Gene Symbol: ac
Description: achaete
Alias: 990 E5 F1, AS-C, AS-C T5, AS-C T5ac, ASC, CG3796, Dmel\CG3796, EG:125H10.3, ascT5, sc/T5, achaete, Achaete/Scute, CG3796-PA, Hairy-wing, ac-PA, achaete-scute, acheate, achete, asc, hairy wing
Species: fruit fly
Products:     ac

Top Publications

  1. Ramain P, Heitzler P, Haenlin M, Simpson P. pannier, a negative regulator of achaete and scute in Drosophila, encodes a zinc finger protein with homology to the vertebrate transcription factor GATA-1. Development. 1993;119:1277-91 pubmed
    The gene pannier acts as a repressor of achaete and scute, two transcription factors expressed in discrete subsets of cells at the sites where neural precursors develop...
  2. Marcellini S, Gibert J, Simpson P. achaete, but not scute, is dispensable for the peripheral nervous system of Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2005;285:545-53 pubmed
    The achaete-scute complex of Drosophila has been the focus of extensive genetic and developmental analysis. Of the four genes at this locus, achaete and scute appear to act redundantly to specify the peripheral nervous system...
  3. Ayyar S, Pistillo D, Calleja M, Brookfield A, Gittins K, Goldstone C, et al. NF-kappaB/Rel-mediated regulation of the neural fate in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e1178 pubmed
    ..scute during the singling out of sensory organ precursors from clusters of cells expressing the proneural genes achaete and scute...
  4. Cooper M, Tyler D, Furriols M, Chalkiadaki A, Delidakis C, Bray S. Spatially restricted factors cooperate with notch in the regulation of Enhancer of split genes. Dev Biol. 2000;221:390-403 pubmed
  5. Artavanis Tsakonas S, Simpson P. Choosing a cell fate: a view from the Notch locus. Trends Genet. 1991;7:403-8 pubmed
    ..The Notch locus appears to play a central and general role in the regulative events that control the local architecture of the final cellular pattern in several tissues, among them being the central and peripheral nervous systems. ..
  6. Oellers N, Dehio M, Knust E. bHLH proteins encoded by the Enhancer of split complex of Drosophila negatively interfere with transcriptional activation mediated by proneural genes. Mol Gen Genet. 1994;244:465-73 pubmed
    ..are capable of binding as homo-and heterodimers to a sequence in the promoters of the Enhancer of split and achaete genes, called the N-box, which differs slightly from the consensus binding site (the E-box) for other bHLH ..
  7. Lai E, Rubin G. neuralized functions cell-autonomously to regulate a subset of notch-dependent processes during adult Drosophila development. Dev Biol. 2001;231:217-33 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these data indicate a key role for neu in the reception of the lateral inhibitory signal during peripheral neurogenesis. ..
  8. Skeath J, Carroll S. Regulation of achaete-scute gene expression and sensory organ pattern formation in the Drosophila wing. Genes Dev. 1991;5:984-95 pubmed
    ..of normal and mutant imaginal discs, we show that two positive regulators of sensory neurogenesis, the proneural achaete and scute proteins, initially trans-activate each other and are transiently expressed in identical patterns, ..
  9. Culi J, Modolell J. Proneural gene self-stimulation in neural precursors: an essential mechanism for sense organ development that is regulated by Notch signaling. Genes Dev. 1998;12:2036-47 pubmed
    ..cells, we have analyzed a very early sign of neural commitment in Drosophila, namely the specific accumulation of achaete-scute complex (AS-C) proneural proteins in the cell that becomes a sensory organ mother cell (SMC)...

More Information


  1. Blair S, Giangrande A, Skeath J, Palka J. The development of normal and ectopic sensilla in the wings of hairy and Hairy wing mutants of Drosophila. Mech Dev. 1992;38:3-16 pubmed
    ..the development of ectopic sensillar precursors in the wings of Drosophila induced by the mutations hairy and Hairy wing. Normal sensilla are still present in these mutations, and can be distinguished from ectopic sensilla based upon ..
  2. Brand M, Jarman A, Jan L, Jan Y. asense is a Drosophila neural precursor gene and is capable of initiating sense organ formation. Development. 1993;119:1-17 pubmed
    ..In both cases, this process requires daughterless and the proneural genes achaete, scute and lethal-of-scute of the achaete-scute complex...
  3. Kunisch M, Haenlin M, Campos Ortega J. Lateral inhibition mediated by the Drosophila neurogenic gene delta is enhanced by proneural proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:10139-43 pubmed
    ..This transcriptional activation enhances lateral inhibition and thus helps ensure that cells in the vicinity of prospective neuroblasts will themselves become epidermoblasts. ..
  4. Biryukova I, Heitzler P. The Drosophila LIM-homeo domain protein Islet antagonizes pro-neural cell specification in the peripheral nervous system. Dev Biol. 2005;288:559-70 pubmed
    ..organs (SO) in Drosophila depends on the activity of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcriptional activators Achaete/Scute (Ac/Sc) that are expressed in clusters of cells (pro-neural clusters) and provide the cells with the ..
  5. Grens A, Mason E, Marsh J, Bode H. Evolutionary conservation of a cell fate specification gene: the Hydra achaete-scute homolog has proneural activity in Drosophila. Development. 1995;121:4027-35 pubmed
    Members of the Achaete-scute family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors are involved in cell fate specification in vertebrates and invertebrates...
  6. Gomez Skarmeta J, Rodriguez I, Martinez C, Culi J, Ferres Marco D, Beamonte D, et al. Cis-regulation of achaete and scute: shared enhancer-like elements drive their coexpression in proneural clusters of the imaginal discs. Genes Dev. 1995;9:1869-82 pubmed
    ..the adult cuticle of Drosophila is prefigured in the imaginal discs by the pattern of expression of the proneural achaete (ac) and scute (sc) genes, two members of the ac-sc complex (AS-C)...
  7. Cubas P, Modolell J. The extramacrochaetae gene provides information for sensory organ patterning. EMBO J. 1992;11:3385-93 pubmed
    ..Its generation requires the proneural achaete (ac) and scute (sc) genes...
  8. Dominguez M, Campuzano S. asense, a member of the Drosophila achaete-scute complex, is a proneural and neural differentiation gene. EMBO J. 1993;12:2049-60 pubmed
    The asense (ase) gene of the achaete-scute complex (AS-C) is expressed in the precursors of all adult sensory organs (SOs), the sensory mother cells (SMCs) and in their immediate progeny...
  9. Giagtzoglou N, Alifragis P, Koumbanakis K, Delidakis C. Two modes of recruitment of E(spl) repressors onto target genes. Development. 2003;130:259-70 pubmed
    ..fate in Drosophila is controlled by two classes of basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factors: the proneural Ac and Sc activators promote neural fate, whereas the E(spl) repressors suppress it...
  10. Ohsako S, Hyer J, Panganiban G, Oliver I, Caudy M. Hairy function as a DNA-binding helix-loop-helix repressor of Drosophila sensory organ formation. Genes Dev. 1994;8:2743-55 pubmed
    ..Mutation of a single CACGCG site in the achaete (ac) proneural gene blocks hairy-mediated repression of ac transcription in cultured Drosophila cells...
  11. Schubiger M, Carré C, Antoniewski C, Truman J. Ligand-dependent de-repression via EcR/USP acts as a gate to coordinate the differentiation of sensory neurons in the Drosophila wing. Development. 2005;132:5239-48 pubmed
    ..In this way, the ecdysone signal can function as a developmental timer coordinating development within the imaginal disc. ..
  12. Rulifson E, Blair S. Notch regulates wingless expression and is not required for reception of the paracrine wingless signal during wing margin neurogenesis in Drosophila. Development. 1995;121:2813-24 pubmed
    ..Previous work has shown that this wingless is required for the expression of the proneural achaete-scute complex genes and the subsequent formation of the sensory bristles along the margin; recently, it has been ..
  13. W lbeck C, Simpson P. Expression of achaete-scute homologues in discrete proneural clusters on the developing notum of the medfly Ceratitis capitata, suggests a common origin for the stereotyped bristle patterns of higher Diptera. Development. 2000;127:1411-20 pubmed
    ..sensory bristles in Drosophila has been shown to result from complex spatiotemporal regulation of the proneural achaete-scute genes, that relies on an array of cis-regulatory elements and spatially restricted transcriptional ..
  14. Wrischnik L, Timmer J, Megna L, Cline T. Recruitment of the proneural gene scute to the Drosophila sex-determination pathway. Genetics. 2003;165:2007-27 pubmed
    In flies, scute (sc) works with its paralogs in the achaete-scute-complex (ASC) to direct neuronal development...
  15. Skeath J, Panganiban G, Selegue J, Carroll S. Gene regulation in two dimensions: the proneural achaete and scute genes are controlled by combinations of axis-patterning genes through a common intergenic control region. Genes Dev. 1992;6:2606-19 pubmed
    ..Two adjacent proneural regulatory genes, achaete and scute, are expressed coincidently in cell clusters at reproducible anteroposterior (AP) and dorsoventral (DV) ..
  16. Golovnin A, Biryukova I, Birukova I, Romanova O, Silicheva M, Parshikov A, et al. An endogenous Su(Hw) insulator separates the yellow gene from the Achaete-scute gene complex in Drosophila. Development. 2003;130:3249-58 pubmed
    The best characterized chromatin insulator in Drosophila is the Suppressor of Hairy wing binding region contained within the gypsy retrotransposon...
  17. Gonzalez F, Romani S, Cubas P, Modolell J, Campuzano S. Molecular analysis of the asense gene, a member of the achaete-scute complex of Drosophila melanogaster, and its novel role in optic lobe development. EMBO J. 1989;8:3553-62 pubmed
    The achaete-scute complex (AS-C) comprises five genetic regions: achaete, scute (sc) alpha, lethal of sc, sc beta and sc gamma...
  18. Rebeiz M, Stone T, Posakony J. An ancient transcriptional regulatory linkage. Dev Biol. 2005;281:299-308 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the systematic identification of such ancient and conserved connections will be a powerful means of uncovering the primordial functions of transcription factors and signaling systems. ..
  19. Lai E, Posakony J. Regulation of Drosophila neurogenesis by RNA:RNA duplexes?. Cell. 1998;93:1103-4 pubmed
  20. Soshnev A, Li X, Wehling M, Geyer P. Context differences reveal insulator and activator functions of a Su(Hw) binding region. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000159 pubmed publisher
    ..that 1A-2 separates the yellow (y) gene from a previously unannotated, non-coding RNA gene, named yar for y-achaete (ac) intergenic RNA...
  21. Rodriguez I, Hernandez R, Modolell J, Ruiz Gomez M. Competence to develop sensory organs is temporally and spatially regulated in Drosophila epidermal primordia. EMBO J. 1990;9:3583-92 pubmed
    ..Its deployment requires the expression of the achaete (ac) and scute (sc) genes...
  22. Jafar Nejad H, Tien A, Acar M, Bellen H. Senseless and Daughterless confer neuronal identity to epithelial cells in the Drosophila wing margin. Development. 2006;133:1683-92 pubmed
    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proneural proteins Achaete and Scute cooperate with the class I bHLH protein Daughterless to specify the precursors of most sensory bristles in Drosophila...
  23. Lai E, Bodner R, Posakony J. The enhancer of split complex of Drosophila includes four Notch-regulated members of the bearded gene family. Development. 2000;127:3441-55 pubmed
    ..Finally, we present our initial studies of the structure, expression and regulation of the newest member of the Brd gene family, Ocho, which is located in the recently identified Bearded Complex. ..
  24. Mlodzik M, Baker N, Rubin G. Isolation and expression of scabrous, a gene regulating neurogenesis in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1990;4:1848-61 pubmed
    ..In the wing disc, sca expression is coextensive with the anlagen for bristles and is controlled by genes of the achaete-scute complex...
  25. Campuzano S. Emc, a negative HLH regulator with multiple functions in Drosophila development. Oncogene. 2001;20:8299-307 pubmed
    ..However, while maintaining this repressive molecular mechanism, emc also appears to act as a positive regulator of differentiation...
  26. Wesley C. Notch and wingless regulate expression of cuticle patterning genes. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:5743-58 pubmed
    ..two different forms of Notch regulate expression of Dfrizzled 2, a receptor of Wg; hairy, a negative regulator of achaete expression; shaggy, a negative regulator of engrailed expression; and patched, a negative regulator of wingless ..
  27. Langdon T, Hayward P, Brennan K, Wirtz Peitz F, Sanders P, Zecchini V, et al. Notch receptor encodes two structurally separable functions in Drosophila: a genetic analysis. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:998-1013 pubmed
    ..Our results support the existence of at least two different activities of Notch each of which can be associated with specific structural domains. ..
  28. Badenhorst P. Tramtrack controls glial number and identity in the Drosophila embryonic CNS. Development. 2001;128:4093-101 pubmed
    ..I propose that Tramtrack ensures stable mature glial identity by both repressing neuroblast-specific genes and controlling glial cell proliferation. ..
  29. Kanuka H, Kuranaga E, Takemoto K, Hiratou T, Okano H, Miura M. Drosophila caspase transduces Shaggy/GSK-3beta kinase activity in neural precursor development. EMBO J. 2005;24:3793-806 pubmed
    ..These results imply a novel role for caspases in modulating cell signaling pathways through substrate cleavage in neural precursor development...
  30. Romani S, Campuzano S, Macagno E, Modolell J. Expression of achaete and scute genes in Drosophila imaginal discs and their function in sensory organ development. Genes Dev. 1989;3:997-1007 pubmed
    ..The generation of these SOs requires the activity of the achaete (ac) and scute (sc) genes...
  31. Campuzano S, Balcells L, Villares R, Carramolino L, Garcia Alonso L, Modolell J. Excess function hairy-wing mutations caused by gypsy and copia insertions within structural genes of the achaete-scute locus of Drosophila. Cell. 1986;44:303-12 pubmed
    ..They are associated with modifications of the achaete-scute complex that consist, in the mutants studied, of insertions of the transposable elements gypsy (Hw1, HwBS) ..
  32. Gibert J, Marcellini S, David J, Schlotterer C, Simpson P. A major bristle QTL from a selected population of Drosophila uncovers the zinc-finger transcription factor poils-au-dos, a repressor of achaete-scute. Dev Biol. 2005;288:194-205 pubmed
    ..The original, as well as new, presumed null, alleles of poils au dos, is associated with ectopic achaete-scute expression that results in the additional bristles...
  33. Takaesu N, Herbig E, Zhitomersky D, O Connor M, Newfeld S. DNA-binding domain mutations in SMAD genes yield dominant-negative proteins or a neomorphic protein that can activate WG target genes in Drosophila. Development. 2005;132:4883-94 pubmed
    ..From a larger perspective, our study shows that the genetic characterization of missense mutations, particularly in modular proteins, requires experimental verification. ..
  34. Dansereau D, Lunke M, Finkielsztein A, Russell M, Brook W. Hephaestus encodes a polypyrimidine tract binding protein that regulates Notch signalling during wing development in Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 2002;129:5553-66 pubmed
    ..This is the first genetic analysis of polypyrimidine tract binding protein function in any organism and the first evidence that such proteins may be involved in the Notch signalling pathway. ..
  35. García Bellido A, de Celis J. The complex tale of the achaete-scute complex: a paradigmatic case in the analysis of gene organization and function during development. Genetics. 2009;182:631-9 pubmed publisher
    The achaete-scute gene complex (AS-C) contains four genes encoding transcription factors of the bHLH family, achaete, scute, lethal of scute, and asense located in 40 kb of DNA containing multiple cis-regulatory position-specific ..
  36. Bellen H, Kooyer S, D Evelyn D, Pearlman J. The Drosophila couch potato protein is expressed in nuclei of peripheral neuronal precursors and shows homology to RNA-binding proteins. Genes Dev. 1992;6:2125-36 pubmed
    ..Immunocytochemical studies demonstrate that the achaete-scute and daughterless genes are required for proper expression of cpo in the PNS but not in other cells that ..
  37. Cubadda Y, Heitzler P, Ray R, Bourouis M, Ramain P, Gelbart W, et al. u-shaped encodes a zinc finger protein that regulates the proneural genes achaete and scute during the formation of bristles in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1997;11:3083-95 pubmed
    ..pattern of the large sensory bristles on the notum of Drosophila arises as a consequence of the expression of the achaete and scute genes...
  38. Patel N. Imaging neuronal subsets and other cell types in whole-mount Drosophila embryos and larvae using antibody probes. Methods Cell Biol. 1994;44:445-87 pubmed
  39. Schweisguth F, Posakony J. Antagonistic activities of Suppressor of Hairless and Hairless control alternative cell fates in the Drosophila adult epidermis. Development. 1994;120:1433-41 pubmed
    ..loss of Suppressor of Hairless function causes most proneural cluster cells to accumulate high levels of the achaete and Delta proteins and to adopt the SOP fate...
  40. Simpson P. Notch signalling in development: on equivalence groups and asymmetric developmental potential. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1997;7:537-42 pubmed
    ..Sometimes this choice is random. Sometimes it is biased to a preferred cell by an extrinsic signal. Sometimes the neural precursor is predetermined. A stochastic outcome is probably older in evolutionary terms. ..
  41. Cubas P, de Celis J, Campuzano S, Modolell J. Proneural clusters of achaete-scute expression and the generation of sensory organs in the Drosophila imaginal wing disc. Genes Dev. 1991;5:996-1008 pubmed
    The proneural genes achaete (ac) and scute (sc) confer to Drosophila epidermal cells the ability to become sensory mother cells (SMCs)...
  42. Sturtevant A. Studies on the bristle pattern of Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1970;21:48-61 pubmed
  43. Heitzler P, Bourouis M, Ruel L, Carteret C, Simpson P. Genes of the Enhancer of split and achaete-scute complexes are required for a regulatory loop between Notch and Delta during lateral signalling in Drosophila. Development. 1996;122:161-71 pubmed
    ..However, groups of cells initially have neural potential as visualized by the expression of the proneural genes achaete and scute...
  44. Campuzano S, Carramolino L, Cabrera C, Ruiz Gomez M, Villares R, Boronat A, et al. Molecular genetics of the achaete-scute gene complex of D. melanogaster. Cell. 1985;40:327-38 pubmed
    The achaete-scute gene complex (AS-C), involved in differentiation of the sensory chaetes of D. melanogaster, and the yellow locus have been cloned...
  45. Blair S. Shaggy (zeste-white 3) and the formation of supernumerary bristle precursors in the developing wing blade of Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1992;152:263-78 pubmed
    ..bristles appeared outside the normal regions of "proneural" gene activity as identified using anti-achaete. Moreover, sgg could induce the ectopic expression of achaete in anterior clones...
  46. Helms W, Lee H, Ammerman M, Parks A, Muskavitch M, Yedvobnick B. Engineered truncations in the Drosophila mastermind protein disrupt Notch pathway function. Dev Biol. 1999;215:358-74 pubmed
    ..This system should prove useful for the investigation of the role of Mam within the Notch pathway. ..
  47. Cadigan K, Nusse R. wingless signaling in the Drosophila eye and embryonic epidermis. Development. 1996;122:2801-12 pubmed
    ..Transgenic eyes have reduced expression of acheate, suggesting that wingless acts at the level of the proneural genes to block bristle development...
  48. García García M, Ramain P, Simpson P, Modolell J. Different contributions of pannier and wingless to the patterning of the dorsal mesothorax of Drosophila. Development. 1999;126:3523-32 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that Pannier directly activates the proneural genes achaete and scute by binding to the enhancer responsible for the expression of these genes in the dorsocentral proneural ..
  49. Ramain P, Khechumian K, Seugnet L, Arbogast N, Ackermann C, Heitzler P. Novel Notch alleles reveal a Deltex-dependent pathway repressing neural fate. Curr Biol. 2001;11:1729-38 pubmed
    ..These cells express achaete/scute genes, which confer neural potential...
  50. Jimenez G, Ish Horowicz D. A chimeric enhancer-of-split transcriptional activator drives neural development and achaete-scute expression. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:4355-62 pubmed
    ..m7Act causes ectopic transcription of the proneural achaete and scute genes...
  51. Lai E. Drosophila tufted is a gain-of-function allele of the proneural gene amos. Genetics. 2003;163:1413-25 pubmed
    ..Unlike other ectopic bristle mutants, Tufted is epistatic to achaete and scute, the proneural genes that normally control the development of these sensory organs...
  52. Gomez Skarmeta J, Diez Del Corral R, de la Calle Mustienes E, Ferré Marcó D, Modolell J. Araucan and caupolican, two members of the novel iroquois complex, encode homeoproteins that control proneural and vein-forming genes. Cell. 1996;85:95-105 pubmed
    In Drosophila imaginal wing discs, the achaete-scute (ac-sc) proneural genes and rhomboid (veinlet) are expressed in highly resolved patterns that prefigure the positions of sensory organs and wing veins, respectively...
  53. González Crespo S, Levine M. Interactions between dorsal and helix-loop-helix proteins initiate the differentiation of the embryonic mesoderm and neuroectoderm in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1993;7:1703-13 pubmed
    ..HLH proteins that have been implicated previously in sex determination and neurogenesis (daughterless, achaete, and scute) are shown to be required for the formation of these embryonic tissues...
  54. Jack J, Dorsett D, DeLotto Y, Liu S. Expression of the cut locus in the Drosophila wing margin is required for cell type specification and is regulated by a distant enhancer. Development. 1991;113:735-47 pubmed
    ..These gypsy insertions probably interfere with the interaction between the enhancer and the cut gene promoter. ..
  55. Usui K, Pistillo D, Simpson P. Mutual exclusion of sensory bristles and tendons on the notum of dipteran flies. Curr Biol. 2004;14:1047-55 pubmed
    Genes of the achaete-scute complex encode transcription factors whose activity regulates the development of neural cells...
  56. Belenkaya T, Han C, Standley H, Lin X, Houston D, Heasman J, et al. pygopus Encodes a nuclear protein essential for wingless/Wnt signaling. Development. 2002;129:4089-101 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings demonstrate that Pygo is an essential component in the Wg/Wnt signal transduction pathway and is likely to act as a transcription co-activator required for the nuclear function of Arm/beta-catenin. ..
  57. Simpson P, Woehl R, Usui K. The development and evolution of bristle patterns in Diptera. Development. 1999;126:1349-64 pubmed
    ..We briefly review the current state of knowledge concerning the complex genetic pathways regulating achaete-scute gene expression and bristle pattern in Drosophila melanogaster, and consider mechanisms for the genetic ..
  58. Skaer N, Pistillo D, Gibert J, Lio P, W lbeck C, Simpson P. Gene duplication at the achaete-scute complex and morphological complexity of the peripheral nervous system in Diptera. Trends Genet. 2002;18:399-405 pubmed
    The number of achaete-scute genes increased during insect evolution, particularly in the Diptera lineage. Sequence comparison indicates that the four achaete-scute genes of Drosophila result from three independent duplication events...
  59. Villares R, Cabrera C. The achaete-scute gene complex of D. melanogaster: conserved domains in a subset of genes required for neurogenesis and their homology to myc. Cell. 1987;50:415-24 pubmed
    ..We propose that each member of the family functions at an equivalent stage of a unique morphogenetic operation involving the segregation of individual neural lineages from the epidermal anlage. ..
  60. Couso J, Bishop S, Martinez Arias A. The wingless signalling pathway and the patterning of the wing margin in Drosophila. Development. 1994;120:621-36 pubmed
    ..The expression of the genes cut and achaete in a small domain in the prospective wing margin region reflects the activity of wg and probably mediate its ..
  61. Kaspar M, Schneider M, Chia W, Klein T. Klumpfuss is involved in the determination of sensory organ precursors in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2008;324:177-91 pubmed publisher
    ..proneural clusters, which are defined through the expression pattern of proneural genes such as the genes of the achaete-scute complex (AS-C). The activities of these genes enable each cell within a cluster to become the SOP...
  62. Van Doren M, Powell P, Pasternak D, Singson A, Posakony J. Spatial regulation of proneural gene activity: auto- and cross-activation of achaete is antagonized by extramacrochaetae. Genes Dev. 1992;6:2592-605 pubmed
    The spatially restricted activities of achaete (ac) and scute (sc) are thought to define proneural clusters of potential sensory organ precursor cells in the imaginal discs of Drosophila...
  63. Jafar Nejad H, Acar M, Nolo R, Lacin H, Pan H, Parkhurst S, et al. Senseless acts as a binary switch during sensory organ precursor selection. Genes Dev. 2003;17:2966-78 pubmed
    ..In the presumptive SOPs that express high levels of Sens, it acts as a transcriptional activator and synergizes with proneural proteins. We therefore propose that Sens acts as a binary switch that is fundamental to SOP selection...
  64. Campos Ortega J, Knust E. Molecular analysis of a cellular decision during embryonic development of Drosophila melanogaster: epidermogenesis or neurogenesis. Eur J Biochem. 1990;190:1-10 pubmed
    ..the other hand, the signal is thought to lead to neural development through the participation of the genes of the achaete-scute complex and daughterless, which are members of a family of DNA-binding regulatory proteins and of the gene ..
  65. Cabrera C, Alonso M. Transcriptional activation by heterodimers of the achaete-scute and daughterless gene products of Drosophila. EMBO J. 1991;10:2965-73 pubmed
    The achaete-scute complex (AS-C) and the daughterless (da) genes encode helix-loop-helix proteins which have been shown to interact in vivo and to be required for neurogenesis...
  66. Campuzano S, Modolell J. Patterning of the Drosophila nervous system: the achaete-scute gene complex. Trends Genet. 1992;8:202-8 pubmed
    The genes of the achaete-scute complex (AS-C) confer on cells the ability to become neural precursors...
  67. Artavanis Tsakonas S, Rand M, Lake R. Notch signaling: cell fate control and signal integration in development. Science. 1999;284:770-6 pubmed
    ..Notch activity affects the implementation of differentiation, proliferation, and apoptotic programs, providing a general developmental tool to influence organ formation and morphogenesis. ..
  68. Calleja M, Renaud O, Usui K, Pistillo D, Morata G, Simpson P. How to pattern an epithelium: lessons from achaete-scute regulation on the notum of Drosophila. Gene. 2002;292:1-12 pubmed
    ..Attention has mainly focused on the regulation of the spatial expression of the genes of the achaete-scute complex (AS-C) that results in a stereotyped bristle pattern...