Gene Symbol: 18w
Description: 18 wheeler
Alias: 18-w, 18-wheeler, 18W, CG8896, CT25100, Dmel\CG8896, Toll-2, l(2)00053, tlr, toll, 18 wheeler, 18-wheeler, 18Wheeler, 18w-PA, CG8896-PA, Toll-2, toll like receptor, toll receptor, wheeler
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. Williams M, Rodriguez A, Kimbrell D, Eldon E. The 18-wheeler mutation reveals complex antibacterial gene regulation in Drosophila host defense. EMBO J. 1997;16:6120-30 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that a second IL-1R-related Drosophila protein, 18-Wheeler (18W), is a critical component of the humoral immune response...
  2. Aderem A, Ulevitch R. Toll-like receptors in the induction of the innate immune response. Nature. 2000;406:782-7 pubmed
    ..A group of proteins that comprise the Toll or Toll-like family of receptors perform this role in vertebrate and invertebrate organisms...
  3. Hoffmann J, Kafatos F, Janeway C, Ezekowitz R. Phylogenetic perspectives in innate immunity. Science. 1999;284:1313-8 pubmed
    ..In addition to its role in the early phase of defense, innate immunity in mammals appears to play a key role in stimulating the subsequent, clonal response of adaptive immunity. ..
  4. Chiang C, Beachy P. Expression of a novel Toll-like gene spans the parasegment boundary and contributes to hedgehog function in the adult eye of Drosophila. Mech Dev. 1994;47:225-39 pubmed
    ..Here we report the isolation and characterization of a novel gene, tlr (for Toll-like receptor), which encodes a protein containing multiple LRRs in its presumed extracellular domain, a single ..
  5. Lazzaro B, Sackton T, Clark A. Genetic variation in Drosophila melanogaster resistance to infection: a comparison across bacteria. Genetics. 2006;174:1539-54 pubmed
    ..Variation in SR-CII and 18-wheeler, however, has effects that are more general...
  6. Nappi A, Ottaviani E. Cytotoxicity and cytotoxic molecules in invertebrates. Bioessays. 2000;22:469-80 pubmed
    ..The signal transduction pathways that are involved in mediating the production of these substances appear to be very similar among animal species, suggesting a common ancestral origin for the innate immune systems. ..
  7. Eldon E, Kooyer S, D Evelyn D, Duman M, Lawinger P, Botas J, et al. The Drosophila 18 wheeler is required for morphogenesis and has striking similarities to Toll. Development. 1994;120:885-99 pubmed
    We have isolated and characterized a novel gene, named 18 wheeler (18w) for its unique segmental expression pattern in Drosophila embryos and expression in cells that migrate extensively...
  8. Mace K, Pearson J, McGinnis W. An epidermal barrier wound repair pathway in Drosophila is mediated by grainy head. Science. 2005;308:381-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The conservation of this Grh-dependent pathway suggests that the repair of insect cuticle and mammal skin is controlled by an ancient, shared control system for constructing and healing the animal body surface barrier...
  9. Dushay M, Eldon E. Drosophila immune responses as models for human immunity. Am J Hum Genet. 1998;62:10-4 pubmed

More Information


  1. Kolesnikov T, Beckendorf S. 18 wheeler regulates apical constriction of salivary gland cells via the Rho-GTPase-signaling pathway. Dev Biol. 2007;307:53-61 pubmed
    ..Curr. Biol. 14, 1822-1826). Here, we show that Drosophila 18 wheeler (18W), a Toll-like receptor protein, is a novel component of the Rho-signaling pathway involved in epithelial ..
  2. Luo C, Zheng L. Independent evolution of Toll and related genes in insects and mammals. Immunogenetics. 2000;51:92-8 pubmed
    b>Toll and Toll-related proteins play an important role in antibacterial innate immunity in insect, plants, and mammals. We present the first comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of Toll-related genes from both insects and mammals...
  3. Ward A, Hong W, Favaloro V, Luo L. Toll receptors instruct axon and dendrite targeting and participate in synaptic partner matching in a Drosophila olfactory circuit. Neuron. 2015;85:1013-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that Toll-6 and Toll-7, members of the Toll receptor family best known for functions in innate immunity and embryonic patterning, cell autonomously instruct the ..
  4. Hedengren M, Borge K, Hultmark D. Expression and evolution of the Drosophila attacin/diptericin gene family. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;279:574-81 pubmed
    ..This induction is reduced in imd mutants, and unexpectedly also in Tl(-) mutants. The 18w mutation particularly affects the induction of AttC, which may be a useful marker for 18w signaling.
  5. Kambris Z, Hoffmann J, Imler J, Capovilla M. Tissue and stage-specific expression of the Tolls in Drosophila embryos. Gene Expr Patterns. 2002;2:311-7 pubmed
    ..genome has a total of nine Toll-like genes, including the previously characterized Toll (Toll-1) and 18-wheeler (Toll-2). Here we describe the embryonic expression patterns of the seven Toll-like genes Toll-3 through Toll-9...
  6. Banerjee K, Ayyub C, Sengupta S, Kolthur Seetharam U. Fat body dSir2 regulates muscle mitochondrial physiology and energy homeostasis nonautonomously and mimics the autonomous functions of dSir2 in muscles. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:252-64 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we show that fat body dSir2 is a master regulator of organismal energy homeostasis and is required for maintaining the metabolic regulatory network across tissues. ..
  7. Yagi Y, Nishida Y, Ip Y. Functional analysis of Toll-related genes in Drosophila. Dev Growth Differ. 2010;52:771-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The immune and developmental functions of Toll and 18Wheeler (18W) have been analyzed extensively, while the in vivo functions of the other Toll-related proteins require ..
  8. Nakamoto M, Moy R, Xu J, Bambina S, Yasunaga A, Shelly S, et al. Virus recognition by Toll-7 activates antiviral autophagy in Drosophila. Immunity. 2012;36:658-67 pubmed publisher
    ..These data uncover an evolutionarily conserved role for a second Drosophila Toll receptor that links viral recognition to autophagy and defense and suggest that other Drosophila Tolls may restrict ..
  9. Mathey Prevot B, Perrimon N. Mammalian and Drosophila blood: JAK of all trades?. Cell. 1998;92:697-700 pubmed
  10. Gilchrist D, dos Santos G, Fargo D, Xie B, Gao Y, Li L, et al. Pausing of RNA polymerase II disrupts DNA-specified nucleosome organization to enable precise gene regulation. Cell. 2010;143:540-51 pubmed publisher
  11. Wagner C, Isermann K, Fehrenbach H, Roeder T. Molecular architecture of the fruit fly's airway epithelial immune system. BMC Genomics. 2008;9:446 pubmed publisher
    ..Although vital parts of the Toll-pathway are missing, dorsal and dif, the NF-kappaB factors dedicated to this signalling system, are present...
  12. Xu J, Grant G, Sabin L, Gordesky Gold B, Yasunaga A, Tudor M, et al. Transcriptional pausing controls a rapid antiviral innate immune response in Drosophila. Cell Host Microbe. 2012;12:531-43 pubmed publisher
    ..upon arbovirus infection, including components of antiviral pathways (RNA silencing, autophagy, JAK/STAT, Toll, and Imd) and various Toll receptors...
  13. Sato D, Sugimura K, Satoh D, Uemura T. Crossveinless-c, the Drosophila homolog of tumor suppressor DLC1, regulates directional elongation of dendritic branches via down-regulating Rho1 activity. Genes Cells. 2010;15:485-500 pubmed publisher
    ..All of our results suggest that Cv-c contributes to sprouting and subsequent growth of the A-P-oriented branches through negative regulation of Rho1. We discuss a role of Cv-c in dendritic growth in response to environmental cues. ..
  14. Neyen C, Lemaitre B. Different flavors of Toll guide olfaction. Trends Immunol. 2015;36:439-41 pubmed publisher
    b>Toll-like receptors are historically linked to immunity across animal phyla, but accumulating evidence suggests they play additional roles in neuronal networks and in cell-cell interactions...
  15. Kleve C, Siler D, Syed S, Eldon E. Expression of 18-wheeler in the follicle cell epithelium affects cell migration and egg morphology in Drosophila. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:1953-61 pubmed
    ..We have examined the expression of the Toll-like receptor, 18-wheeler (18w), in the ovary and find it to be restricted to subpopulations of follicle cells...
  16. Tauszig Delamasure S, Bilak H, Capovilla M, Hoffmann J, Imler J. Drosophila MyD88 is required for the response to fungal and Gram-positive bacterial infections. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:91-7 pubmed
    ..DmMyD88 combines a Toll-IL-1R homology (TIR) domain and a death domain...
  17. Tauszig S, Jouanguy E, Hoffmann J, Imler J. Toll-related receptors and the control of antimicrobial peptide expression in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:10520-5 pubmed
    ..Here we describe six additional Toll-related genes (Toll-3 to Toll-8) in Drosophila in addition to 18-wheeler. Two of these genes, Toll-3 and Toll-4, are expressed at a low level...
  18. Qureshi S, Gros P, Malo D. Host resistance to infection: genetic control of lipopolysaccharide responsiveness by TOLL-like receptor genes. Trends Genet. 1999;15:291-4 pubmed
    ..Through genetic analysis of mutant mice, the gene encoding Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) was recently identified as a critical component of this host defense mechanism...
  19. Janeway C, Medzhitov R. Lipoproteins take their toll on the host. Curr Biol. 1999;9:R879-82 pubmed
    A family of mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) has a critical role in the recognition of microbial infection...
  20. Botas J, Auwers L. Chromosomal binding sites of Ultrabithorax homeotic proteins. Mech Dev. 1996;56:129-38 pubmed
    ..Some of these sites correspond to the locations of known genes that are good candidates, or are known to be, under direct Ubx control. ..
  21. Swanson L, Yu M, Nelson K, Laprise P, Tepass U, Beitel G. Drosophila convoluted/dALS is an essential gene required for tracheal tube morphogenesis and apical matrix organization. Genetics. 2009;181:1281-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we present evidence indicating that Conv/dALS has a novel, IGF-signaling independent function in tracheal morphogenesis. ..
  22. Meyer S, Amoyel M, Bergantiños C, de la Cova C, Schertel C, Basler K, et al. An ancient defense system eliminates unfit cells from developing tissues during cell competition. Science. 2014;346:1258236 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that Toll-related receptors (TRRs) and the cytokine Spätzle (Spz) lead to NFκB-dependent apoptosis...
  23. Ooi J, Yagi Y, Hu X, Ip Y. The Drosophila Toll-9 activates a constitutive antimicrobial defense. EMBO Rep. 2002;3:82-7 pubmed
    The Toll family of transmembrane proteins participates in signaling infection during the innate immune response. We analyzed the nine Drosophila Toll proteins and found that wild-type Toll-9 behaves similar to gain-of-function Toll-1...
  24. Díaz Castillo C, Xia X, Ranz J. Evaluation of the role of functional constraints on the integrity of an ultraconserved region in the genus Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002475 pubmed publisher
  25. Paré A, Vichas A, Fincher C, Mirman Z, Farrell D, Mainieri A, et al. A positional Toll receptor code directs convergent extension in Drosophila. Nature. 2014;515:523-7 pubmed publisher
    ..strongly reduces actomyosin-driven junctional remodelling and axis elongation, and an ectopic stripe of Toll receptor expression is sufficient to induce planar polarized actomyosin contractility...
  26. Wu L, Anderson K. Regulated nuclear import of Rel proteins in the Drosophila immune response. Nature. 1998;392:93-7 pubmed
    ..The Toll signalling pathway, which controls dorsal-ventral patterning during Drosophila embryogenesis, regulates the nuclear ..
  27. Buttenschoen K, Schneider M, Utz K, Kornmann M, Beger H, Carli Buttenschoen D. Effect of major abdominal surgery on endotoxin release and expression of Toll-like receptors 2/4. Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2009;394:293-302 pubmed publisher
    Surgery can cause endotoxemia, and endotoxin aggregates to Toll-like receptors and acts proinflammatory; repetitive endotoxin application can cause tolerance...
  28. Agaisse H, Perrimon N. The roles of JAK/STAT signaling in Drosophila immune responses. Immunol Rev. 2004;198:72-82 pubmed
  29. Fabre C, Casal J, Lawrence P. Mechanosensilla in the adult abdomen of Drosophila: engrailed and slit help to corral the peripheral sensory axons into segmental bundles. Development. 2010;137:2885-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that, during normal development, gradients of Slit protein repel axons away from compartment boundaries - in consequence, the bristles from each segment send their nerves to the CNS in separated sets. ..
  30. Janssens S, Beyaert R. A universal role for MyD88 in TLR/IL-1R-mediated signaling. Trends Biochem Sci. 2002;27:474-82 pubmed
    The MyD88 adapter protein links members of the toll-like receptor (TLR) and interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) superfamily to the downstream activation of nuclear factor-kappaB and mitogen-activated protein kinases...
  31. Lavine M, Strand M. Insect hemocytes and their role in immunity. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2002;32:1295-309 pubmed
    ..Cross-talk between the immune and nervous system may also play a role in regulating inflammation-like responses in insects during infection. ..
  32. Moy R, Gold B, Molleston J, Schad V, Yanger K, Salzano M, et al. Antiviral autophagy restrictsRift Valley fever virus infection and is conserved from flies to mammals. Immunity. 2014;40:51-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In Drosophila, Toll-7 limited RVFV replication and mortality through activation of autophagy...
  33. Mitcham J, Parnet P, Bonnert T, Garka K, Gerhart M, Slack J, et al. T1/ST2 signaling establishes it as a member of an expanding interleukin-1 receptor family. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:5777-83 pubmed
    ..Comparisons between these new proteins and known IL-1RI homologous proteins such as Toll, 18-Wheeler, and T1/ST2 revealed six clusters of amino acid similarity...
  34. Samaraweera S, O Keefe L, Price G, Venter D, Richards R. Distinct roles for Toll and autophagy pathways in double-stranded RNA toxicity in a Drosophila model of expanded repeat neurodegenerative diseases. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:2811-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that Drosophila rCAG.rCUG?100 RNA toxicity is dependent upon Toll signaling and sensitive to autophagy, further implicating innate immune activation...
  35. Ligoxygakis P, Bulet P, Reichhart J. Critical evaluation of the role of the Toll-like receptor 18-Wheeler in the host defense of Drosophila. EMBO Rep. 2002;3:666-73 pubmed
    ..In larvae, 18wheeler is required for normal fat body development, and in mutant larvae induction of all antimicrobial peptide genes, ..
  36. Lazzaro B, Sceurman B, Clark A. Genetic basis of natural variation in D. melanogaster antibacterial immunity. Science. 2004;303:1873-6 pubmed
    ..Variation in these genes, therefore, seems to drive variability in immunocompetence among wild Drosophila. ..