions. These findings provide a molecular background of how DEHP may have detrimental effects on metabolic functions. ..
  50. Williams M, Eriksson A, Shaik M, Voisin S, Yamskova O, Paulsson J, et al. The Obesity-Linked Gene Nudt3 Drosophila Homolog Aps Is Associated With Insulin Signaling. Mol Endocrinol. 2015;29:1303-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the loss of IPC Aps lowered the expression of Akh, Ilp6, and Ilp3, genes known to be inhibited by insulin signaling...
  51. Bednářová A, Kodrík D, Krishnan N. Knockdown of adipokinetic hormone synthesis increases susceptibility to oxidative stress in Drosophila--a role for dFoxO?. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2015;171:8-14 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the precise signaling pathways are unclear. We present evidence that AKH may primarily employ the Forkhead box class O transcription factor (FoxO) to exert this effect...
  52. Braco J, Gillespie E, Alberto G, Brenman J, Johnson E. Energy-dependent modulation of glucagon-like signaling in Drosophila via the AMP-activated protein kinase. Genetics. 2012;192:457-66 pubmed publisher
    b>Adipokinetic hormone (AKH) is the equivalent of mammalian glucagon, as it is the primary insect hormone that causes energy mobilization. In Drosophila, current knowledge of the mechanisms regulating AKH signaling is limited...
  53. Gruber F, Knapek S, Fujita M, Matsuo K, Bräcker L, Shinzato N, et al. Suppression of conditioned odor approach by feeding is independent of taste and nutritional value in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2013;23:507-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In parallel, we found that conditioned approach is transiently suppressed by artificial stimulation of adipokinetic hormone (AKH) expressing corpora cardiaca cells, which causes elevation of hemolymph carbohydrate and lipid ..
  54. Gronke S, Müller G, Hirsch J, Fellert S, Andreou A, Haase T, et al. Dual lipolytic control of body fat storage and mobilization in Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e137 pubmed
    ..We generated a Drosophila mutant lacking the receptor (AKHR) of the adipokinetic hormone signaling pathway, an insect lipolytic pathway related to ss-adrenergic signaling in mammals...
  55. Egerod K, Reynisson E, Hauser F, Cazzamali G, Williamson M, Grimmelikhuijzen C. Molecular cloning and functional expression of the first two specific insect myosuppressin receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:9808-13 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this paper is the first report on the molecular identification of specific insect myosuppressin receptors. ..
  56. Williams M, Wiemerslage L, Gohel P, Kheder S, Kothegala L, Schioth H. Dibutyl Phthalate Exposure Disrupts Evolutionarily Conserved Insulin and Glucagon-Like Signaling in Drosophila Males. Endocrinology. 2016;157:2309-21 pubmed publisher
    ..to show that the starvation-resistance phenotype can be rescued by overexpression of the glucagon analogue adipokinetic hormone (Akh)...