Gene Symbol: 14-3-3zeta
Description: 14-3-3zeta
Alias: 14-3-3, 14-3-3 zeta, 14-3-3-Leo, 14-3-3-zeta, 14-3-3ZETA, 14-3-3leo, 2G1, 4-3-3 zeta, 5.11, 549, BEST:GH05075, CG17870, D14-3-3, D14-3-3zeta, Dmel\CG17870, LEO, Leo, PAR-5, PAR5, Par-5, d14-3-3zeta, l(2)07103, l(2)46CFe, l(2)46Ee, leo, par-5, 14-3-3zeta, 14-3-3zeta-PA, 14-3-3zeta-PB, 14-3-3zeta-PC, 14-3-3zeta-PD, 14-3-3zeta-PE, 14-3-3zeta-PF, 14-3-3zeta-PG, 14-3-3zeta-PH, 14-3-3zeta-PI, 14-3-3zeta-PJ, 14-3-3zeta-PK, 14-3-3zeta-PL, CG17870-PA, CG17870-PB, CG17870-PC, CG17870-PD, CG17870-PE, CG17870-PF, CG17870-PG, CG17870-PH, CG17870-PI, CG17870-PJ, CG17870-PK, CG17870-PL, D14 3 3 protein, Leonardo-13-3-3, complementation group K, leonardo, leonardo 14-3-3
Species: fruit fly
Products:     14-3-3zeta

Top Publications

  1. Dubnau J, Tully T. Gene discovery in Drosophila: new insights for learning and memory. Annu Rev Neurosci. 1998;21:407-44 pubmed
    ..Second, because core cellular mechanisms of simple forms of learning are evolutionarily conserved, biological pathways discovered in invertebrates are likely to be conserved in vertebrate systems as well. ..
  2. Li J, Li W. Drosophila gain-of-function mutant RTK torso triggers ectopic Dpp and STAT signaling. Genetics. 2003;164:247-58 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate an essential requirement of noncanonical signaling pathways for a persistently activated RTK to cause pathological defects in an organism. ..
  3. Jaramillo A, Zeng H, Fei H, Zhou Y, Levitan I. Expression and function of variants of slob, slowpoke channel binding protein, in Drosophila. J Neurophysiol. 2006;95:1957-65 pubmed
    ..Using a heterologous expression system, we show that different Slobs bind to different extents to dSlo and 14-3-3. These data reveal an unexpected diversity of the dSlo/Slob/14-3-3 dynamic regulatory complex. ..
  4. Acevedo S, Tsigkari K, Grammenoudi S, Skoulakis E. In vivo functional specificity and homeostasis of Drosophila 14-3-3 proteins. Genetics. 2007;177:239-53 pubmed
    ..We address this question in vivo using mutations in the two Drosophila 14-3-3 genes, leonardo (14-3-3zeta) and D14-3-3epsilon. We demonstrate that D14-3-3epsilon is essential for embryonic hatching...
  5. Mershin A, Pavlopoulos E, Fitch O, Braden B, Nanopoulos D, Skoulakis E. Learning and memory deficits upon TAU accumulation in Drosophila mushroom body neurons. Learn Mem. 2004;11:277-87 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that behavioral plasticity decrements may be the earliest detectable manifestations of tauopathies. ..
  6. Kockel L, Vorbrüggen G, Jackle H, Mlodzik M, Bohmann D. Requirement for Drosophila 14-3-3 zeta in Raf-dependent photoreceptor development. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1140-7 pubmed
    ..It acts upstream of Raf and downstream of Ras. ..
  7. Su T, Parry D, Donahoe B, Chien C, O Farrell P, Purdy A. Cell cycle roles for two 14-3-3 proteins during Drosophila development. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:3445-54 pubmed
  8. Broadie K, Rushton E, Skoulakis E, Davis R. Leonardo, a Drosophila 14-3-3 protein involved in learning, regulates presynaptic function. Neuron. 1997;19:391-402 pubmed
    The leonardo gene encodes a conserved member of the 14-3-3 protein family, which plays a role in Drosophila learning...
  9. Philip N, Acevedo S, Skoulakis E. Conditional rescue of olfactory learning and memory defects in mutants of the 14-3-3zeta gene leonardo. J Neurosci. 2001;21:8417-25 pubmed
    ..The Drosophila 14-3-3zeta gene leonardo is preferentially expressed in adult mushroom bodies, centers of insect learning and memory...

More Information


  1. Messaritou G, Grammenoudi S, Skoulakis E. Dimerization is essential for 14-3-3zeta stability and function in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:1692-700 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we present evidence suggesting endogenous homeostatic adjustment of the levels of the second family member in Drosophila, D14-3-3epsilon, to transgenic monomeric and dimerization-competent 14-3-3zeta. ..
  2. Przewloka M, Venkei Z, Bolanos Garcia V, Debski J, Dadlez M, Glover D. CENP-C is a structural platform for kinetochore assembly. Curr Biol. 2011;21:399-405 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the N-terminal part of Drosophila CENP-C is sufficient to recruit core kinetochore components and acts as the principal linkage between centromere and kinetochore during mitosis. ..
  3. Messaritou G, Leptourgidou F, Franco M, Skoulakis E. A third functional isoform enriched in mushroom body neurons is encoded by the Drosophila 14-3-3zeta gene. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:2934-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Drosophila has only two such genes, 14-3-3zeta (leo), encoding two isoforms LEOI and LEOII, and 14-3-3epsilon...
  4. Benton R, Palacios I, St Johnston D. Drosophila 14-3-3/PAR-5 is an essential mediator of PAR-1 function in axis formation. Dev Cell. 2002;3:659-71 pubmed
    ..The C. elegans 14-3-3 protein, PAR-5, is also required for A-P polarization, suggesting that this is a conserved mechanism by which PAR-1 establishes cellular asymmetries. ..
  5. Skoulakis E, Davis R. Olfactory learning deficits in mutants for leonardo, a Drosophila gene encoding a 14-3-3 protein. Neuron. 1996;17:931-44 pubmed
    ..The leonardo gene encodes a Drosophila protein highly homologous to the vertebrate 14-3-3zeta isoform, a protein well studied ..
  6. Chang H, Rubin G. 14-3-3 epsilon positively regulates Ras-mediated signaling in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1132-9 pubmed
    ..Our genetic data suggest that 14-3-3 epsilon functions downstream of or parallel to RAF, but upstream of nuclear factors in RAS1 signaling. ..
  7. Li W, Skoulakis E, Davis R, Perrimon N. The Drosophila 14-3-3 protein Leonardo enhances Torso signaling through D-Raf in a Ras 1-dependent manner. Development. 1997;124:4163-71 pubmed
    ..We have analyzed the function of the Drosophila 14-3-3 gene leonardo (leo) in the Torso (Tor) receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) pathway...
  8. Baas A, Smit L, Clevers H. LKB1 tumor suppressor protein: PARtaker in cell polarity. Trends Cell Biol. 2004;14:312-9 pubmed
    ..In this article, we summarize the findings regarding LKB1 over the past six years. In addition, we discuss LKB1 in polarity in the context of both the other PAR proteins and its tumor suppressive activities. ..
  9. McConnell J, Hodges P. The alternative 5'-end of the Drosophila melanogaster epidermal growth factor receptor cDNA (DER) is part of the D14-3-3 cDNA. Gene. 1993;126:293-4 pubmed
    ..melanogaster homolog of the epidermal growth factor receptor (DER). Schejter and Shilo [Cell 56 (1989) 1093-1164] later reported that this finding was due to a cloning artifact that joined the 14-3-3 cDNA onto the DER cDNA. ..
  10. Huang Y, Genova G, Roberts M, Jackson F. The LARK RNA-binding protein selectively regulates the circadian eclosion rhythm by controlling E74 protein expression. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e1107 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest a model wherein LARK mediates the transfer of temporal information from the molecular oscillator to different output pathways by interacting with distinct RNA targets. ..
  11. Hatje K, Kollmar M. Kassiopeia: a database and web application for the analysis of mutually exclusive exomes of eukaryotes. BMC Genomics. 2014;15:115 pubmed publisher
    ..Kassiopeia can be accessed at http://www.motorprotein.de/kassiopeia. ..
  12. Connolly J, Tully T. Integrins: a role for adhesion molecules in olfactory memory. Curr Biol. 1998;8:R386-9 pubmed
    ..Adhesion molecules of this kind may play a role in olfactory memory by altering the strength of synaptic connections in an experience-dependent manner. ..
  13. Crittenden J, Skoulakis E, Han K, Kalderon D, Davis R. Tripartite mushroom body architecture revealed by antigenic markers. Learn Mem. 1998;5:38-51 pubmed
    ..consist of antibodies to eight proteins expressed preferentially in the mushroom bodies: DAMB, DCO, DRK, FASII, LEO, OAMB, PKA RII, and RUT...
  14. Davis R. Olfactory learning. Neuron. 2004;44:31-48 pubmed
    ..Molecular genetic studies of olfactory learning in Drosophila have revealed numerous molecules that function within the third order olfactory neurons for normal olfactory learning. ..
  15. Davis R, Tavsanli B, Dittrich C, Walldorf U, Mardon G. Drosophila retinal homeobox (drx) is not required for establishment of the visual system, but is required for brain and clypeus development. Dev Biol. 2003;259:272-87 pubmed
    ..We propose that differences in insect and vertebrate eye development may be explained by changes in gene regulation and/or the tissue of origin for eye precursor cells. ..
  16. Grotewiel M, Beck C, Wu K, Zhu X, Davis R. Integrin-mediated short-term memory in Drosophila. Nature. 1998;391:455-60 pubmed
    ..We propose a model in which integrins act as dynamic regulators of synapse structure or the signalling events underlying short-term memory formation. ..
  17. Wang P, Galan J, Normandin K, Bonneil E, Hickson G, Roux P, et al. Cell cycle regulation of Greatwall kinase nuclear localization facilitates mitotic progression. J Cell Biol. 2013;202:277-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the nucleo-cytoplasmic regulation of Gwl is essential for its functions in vivo and propose that the spatial regulation of Gwl at mitotic entry contributes to the mitotic switch. ..
  18. Tully T, Bolwig G, Christensen J, Connolly J, Delvecchio M, DeZazzo J, et al. A return to genetic dissection of memory in Drosophila. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1996;61:207-18 pubmed
  19. Lu M, Prehoda K. A NudE/14-3-3 pathway coordinates dynein and the kinesin Khc73 to position the mitotic spindle. Dev Cell. 2013;26:369-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The Khc73 stalk/14-3-3/NudE pathway defines a physical connection that coordinates the activities of multiple motor proteins to precisely position the spindle. ..
  20. Hyde D, Mecklenburg K, Pollock J, Vihtelic T, Benzer S. Twenty Drosophila visual system cDNA clones: one is a homolog of human arrestin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:1008-12 pubmed
    ..The presence of an arrestin homolog in Drosophila suggests that both the vertebrate and invertebrate phototransduction cascades are regulated in a similar manner. ..
  21. Currie P, Sullivan D. Structure and expression of the gene encoding phosphofructokinase (PFK) in Drosophila melanogaster. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:24679-87 pubmed
    ..Deficiency analysis of the 46D/E region has identified a lethal complementation group associated with reduced PFK activity, thereby establishing the vital role of PFK function in Drosophila. ..
  22. Wolff G, Strausfeld N. Genealogical correspondence of mushroom bodies across invertebrate phyla. Curr Biol. 2015;25:38-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Implications of this are considered in the context of mushroom body function and early ecologies of ancestral bilaterians. ..
  23. Levy L, Manning J. Expression of a set of head-specific genes during Drosophila development. Dev Biol. 1982;94:465-76 pubmed
  24. Oh H, Irvine K. In vivo regulation of Yorkie phosphorylation and localization. Development. 2008;135:1081-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify modulation of subcellular localization as a mechanism of Yki regulation, and establish that this regulation occurs in vivo through multiple sites of Warts-dependent phosphorylation on Yki. ..
  25. Raabe T, Clemens Richter S, Twardzik T, Ebert A, Gramlich G, Heisenberg M. Identification of mushroom body miniature, a zinc-finger protein implicated in brain development of Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:14276-81 pubmed
    ..Immunohistochemical analysis shows that expression of the Mbm protein is not restricted to the mushroom bodies. BrdUrd labeling experiments indicate a function of Mbm in neuronal precursor cell proliferation. ..
  26. Zhang S, Xie J, Xia Y, Yu S, Gu Z, Feng R, et al. LK6/Mnk2a is a new kinase of alpha synuclein phosphorylation mediating neurodegeneration. Sci Rep. 2015;5:12564 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings establish pivotal role of Lk6 and Mnk2a in unprecedented signalling networks, may lead to new therapies preventing α-synuclein inclusion formation and neurodegeneration. ..
  27. Waddell S, Quinn W. What can we teach Drosophila? What can they teach us?. Trends Genet. 2001;17:719-26 pubmed
  28. Zhou Y, Reddy S, Murrey H, Fei H, Levitan I. Monomeric 14-3-3 protein is sufficient to modulate the activity of the Drosophila slowpoke calcium-dependent potassium channel. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:10073-80 pubmed
    ..These data, taken together, suggest that monomeric D14-3-3zeta is capable of modulating dSlo channel activity in this regulatory complex. ..
  29. Noveen A, Daniel A, Hartenstein V. Early development of the Drosophila mushroom body: the roles of eyeless and dachshund. Development. 2000;127:3475-88 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that ey and dachshund may have a role in axon pathway selection during embryogenesis. ..
  30. Terhzaz S, Southall T, Lilley K, Kean L, Allan A, Davies S, et al. Differential gel electrophoresis and transgenic mitochondrial calcium reporters demonstrate spatiotemporal filtering in calcium control of mitochondria. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:18849-58 pubmed
    ..The results highlight the dynamic nature and both spatial and temporal heterogeneity of calcium signaling possible in differentiated, organotypic cells and provide a new model for neuroendocrine control of V-ATPase. ..
  31. Pellettieri J, Seydoux G. Anterior-posterior polarity in C. elegans and Drosophila--PARallels and differences. Science. 2002;298:1946-50 pubmed
    ..Although clear mechanistic parallels remain to be established, par-dependent regulation of microtubule dynamics and protein stability emerge as common themes. ..
  32. Shandala T, Woodcock J, Ng Y, Biggs L, Skoulakis E, Brooks D, et al. Drosophila 14-3-3? has a crucial role in anti-microbial peptide secretion and innate immunity. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:2165-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that 14-3-3? is required for Rab11-positive vesicle function, which in turn enables antimicrobial peptide secretion during an innate immune response. ..
  33. Xu K, Zheng X, Sehgal A. Regulation of feeding and metabolism by neuronal and peripheral clocks in Drosophila. Cell Metab. 2008;8:289-300 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the input of neuronal clocks and clocks in metabolic tissues is coordinated to provide effective energy homeostasis...
  34. Pueyo J, Magny E, Sampson C, Amin U, Evans I, Bishop S, et al. Hemotin, a Regulator of Phagocytosis Encoded by a Small ORF and Conserved across Metazoans. PLoS Biol. 2016;14:e1002395 pubmed publisher
  35. Tiebe M, Lutz M, De La Garza A, Buechling T, Boutros M, Teleman A. REPTOR and REPTOR-BP Regulate Organismal Metabolism and Transcription Downstream of TORC1. Dev Cell. 2015;33:272-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo functional analysis using knockout flies reveals that REPTOR and REPTOR-BP play critical roles in maintaining energy homeostasis and promoting animal survival upon nutrient restriction. ..
  36. Pervouchine D. IRBIS: a systematic search for conserved complementarity. RNA. 2014;20:1519-31 pubmed publisher
    ..g., transcription factor binding sites) contribute strongly to the false-discovery rate and, therefore, would confound every such analysis. IRBIS is an open-source software that is available at http://genome.crg.es/~dmitri/irbis/. ..
  37. Kellner W, Ramos E, Van Bortle K, Takenaka N, Corces V. Genome-wide phosphoacetylation of histone H3 at Drosophila enhancers and promoters. Genome Res. 2012;22:1081-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Genome-wide analyses extend these conclusions to most Drosophila genes, showing that the presence of JIL-1, H3K9acS10ph, and H3K27acS28ph is a general feature of enhancers and promoters in this organism. ..
  38. Isaksson A, Peverali F, Kockel L, Mlodzik M, Bohmann D. The deubiquitination enzyme fat facets negatively regulates RTK/Ras/MAPK signalling during Drosophila eye development. Mech Dev. 1997;68:59-67 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate the relevance of ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation in the regulation of RTK/Ras signal transduction in an intact organism. ..
  39. Sathyanarayana P, Barthwal M, Lane M, Acevedo S, Skoulakis E, Bergmann A, et al. Drosophila mixed lineage kinase/slipper, a missing biochemical link in Drosophila JNK signaling. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003;1640:77-84 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results provide for the first time a comprehensive expression profile and new biochemical insight of dMLK/slipper. ..
  40. Acevedo S, Froudarakis E, Tsiorva A, Skoulakis E. Distinct neuronal circuits mediate experience-dependent, non-associative osmotactic responses in Drosophila. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2007;34:378-89 pubmed
    ..Finally, these experience-dependent non-associative paradigms are excellent methods of functionally ascertaining normal activity of the mushroom bodies and inner antenoglomerular tract in putative leaning and memory mutants. ..
  41. Wang S, Lu Y, Yin M, Wang C, Wu W, Li J, et al. Importin α1 Mediates Yorkie Nuclear Import via an N-terminal Non-canonical Nuclear Localization Signal. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:7926-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we identified a potential nuclear localization signal at the N-terminal end of Yorkie as well as a critical role for Importin α1 in Yorkie nuclear import. ..
  42. Pflieger D, Jünger M, Muller M, Rinner O, Lee H, Gehrig P, et al. Quantitative proteomic analysis of protein complexes: concurrent identification of interactors and their state of phosphorylation. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2008;7:326-46 pubmed
  43. Shirasaki D, Greiner E, Al Ramahi I, Gray M, Boontheung P, Geschwind D, et al. Network organization of the huntingtin proteomic interactome in mammalian brain. Neuron. 2012;75:41-57 pubmed publisher
  44. Sekelsky J, Brodsky M, Burtis K. DNA repair in Drosophila: insights from the Drosophila genome sequence. J Cell Biol. 2000;150:F31-6 pubmed
  45. Lalle M, Leptourgidou F, Camerini S, Pozio E, Skoulakis E. Interkingdom complementation reveals structural conservation and functional divergence of 14-3-3 proteins. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e78090 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the basal position of Giardia in eukaryotic evolution, this finding is consistent with the hypothesis that 14-3-3? isoforms are ancestral to other family members...
  46. Tsigkari K, Acevedo S, Skoulakis E. 14-3-3? Is required for germ cell migration in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36702 pubmed publisher
    ..fewer germ line cells (pole cells) in their gonads, a phenotype not shared by mutants in the other 14-3-3 gene leo. We show that although D14-3-3? is enriched within pole cells it is required in mesodermal somatic gonad precursor ..
  47. Montembault E, Zhang W, Przewloka M, Archambault V, Sevin E, Laue E, et al. Nessun Dorma, a novel centralspindlin partner, is required for cytokinesis in Drosophila spermatocytes. J Cell Biol. 2010;191:1351-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that Nesd is a novel carbohydrate-binding protein that functions together with centralspindlin in late cytokinesis, thus highlighting the importance of glycosylation in this process...
  48. Carney G, Wade A, Sapra R, Goldstein E, Bender M. DHR3, an ecdysone-inducible early-late gene encoding a Drosophila nuclear receptor, is required for embryogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:12024-9 pubmed
    ..Analysis of DHR3 mutants reveals that DHR3 function is required to complete embryogenesis. All DHR3 alleles examined result in nervous system defects in the embryo. ..
  49. Miyashita T, Oda Y, Horiuchi J, Yin J, Morimoto T, Saitoe M. Mg(2+) block of Drosophila NMDA receptors is required for long-term memory formation and CREB-dependent gene expression. Neuron. 2012;74:887-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that Mg(2+) block of NMDARs functions to suppress basal expression of a CREB repressor, thus permitting CREB-dependent gene expression upon LTM induction. ..
  50. Glatter T, Schittenhelm R, Rinner O, Roguska K, Wepf A, Jünger M, et al. Modularity and hormone sensitivity of the Drosophila melanogaster insulin receptor/target of rapamycin interaction proteome. Mol Syst Biol. 2011;7:547 pubmed publisher
    ..Subsequent genetic studies in flies suggest a role for dTTT in controlling cell growth via a dTORC1- and dTORC2-dependent mechanism. ..
  51. Malko D, Makeev V, Mironov A, Gelfand M. Evolution of exon-intron structure and alternative splicing in fruit flies and malarial mosquito genomes. Genome Res. 2006;16:505-9 pubmed
  52. Kosmidis S, Grammenoudi S, Papanikolopoulou K, Skoulakis E. Differential effects of Tau on the integrity and function of neurons essential for learning in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2010;30:464-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The data support the notion that phosphorylation at particular sites rather than hyperphosphorylation per se mediates toxicity or dysfunction in a cell type-specific manner. ..
  53. Nielsen M, Luo X, Biteau B, Syverson K, Jasper H. 14-3-3 Epsilon antagonizes FoxO to control growth, apoptosis and longevity in Drosophila. Aging Cell. 2008;7:688-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results further show that increased expression of 14-3-3epsilon reverts FoxO-induced growth defects. 14-3-3epsilon thus serves as a central modulator of FoxO activity in the regulation of growth, cell death and longevity in vivo. ..
  54. Palazzolo M, Hyde D, Vijayraghavan K, Mecklenburg K, Benzer S, Meyerowitz E. Use of a new strategy to isolate and characterize 436 Drosophila cDNA clones corresponding to RNAs detected in adult heads but not in early embryos. Neuron. 1989;3:527-39 pubmed
    ..Many of these genes are likely to encode eye- and nervous system-specific products. ..
  55. Benton R, St Johnston D. Drosophila PAR-1 and 14-3-3 inhibit Bazooka/PAR-3 to establish complementary cortical domains in polarized cells. Cell. 2003;115:691-704 pubmed
    ..Thus, antagonism of Bazooka by PAR-1/14-3-3 may represent a general mechanism for establishing complementary cortical domains in polarized cells. ..
  56. Levy L, Ganguly R, Ganguly N, Manning J. The selection, expression, and organization of a set of head-specific genes in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1982;94:451-64 pubmed
  57. Morley K, Montgomery G. The genetics of cognitive processes: candidate genes in humans and animals. Behav Genet. 2001;31:511-31 pubmed
    ..This survey confirms that many genes are associated with cognitive variation and highlights the potential importance of animal models in the study of human cognition. ..
  58. Ganguly R, Swanson K, Ray K, Krishnan R. A BamHI repeat element is predominantly associated with the degenerating neo-Y chromosome of Drosophila miranda but absent in the Drosophila melanogaster genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:1340-4 pubmed
    ..melanogaster transposable elements. This repeat, named the NY element, may be involved in gene disruption and the process of degenerative evolution of the neo-Y chromosome. ..
  59. Collier L, Suyama K, Anderson J, Scott M. Drosophila Costal1 mutations are alleles of protein kinase A that modulate hedgehog signaling. Genetics. 2004;167:783-96 pubmed
    ..This work shows that overexpression of a wild-type regulatory subunit of PKA is sufficient to activate Hh target gene transcription. ..
  60. Oh H, Irvine K. In vivo analysis of Yorkie phosphorylation sites. Oncogene. 2009;28:1916-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We also identify two potential sites of phosphorylation by an unknown kinase, which could influence phosphorylation of Ser168 by Wts, suggesting that there are additional mechanisms for regulating Yki/YAP activity. ..
  61. Chen H, Fernandez Funez P, Acevedo S, Lam Y, Kaytor M, Fernandez M, et al. Interaction of Akt-phosphorylated ataxin-1 with 14-3-3 mediates neurodegeneration in spinocerebellar ataxia type 1. Cell. 2003;113:457-68 pubmed
    ..Our finding that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling and 14-3-3 cooperate to modulate the neurotoxicity of ataxin-1 provides insight into SCA1 pathogenesis and identifies potential targets for therapeutic intervention. ..
  62. Kockel L, Zeitlinger J, Staszewski L, Mlodzik M, Bohmann D. Jun in Drosophila development: redundant and nonredundant functions and regulation by two MAPK signal transduction pathways. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1748-58 pubmed
    ..The redundant function of Jun in eye development may contribute to the precision of photoreceptor differentiation and ommatidial assembly. ..
  63. Dong J, Feldmann G, Huang J, Wu S, Zhang N, Comerford S, et al. Elucidation of a universal size-control mechanism in Drosophila and mammals. Cell. 2007;130:1120-33 pubmed
    ..These results uncover a universal size-control mechanism in metazoan. ..
  64. Ulvila J, Vanha aho L, Kleino A, Vähä Mäkilä M, Vuoksio M, Eskelinen S, et al. Cofilin regulator 14-3-3zeta is an evolutionarily conserved protein required for phagocytosis and microbial resistance. J Leukoc Biol. 2011;89:649-59 pubmed publisher
    ..In Drosophila and zebrafish infection models, 14-3-3? was required for resistance against Staphylococcus aureus. We conclude that 14-3-3? is essential for phagocytosis and microbial resistance in insects and vertebrates. ..
  65. Goldstein E, Treadway S, Stephenson A, Gramstad G, Keilty A, Kirsch L, et al. A genetic analysis of the cytological region 46C-F containing the Drosophila melanogaster homolog of the jun proto-oncogene. Mol Genet Genomics. 2001;266:695-700 pubmed
    ..There are twelve embryonic lethal groups and seven larval lethal groups. Three lines show visible abnormalities in gut and tracheal development prior to death. ..
  66. McDonald J, Khodyakova A, Aranjuez G, Dudley C, Montell D. PAR-1 kinase regulates epithelial detachment and directional protrusion of migrating border cells. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1659-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this work reveals new insights into two distinct, but essential, steps of epithelial cell migration. ..
  67. Hong S, Bang S, Hyun S, Kang J, Jeong K, Paik D, et al. cAMP signalling in mushroom bodies modulates temperature preference behaviour in Drosophila. Nature. 2008;454:771-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Preferred temperatures were affected by the level of cAMP and PKA activity in the MBs in various PKA pathway mutants...
  68. Yano M, Nakamuta S, Wu X, Okumura Y, Kido H. A novel function of 14-3-3 protein: 14-3-3zeta is a heat-shock-related molecular chaperone that dissolves thermal-aggregated proteins. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:4769-79 pubmed
    ..Our observations provide the first direct evidence that a 14-3-3 protein functions as a stress-induced molecular chaperone that dissolves and renaturalizes thermal-aggregated proteins. ..
  69. Yamazaki D, Horiuchi J, Nakagami Y, Nagano S, Tamura T, Saitoe M. The Drosophila DCO mutation suppresses age-related memory impairment without affecting lifespan. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:478-84 pubmed
    ..Notably, both the memory and AMI defects of amn mutants are restored in amn;DCO/+ double mutants, suggesting that AMI is caused by an age-related disruption of amn-dependent memory via PKA activity in mushroom bodies. ..
  70. Han P, Meller V, Davis R. The Drosophila brain revisited by enhancer detection. J Neurobiol. 1996;31:88-102 pubmed
  71. Roman G, Davis R. Molecular biology and anatomy of Drosophila olfactory associative learning. Bioessays. 2001;23:571-81 pubmed
    ..In this review, we discuss the nature of the behavioral tasks, the molecules, and the neuronal circuits involved in olfactory learning in Drosophila. ..
  72. Zhou Y, Schopperle W, Murrey H, Jaramillo A, Dagan D, Griffith L, et al. A dynamically regulated 14-3-3, Slob, and Slowpoke potassium channel complex in Drosophila presynaptic nerve terminals. Neuron. 1999;22:809-18 pubmed
    ..The results provide evidence for a dSlo/Slob/14-3-3 regulatory protein complex. ..
  73. Margolis B, Borg J. Apicobasal polarity complexes. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:5157-9 pubmed
  74. Broadie K. Forward and reverse genetic approaches to synaptogenesis. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1998;8:128-38 pubmed
    ..Of particular interest are recent advances using mouse reverse genetics and Drosophila forward genetics. ..
  75. Krahn M, Egger Adam D, Wodarz A. PP2A antagonizes phosphorylation of Bazooka by PAR-1 to control apical-basal polarity in dividing embryonic neuroblasts. Dev Cell. 2009;16:901-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of PAR-1 or Baz, or mutation of 14-3-3 proteins that bind phosphorylated Baz, causes essentially the same phenotype, indicating that the balance of PAR-1 and PP2A effects on Baz phosphorylation determines NB polarity. ..