Gene Symbol: rad3
Description: ATR checkpoint kinase Rad3
Alias: ATR checkpoint kinase Rad3
Species: fission yeast

Top Publications

  1. Lopez Girona A, Tanaka K, Chen X, Baber B, McGowan C, Russell P. Serine-345 is required for Rad3-dependent phosphorylation and function of checkpoint kinase Chk1 in fission yeast. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:11289-94 pubmed
    ..In fission yeast, Chk1 is regulated by a group of proteins that includes Rad3, a protein kinase related to human ATM and ATR...
  2. Taricani L, Wang T. Rad4TopBP1, a scaffold protein, plays separate roles in DNA damage and replication checkpoints and DNA replication. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:3456-68 pubmed
  3. Nakamura T, Moser B, Russell P. Telomere binding of checkpoint sensor and DNA repair proteins contributes to maintenance of functional fission yeast telomeres. Genetics. 2002;161:1437-52 pubmed
    ..On the basis of telomere lengths of mutant combinations of various checkpoint-related proteins (Rad1, Rad3, Rad9, Rad17, Rad26, Hus1, Crb2, Chk1, Cds1), Tel1, a telomere-binding protein (Taz1), and DNA repair proteins (..
  4. Lin S, Wardlaw C, Morishita T, Miyabe I, Chahwan C, Caspari T, et al. The Rad4(TopBP1) ATR-activation domain functions in G1/S phase in a chromatin-dependent manner. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002801 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that AAD-dependent Rad3(ATR) checkpoint amplification is particularly important when DNA resection is limiting. In S...
  5. Nakamura T, Du L, Redon C, Russell P. Histone H2A phosphorylation controls Crb2 recruitment at DNA breaks, maintains checkpoint arrest, and influences DNA repair in fission yeast. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:6215-30 pubmed
    ..We show that formation of gamma-H2A redundantly requires the ATR/ATM-related kinases Rad3 and Tel1...
  6. Baber Furnari B, Rhind N, Boddy M, Shanahan P, Lopez Girona A, Russell P. Regulation of mitotic inhibitor Mik1 helps to enforce the DNA damage checkpoint. Mol Biol Cell. 2000;11:1-11 pubmed
    ..Coordinated negative regulation of Cdc25 and positive regulation of Mik1 ensure the effective operation of the DNA damage checkpoint. ..
  7. Haldar D, Kamakaka R. Schizosaccharomyces pombe Hst4 functions in DNA damage response by regulating histone H3 K56 acetylation. Eukaryot Cell. 2008;7:800-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Hst4 is a deacetylase involved in the restoration of chromatin structure following the S phase of cell cycle and DNA damage response. ..
  8. Pankratz D, Forsburg S. Meiotic S-phase damage activates recombination without checkpoint arrest. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:1651-60 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that fission yeast meiosis is exceptionally tolerant of DNA damage, and that some forms of spontaneous S-phase damage can be repaired by recombination without activating checkpoint arrest. ..
  9. Moser B, Subramanian L, Khair L, Chang Y, Nakamura T. Fission yeast Tel1(ATM) and Rad3(ATR) promote telomere protection and telomerase recruitment. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000622 pubmed publisher
    ..we demonstrate by quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays that simultaneous loss of Tel1(ATM) and Rad3(ATR) kinases leads to a defect in recruitment of telomerase to telomeres, reduced binding of the shelterin complex ..

More Information


  1. Dutta C, Patel P, Rosebrock A, Oliva A, Leatherwood J, Rhind N. The DNA replication checkpoint directly regulates MBF-dependent G1/S transcription. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:5977-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the structural and regulatory similarity between MBF and E2F, the metazoan G(1)/S transcription factor, suggests that this checkpoint mechanism may be broadly conserved among eukaryotes. ..
  2. Prudden J, Evans J, Hussey S, Deans B, O Neill P, Thacker J, et al. Pathway utilization in response to a site-specific DNA double-strand break in fission yeast. EMBO J. 2003;22:1419-30 pubmed
    ..Further, DSB-induced cell cycle delay and efficient HR required the DNA integrity checkpoint gene rad3(+)...
  3. Shimada M, Nabeshima K, Tougan T, Nojima H. The meiotic recombination checkpoint is regulated by checkpoint rad+ genes in fission yeast. EMBO J. 2002;21:2807-18 pubmed
    ..We propose that checkpoint monitoring of the status of meiotic DSB repair exists in fission yeast and that defects other than DSB accumulation can cause delays in meiotic progression. ..
  4. Harris S, Kemplen C, Caspari T, Chan C, Lindsay H, Poitelea M, et al. Delineating the position of rad4+/cut5+ within the DNA-structure checkpoint pathways in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:3519-29 pubmed
    ..that a novel, epitope-tagged allele of rad4+/cut5+ acts as a dominant suppressor of the checkpoint deficiencies of rad3-, rad26- and rad17- mutants...
  5. Martinho R, Lindsay H, Flaggs G, DeMaggio A, Hoekstra M, Carr A, et al. Analysis of Rad3 and Chk1 protein kinases defines different checkpoint responses. EMBO J. 1998;17:7239-49 pubmed
    ..The response of both Chk1 and Cds1 requires the six 'checkpoint Rad' proteins (Rad1, Rad3, Rad9, Rad17, Rad26 and Hus1)...
  6. Hermand D, Nurse P. Cdc18 enforces long-term maintenance of the S phase checkpoint by anchoring the Rad3-Rad26 complex to chromatin. Mol Cell. 2007;26:553-63 pubmed
    ..show that when DNA replication stalls, Cdc18 persists in a chromatin-bound complex including the checkpoint kinases Rad3 and Rad26. Rad26 directly binds Cdc18 and is required for Rad3 recruitment to chromatin...
  7. Limbo O, Porter Goff M, Rhind N, Russell P. Mre11 nuclease activity and Ctp1 regulate Chk1 activation by Rad3ATR and Tel1ATM checkpoint kinases at double-strand breaks. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:573-83 pubmed publisher
    b>Rad3, the Schizosaccharomyces pombe ortholog of human ATR and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mec1, activates the checkpoint kinase Chk1 in response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs)...
  8. Katayama S, Kitamura K, Lehmann A, Nikaido O, Toda T. Fission yeast F-box protein Pof3 is required for genome integrity and telomere function. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:211-24 pubmed
    ..The results highlight a role of the SCF(Pof3) ubiquitin ligase in genome integrity via maintaining chromatin structures. ..
  9. Ansbach A, Noguchi C, Klansek I, Heidlebaugh M, Nakamura T, Noguchi E. RFCCtf18 and the Swi1-Swi3 complex function in separate and redundant pathways required for the stabilization of replication forks to facilitate sister chromatid cohesion in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:595-607 pubmed
    ..We propose that RFC(Ctf18) and the Swi1-Swi3 complex function in separate and redundant pathways essential for replication fork stabilization to facilitate sister chromatid cohesion in fission yeast. ..
  10. Rozenzhak S, Mejía Ramírez E, Williams J, Schaffer L, Hammond J, Head S, et al. Rad3 decorates critical chromosomal domains with gammaH2A to protect genome integrity during S-Phase in fission yeast. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001032 pubmed publisher
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe Rad3 checkpoint kinase and its human ortholog ATR are essential for maintaining genome integrity in cells treated with genotoxins that damage DNA or arrest replication forks...
  11. Edwards R, Bentley N, Carr A. A Rad3-Rad26 complex responds to DNA damage independently of other checkpoint proteins. Nat Cell Biol. 1999;1:393-8 pubmed
    The conserved PIK-related kinase Rad3 is required for all DNA-integrity-checkpoint responses in fission yeast. Here we report a stable association between Rad3 and Rad26 in soluble protein extracts...
  12. Xu Y, Davenport M, Kelly T. Two-stage mechanism for activation of the DNA replication checkpoint kinase Cds1 in fission yeast. Genes Dev. 2006;20:990-1003 pubmed
    ..Activation of Cds1 is known to require the upstream kinase Rad3 and the mediator Mrc1, but the biochemical mechanism of activation is not well understood...
  13. Naito T, Matsuura A, Ishikawa F. Circular chromosome formation in a fission yeast mutant defective in two ATM homologues. Nat Genet. 1998;20:203-6 pubmed
    ..The ATM family of genes, including budding yeast TEL1 (refs 1,2), fission yeast rad3+ (ref. 3) and human ATM (ref...
  14. Willis N, Rhind N. Mus81, Rhp51(Rad51), and Rqh1 form an epistatic pathway required for the S-phase DNA damage checkpoint. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:819-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that restraining recombination is required for the slowing of replication in response to DNA damage. ..
  15. Lehmann A, Katayama S, Harrison C, Dhut S, Kitamura K, McDonald N, et al. Molecular interactions of fission yeast Skp1 and its role in the DNA damage checkpoint. Genes Cells. 2004;9:367-82 pubmed
    ..The activation mechanism of the DNA damage checkpoint therefore differs between pof3Delta and skp1(ts), implicating a novel role for Skp1 in the checkpoint-signalling cascade. ..
  16. de Bruin R, Kalashnikova T, Aslanian A, Wohlschlegel J, Chahwan C, Yates J, et al. DNA replication checkpoint promotes G1-S transcription by inactivating the MBF repressor Nrm1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:11230-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This leads to the expression of genes encoding components that function in DNA replication and repair pathways important for cell survival in response to arrested DNA replication. ..
  17. Moser B, Chang Y, Kosti J, Nakamura T. Tel1ATM and Rad3ATR kinases promote Ccq1-Est1 interaction to maintain telomeres in fission yeast. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2011;18:1408-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In fission yeast, cells lacking both Tel1 (ATM ortholog) and Rad3 (ATR ortholog) fail to recruit telomerase to telomeres and survive by circularizing chromosomes...
  18. Moser B, Brondello J, Baber Furnari B, Russell P. Mechanism of caffeine-induced checkpoint override in fission yeast. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:4288-94 pubmed
    ..Caffeine did not inhibit these kinases in vitro but did inhibit Rad3, a kinase that regulates Cds1 and Chk1...
  19. Moss J, Tinline Purvis H, Walker C, Folkes L, Stratford M, Hayles J, et al. Break-induced ATR and Ddb1-Cul4(Cdt)² ubiquitin ligase-dependent nucleotide synthesis promotes homologous recombination repair in fission yeast. Genes Dev. 2010;24:2705-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we define a role for Rad3 (ATR) in nucleotide synthesis and HR through increasing Cdt2 nuclear levels in response to DNA damage...
  20. Du L, Moser B, Russell P. Homo-oligomerization is the essential function of the tandem BRCT domains in the checkpoint protein Crb2. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:38409-14 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that the crucial function of the tandem BRCT domains is to oligomerize Crb2. ..
  21. Subramanian L, Nakamura T. A kinase-independent role for the Rad3(ATR)-Rad26(ATRIP) complex in recruitment of Tel1(ATM) to telomeres in fission yeast. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000839 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated how Tel1(ATM) and Rad3(ATR) recruitment to telomeres is regulated in fission yeast...
  22. Mochida S, Esashi F, Aono N, Tamai K, O Connell M, Yanagida M. Regulation of checkpoint kinases through dynamic interaction with Crb2. EMBO J. 2004;23:418-28 pubmed
    ATR/Rad3-like kinases promote the DNA damage checkpoint through regulating Chk1 that restrains the activation of cyclin-dependent kinases...
  23. Janes S, Schmidt U, Ashour Garrido K, Ney N, Concilio S, Zekri M, et al. Heat induction of a novel Rad9 variant from a cryptic translation initiation site reduces mitotic commitment. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:4487-97 pubmed publisher
    ..At the DNA, Rad9 activates the checkpoint kinases Rad3(ATR) and Chk1 to arrest cells in G2...
  24. Miller K, Cooper J. The telomere protein Taz1 is required to prevent and repair genomic DNA breaks. Mol Cell. 2003;11:303-13 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, hypersensitivity to treatments that induce DSBs suggests that Taz1p is involved in DSB repair. Our observations imply roles for Taz1p-containing telomeres in preventing and repairing DNA breaks throughout the genome. ..
  25. Furuya K, Poitelea M, Guo L, Caspari T, Carr A. Chk1 activation requires Rad9 S/TQ-site phosphorylation to promote association with C-terminal BRCT domains of Rad4TOPBP1. Genes Dev. 2004;18:1154-64 pubmed
    ..C-terminal T412/S423 phosphorylation of Rad9 by Rad3(ATR) occurs in S phase without replication stress...
  26. Tanaka K, Boddy M, Chen X, McGowan C, Russell P. Threonine-11, phosphorylated by Rad3 and atm in vitro, is required for activation of fission yeast checkpoint kinase Cds1. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:3398-404 pubmed
    ..Cds1 is regulated by a group of proteins that includes Rad3, a kinase related to human checkpoint kinase ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated)...
  27. Matsuura A, Naito T, Ishikawa F. Genetic control of telomere integrity in Schizosaccharomyces pombe: rad3(+) and tel1(+) are parts of two regulatory networks independent of the downstream protein kinases chk1(+) and cds1(+). Genetics. 1999;152:1501-12 pubmed
    The Schizosaccharomyces pombe checkpoint gene named rad3(+) encodes an ATM-homologous protein kinase that shares a highly conserved motif with proteins involved in DNA metabolism...
  28. Chapman C, Evans S, Carr A, Enoch T. Requirement of sequences outside the conserved kinase domain of fission yeast Rad3p for checkpoint control. Mol Biol Cell. 1999;10:3223-38 pubmed
    ..not sufficient, because the isolated kinase domain does not have kinase activity in vitro and cannot complement a rad3 deletion strain...
  29. Yamazaki H, Tarumoto Y, Ishikawa F. Tel1(ATM) and Rad3(ATR) phosphorylate the telomere protein Ccq1 to recruit telomerase and elongate telomeres in fission yeast. Genes Dev. 2012;26:241-6 pubmed publisher
    In fission yeast, the DNA damage sensor kinases Tel1(ATM) and Rad3(ATR) exist at telomeres and are required for telomere maintenance, but the biological role they play at telomeres is not known...
  30. Wei Y, Wang H, Zhai Y, Russell P, Du L. Mdb1, a fission yeast homolog of human MDC1, modulates DNA damage response and mitotic spindle function. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e97028 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss of Mdb1 or mutating its phospho-binding residues makes cells more resistant to the microtubule depolymerizing drug thiabendazole. We propose that Mdb1 performs dual roles in DDR and mitotic spindle regulation. ..
  31. Guo H, King M. A quality control mechanism linking meiotic success to release of ascospores. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e82758 pubmed publisher
  32. Luciano P, Coulon S, Faure V, Corda Y, Bos J, Brill S, et al. RPA facilitates telomerase activity at chromosome ends in budding and fission yeasts. EMBO J. 2012;31:2034-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that the RPA/telomerase association and function are conserved in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Our results indicate that in both yeasts, RPA directly facilitates telomerase activity at chromosome ends...
  33. Williams D, McIntosh J. mcl1+, the Schizosaccharomyces pombe homologue of CTF4, is important for chromosome replication, cohesion, and segregation. Eukaryot Cell. 2002;1:758-73 pubmed
    ..It interacts genetically with replication components and causes an S-phase delay when overexpressed. We propose that Mcl1p, like Ctf4p, has a role in regulating DNA replication complexes. ..
  34. Broadus M, Gould K. Multiple protein kinases influence the redistribution of fission yeast Clp1/Cdc14 phosphatase upon genotoxic stress. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:4118-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, the Rad3 checkpoint effector kinases Cds1 and/or Chk1, the cell wall integrity mitogen-activated protein kinase Pmk1, and ..
  35. Feng W, D URSO G. Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells lacking the amino-terminal catalytic domains of DNA polymerase epsilon are viable but require the DNA damage checkpoint control. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:4495-504 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the viability of cdc20(DeltaN-term) cells is dependent on expression of rad3(+), hus1(+), and chk1(+), three genes essential for the DNA damage checkpoint control...
  36. Khair L, Chang Y, Subramanian L, Russell P, Nakamura T. Roles of the checkpoint sensor clamp Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (911)-complex and the clamp loaders Rad17-RFC and Ctf18-RFC in Schizosaccharomyces pombe telomere maintenance. Cell Cycle. 2010;9:2237-48 pubmed
    ..Previous studies have established that Tel1 (ATM) and Rad3 (ATR) kinases play redundant but essential roles for telomere maintenance in fission yeast...
  37. Cavero S, Limbo O, Russell P. Critical functions of Rpa3/Ssb3 in S-phase DNA damage responses in fission yeast. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001138 pubmed publisher
    ..From these studies we propose that Ssb3 plays a critical role in mediating RPA functions that are required for repair or tolerance of DNA lesions in S-phase. Rpa3 orthologs in humans and other species may have a similar function. ..
  38. Okamoto S, Sato M, Toda T, Yamamoto M. SCF ensures meiotic chromosome segregation through a resolution of meiotic recombination intermediates. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30622 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic evidence suggested its cooperation with SCF/Skp1. Thus, SCF/Skp1 together with Fbh1 is likely to function in the resolution of meiotic recombination intermediates, thereby ensuring proper chromosome segregation. ..
  39. Yasuhira S, Saito T, Maesawa C, Masuda T. Sensor and effector kinases in DNA damage checkpoint regulate capacity for homologous recombination repair of fission yeast in G2 phase. DNA Repair (Amst). 2012;11:666-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated how rad3 (ATR ortholog) or chk1/cds1 (CHK1/CHK2 orthologs) null mutations change the kinetics of double-strand break (DSB) ..
  40. Noguchi C, Noguchi E. Sap1 promotes the association of the replication fork protection complex with chromatin and is involved in the replication checkpoint in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Genetics. 2007;175:553-66 pubmed
    ..We propose that Sap1 is required to recruit the FPC to chromatin, thereby contributing to the activation of the replication checkpoint and the stabilization of replication forks. ..
  41. Yamazaki H, Ishikawa F. [Telomere maintenance by DNA damage sensor kinases, ATM and ATR]. Seikagaku. 2014;86:812-6 pubmed
  42. Liang D, Forsburg S. Characterization of Schizosaccharomyces pombe mcm7(+) and cdc23(+) (MCM10) and interactions with replication checkpoints. Genetics. 2001;159:471-86 pubmed
    ..Mcm7p is a nuclear protein throughout the cell cycle, and its localization is dependent on the other MCM proteins. Our data suggest that the Mcm3p-Mcm5p dimer interacts with the Mcm4p-Mcm6p-Mcm7p core complex through Mcm7p. ..
  43. Read R, Martinho R, Wang S, Carr A, Norbury C. Cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerases mediate cellular responses to S phase arrest. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:12079-84 pubmed
    ..Cytoplasmic polyadenylation is known to be an important regulatory mechanism during early development in animals. Our findings in yeast suggest that this level of gene regulation is of more general significance in eukaryotic cells. ..
  44. Ogino K, Masai H. Rad3-Cds1 mediates coupling of initiation of meiotic recombination with DNA replication. Mei4-dependent transcription as a potential target of meiotic checkpoint. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:1338-44 pubmed
    ..However, the checkpoint pathway regulating this coupling has been largely unknown. In fission yeast, Rad3 is known to play an essential role in coordination of DNA replication and cell division during both mitotic growth ..
  45. Tougan T, Kasama T, Ohtaka A, Okuzaki D, Saito T, Russell P, et al. The Mek1 phosphorylation cascade plays a role in meiotic recombination of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Cell Cycle. 2010;9:4688-702 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that Mek1 is phosphorylated at serine-12 (S12), S14 and threonine-15 (T15) by Rad3 (ATR) and/or Tel1 (ATM) kinases that are activated by meiotic programmed double-strand breaks (DSBs)...
  46. Schonbrun M, Kolesnikov M, Kupiec M, Weisman R. TORC2 is required to maintain genome stability during S phase in fission yeast. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:19649-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that TORC2 is required for genome integrity. This may be relevant for the growing amount of evidence implicating TORC2 in cancer development...
  47. Xu Y. Inner nuclear membrane protein Lem2 facilitates Rad3-mediated checkpoint signaling under replication stress induced by nucleotide depletion in fission yeast. Cell Signal. 2016;28:235-45 pubmed publisher
    ..In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, perturbed replication forks activate the sensor kinase Rad3 (ATR/Mec1), which works cooperatively with mediator Mrc1 and the 9-1-1 checkpoint clamp to phosphorylate the ..
  48. Jimenez G, Yucel J, Rowley R, Subramani S. The rad3+ gene of Schizosaccharomyces pombe is involved in multiple checkpoint functions and in DNA repair. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:4952-6 pubmed
    ..We have found that the radiation-sensitive Schizosaccharomyces pombe mutant rad3-136 is deficient in two molecular checkpoint functions...
  49. Frampton J, Irmisch A, Green C, Neiss A, Trickey M, Ulrich H, et al. Postreplication repair and PCNA modification in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:2976-85 pubmed
    ..We show that PCNA modification and cell cycle checkpoints represent two independent signals in response to DNA damage. Finally, we unexpectedly find that PCNA is ubiquitinated in response to DNA damage when cells are arrested in G2. ..
  50. Yamaguchi S, Murakami H, Okayama H. A WD repeat protein controls the cell cycle and differentiation by negatively regulating Cdc2/B-type cyclin complexes. Mol Biol Cell. 1997;8:2475-86 pubmed
  51. Calonge T, O Connell M. Antagonism of Chk1 signaling in the G2 DNA damage checkpoint by dominant alleles of Cdr1. Genetics. 2006;174:113-23 pubmed
    ..We conclude that regulation of Wee1 by Cdr1 and possibly by related kinases is an important antagonist of Chk1 signaling and represents a novel negative regulation of cell cycle arrest promoted by this checkpoint. ..
  52. Synnes M, Nilssen E, Boye E, Grallert B. A novel chk1-dependent G1/M checkpoint in fission yeast. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:3609-18 pubmed
    ..We also show that commitment to cutting occurs already in early G1 phase. ..
  53. Marchetti M, Kumar S, Hartsuiker E, Maftahi M, Carr A, Freyer G, et al. A single unbranched S-phase DNA damage and replication fork blockage checkpoint pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:7472-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that, in fission yeast, the signal activating the intra-S-phase checkpoint is generated only when replication forks encounter DNA damage. ..
  54. Verkade H, Teli T, Laursen L, Murray J, O Connell M. A homologue of the Rad18 postreplication repair gene is required for DNA damage responses throughout the fission yeast cell cycle. Mol Genet Genomics. 2001;265:993-1003 pubmed
  55. Kanoh J, Francesconi S, Collura A, Schramke V, Ishikawa F, Baldacci G, et al. The fission yeast spSet1p is a histone H3-K4 methyltransferase that functions in telomere maintenance and DNA repair in an ATM kinase Rad3-dependent pathway. J Mol Biol. 2003;326:1081-94 pubmed
    ..in wild-type cells and in most DNA damage checkpoint rad mutant cells, but not in cells lacking the ATM kinase Rad3 or its associated protein Rad26...
  56. Schonbrun M, Laor D, López Maury L, Bahler J, Kupiec M, Weisman R. TOR complex 2 controls gene silencing, telomere length maintenance, and survival under DNA-damaging conditions. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:4584-94 pubmed publisher
    ..to the DNA-damaging drugs hydroxyurea (HU) and methyl methanesulfonate, similar to mutants of the checkpoint kinase Rad3 (ATR). Unlike Rad3, Tor1 is not required for the cell cycle arrest in the presence of damaged DNA...
  57. Mahyous Saeyd S, Ewert Krzemieniewska K, Liu B, Caspari T. Hyperactive Cdc2 kinase interferes with the response to broken replication forks by trapping S.pombe Crb2 in its mitotic T215 phosphorylated state. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:7734-47 pubmed publisher
    ..This implies that the presence of the mitotic phosphorylation at Crb2-T215 channels Rad3 activity towards Cds1 instead of Chk1 when forks break in S phase. We also provide evidence that hyperactive Cdc2...
  58. Keegan K, Holtzman D, Plug A, Christenson E, Brainerd E, Flaggs G, et al. The Atr and Atm protein kinases associate with different sites along meiotically pairing chromosomes. Genes Dev. 1996;10:2423-37 pubmed
    ..We have characterized the human and mouse counterpart of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Rad3 protein, named Atr (for ataxia-telangiectasia- and rad3-related), and the protein that is mutated in ataxia-..
  59. Arroyo M, Wang T. Mutant PCNA alleles are associated with cdc phenotypes and sensitivity to DNA damage in fission yeast. Mol Gen Genet. 1998;257:505-18 pubmed
    ..A model for how pcn1-3 defects may affect DNA repair and replication is presented. ..
  60. Purtill F, Whitehall S, Williams E, McInerny C, Sharrocks A, Morgan B. A homeodomain transcription factor regulates the DNA replication checkpoint in yeast. Cell Cycle. 2011;10:664-70 pubmed
    ..by the MBF (also known as DSC1) transcription factor complex and is also activated by the mammalian ATM/ATR-related Rad3 DNA replication checkpoint...
  61. Bailis J, Luche D, Hunter T, Forsburg S. Minichromosome maintenance proteins interact with checkpoint and recombination proteins to promote s-phase genome stability. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:1724-38 pubmed publisher
  62. Blaikley E, Tinline Purvis H, Kasparek T, Marguerat S, Sarkar S, Hulme L, et al. The DNA damage checkpoint pathway promotes extensive resection and nucleotide synthesis to facilitate homologous recombination repair and genome stability in fission yeast. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:5644-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, deletion of Rad3(ATR), Rad26ATRIP, Crb2(53BP1) or Cdc25 overexpression leads to reduced HR and increased break-induced chromosome ..
  63. Uchiyama M, Galli I, Griffiths D, Wang T. A novel mutant allele of Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad26 defective in monitoring S-phase progression to prevent premature mitosis. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:3103-15 pubmed
    ..A model of how Rad26 monitors S-phase progression to maintain the dependency of cell cycle events and coordinates with other rad/hus checkpoint gene products in responding to radiation damage is proposed. ..
  64. Akai Y, Kurokawa Y, Nakazawa N, Tonami Murakami Y, Suzuki Y, Yoshimura S, et al. Opposing role of condensin hinge against replication protein A in mitosis and interphase through promoting DNA annealing. Open Biol. 2011;1:110023 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that 16 suppressor mutations of cut14-Y1 were all mapped within the hinge domain, which surrounded the original L543 mutation site. ..
  65. Yin L, Locovei A, D URSO G. Activation of the DNA damage checkpoint in mutants defective in DNA replication initiation. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:4374-82 pubmed publisher
  66. Holmberg C, Fleck O, Hansen H, Liu C, Slaaby R, Carr A, et al. Ddb1 controls genome stability and meiosis in fission yeast. Genes Dev. 2005;19:853-62 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Ddb1, along with Cullin 4 and the signalosome, constitute a major pathway controlling genome stability, repair, and differentiation via RNR regulation. ..
  67. Matsumoto S, Shimmoto M, Kakusho N, Yokoyama M, Kanoh Y, Hayano M, et al. Hsk1 kinase and Cdc45 regulate replication stress-induced checkpoint responses in fission yeast. Cell Cycle. 2010;9:4627-37 pubmed
    ..yeast, replication fork arrest activates the replication checkpoint effector kinase Cds1(Chk2/Rad53) through the Rad3(ATR/Mec1)-Mrc1(Claspin) pathway...
  68. Moiseeva V, Amelina H, Collopy L, Armstrong C, Pearson S, Tomita K. The telomere bouquet facilitates meiotic prophase progression and exit in fission yeast. Cell Discov. 2017;3:17041 pubmed publisher
    ..Persistent DNA damages, induced during meiotic recombination, activate the Rad3 and Chk1 DNA damage checkpoint kinases and extend the bouquet stage beyond the chromosome oscillation period...
  69. S nchez A, Sharma S, Rozenzhak S, Roguev A, Krogan N, Chabes A, et al. Replication fork collapse and genome instability in a deoxycytidylate deaminase mutant. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:4445-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Dcd1 deficiency activates genome integrity checkpoints enforced by Rad3 (ATR), Cds1 (Chk2), and Chk1 and creates critical requirements for proteins involved in recovery from replication ..
  70. Tanae K, Horiuchi T, Matsuo Y, Katayama S, Kawamukai M. Histone chaperone Asf1 plays an essential role in maintaining genomic stability in fission yeast. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30472 pubmed publisher
    ..The asf1-33 mutant required the DNA damage checkpoint factors Chk1 and Rad3 for its survival at the restrictive temperature...
  71. Mickle K, Oliva A, Huberman J, Leatherwood J. Checkpoint effects and telomere amplification during DNA re-replication in fission yeast. BMC Mol Biol. 2007;8:119 pubmed
    ..The extents and locations of amplified regions in cells deleted for the checkpoint genes encoding Rad3 (ortholog of human ATR and budding yeast Mec1) and Cds1 (ortholog of human Chk2 and budding yeast Rad53) were ..