Gene Symbol: rad1
Description: checkpoint clamp complex protein Rad1
Alias: checkpoint clamp complex protein Rad1
Species: fission yeast

Top Publications

  1. Matsuura A, Naito T, Ishikawa F. Genetic control of telomere integrity in Schizosaccharomyces pombe: rad3(+) and tel1(+) are parts of two regulatory networks independent of the downstream protein kinases chk1(+) and cds1(+). Genetics. 1999;152:1501-12 pubmed
    ..Genetic analysis revealed that the other checkpoint rad mutations rad1, rad17, and rad26 belong to the same phenotypic class with rad3 with regard to control of the telomere length...
  2. Smeets M, Francesconi S, Baldacci G. High dosage Rhp51 suppression of the MMS sensitivity of DNA structure checkpoint mutants reveals a relationship between Crb2 and Rhp51. Genes Cells. 2003;8:573-86 pubmed
    ..We conclude that fission yeast Crb2 and Rhp51 function in two parallel, tightly connected and coordinately regulated pathways. ..
  3. Kai M, Wang T. Checkpoint activation regulates mutagenic translesion synthesis. Genes Dev. 2003;17:64-76 pubmed
    ..Moreover, association of DinB with chromatin is dependent on functional Rad17, and DinB physically interacts with the checkpoint-clamp components Hus1 and Rad1. Thus, translesion synthesis is a part of the checkpoint response.
  4. Chang D, Lu A. Interaction of checkpoint proteins Hus1/Rad1/Rad9 with DNA base excision repair enzyme MutY homolog in fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:408-17 pubmed
    ..SpHus1 phosphorylation is substantially reduced in SpMYH Delta cells after hydrogen peroxide treatment. These data suggest that MYH may act as an adaptor to recruit checkpoint proteins to the DNA lesions. ..
  5. Grossenbacher Grunder A, Thuriaux P. Spontaneous and UV-induced recombination in radiation-sensitive mutants of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Mutat Res. 1981;81:37-48 pubmed
    ..1978). rad1-1 was the only mutant with a reduced frequency of UV-induced recombination...
  6. Jansson K, Warringer J, Farewell A, Park H, Hoe K, Kim D, et al. The tumor suppressor homolog in fission yeast, myh1(+), displays a strong interaction with the checkpoint gene rad1(+). Mutat Res. 2008;644:48-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The myh1 rad1, and to a lesser degree myh1 rad9, double mutants display a synthetic interaction resulting in enhanced sensitivity ..
  7. Katayama S, Kitamura K, Lehmann A, Nikaido O, Toda T. Fission yeast F-box protein Pof3 is required for genome integrity and telomere function. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:211-24 pubmed
    ..The results highlight a role of the SCF(Pof3) ubiquitin ligase in genome integrity via maintaining chromatin structures. ..
  8. Kanter Smoler G, Knudsen K, Jimenez G, Sunnerhagen P, Subramani S. Separation of phenotypes in mutant alleles of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe cell-cycle checkpoint gene rad1+. Mol Biol Cell. 1995;6:1793-805 pubmed
    The Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad1+ gene is involved in the G2 DNA damage cell-cycle checkpoint and in coupling mitosis to completed DNA replication...
  9. Khair L, Chang Y, Subramanian L, Russell P, Nakamura T. Roles of the checkpoint sensor clamp Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (911)-complex and the clamp loaders Rad17-RFC and Ctf18-RFC in Schizosaccharomyces pombe telomere maintenance. Cell Cycle. 2010;9:2237-48 pubmed
    ..In addition, the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (911) and Rad17-RFC complexes work downstream of Rad3 (ATR) in fission yeast telomere maintenance...

More Information


  1. Tan S, Wang T. Analysis of fission yeast primase defines the checkpoint responses to aberrant S phase initiation. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:7853-66 pubmed
    ..Thus, the Cds1-mediated intra-S phase checkpoint response induced by hydroxyurea can also be distinguished from the S-M phase checkpoint response that requires the initiation DNA synthesis by Polalpha. ..
  2. Jansson K, Alao J, Viktorsson K, Warringer J, Lewensohn R, Sunnerhagen P. A role for Myh1 in DNA repair after treatment with strand-breaking and crosslinking chemotherapeutic agents. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2013;54:327-37 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA double strand break-inducing, bleomycins, or the DNA crosslinking platinum compounds, particularly in a rad1 mutant background. Exposure of cells to cisplatin leads to a moderate overall accumulation of Myh1 protein...
  3. Kanoh J, Francesconi S, Collura A, Schramke V, Ishikawa F, Baldacci G, et al. The fission yeast spSet1p is a histone H3-K4 methyltransferase that functions in telomere maintenance and DNA repair in an ATM kinase Rad3-dependent pathway. J Mol Biol. 2003;326:1081-94 pubmed
    ..causes a reduction in sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation of the PCNA-like checkpoint mutants hus1 and rad1, but not of cells devoid of Rad3...
  4. Furuya K, Miyabe I, Tsutsui Y, Paderi F, Kakusho N, Masai H, et al. DDK phosphorylates checkpoint clamp component Rad9 and promotes its release from damaged chromatin. Mol Cell. 2010;40:606-18 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Rad9 phosphorylation by DDK releases Rad9 from DNA damage sites to facilitate DNA repair. ..
  5. Kiely J, Haase S, Russell P, Leatherwood J. Functions of fission yeast orp2 in DNA replication and checkpoint control. Genetics. 2000;154:599-607 pubmed
    ..Cell cycle arrest depends on the checkpoint genes rad1 and rad3...
  6. Saitoh S, Chabes A, McDonald W, Thelander L, Yates J, Russell P. Cid13 is a cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerase that regulates ribonucleotide reductase mRNA. Cell. 2002;109:563-73 pubmed
    ..cid13 mutants have reduced dNTP pools and are sensitive to hydroxyurea, an RNR inhibitor. We propose that Cid13 defines a cytoplasmic form of poly(A) polymerase important for DNA replication and genome maintenance. ..
  7. Murakami H, Nurse P. Meiotic DNA replication checkpoint control in fission yeast. Genes Dev. 1999;13:2581-93 pubmed
    ..This second checkpoint is meiosis specific and may reflect processes occurring only during meiosis such as increased recombination rates, an extended duration of nuclear division, or homolog chromosome pairing. ..
  8. Alao J, Huis In t Veld P, Buhse F, Sunnerhagen P. Hyperosmosis enhances radiation and hydroxyurea resistance of Schizosaccharomyces pombe checkpoint mutants through the spindle checkpoint and delayed cytokinesis. Mol Microbiol. 2010;77:143-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, cytokinesis is impaired by modulating Cdc25 expression. These three delays, imposed by osmotic stress, together compensate for the loss of checkpoint signalling. ..
  9. Gembka A, Toueille M, Smirnova E, Poltz R, Ferrari E, Villani G, et al. The checkpoint clamp, Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 complex, preferentially stimulates the activity of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 and DNA polymerase beta in long patch base excision repair. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:2596-608 pubmed
    Growing evidence suggests that the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 complex (the 9-1-1 complex), besides its functions in DNA damage sensing and signaling pathways, plays also a direct role in various DNA repair processes...
  10. Alemany V, Sanchez Piris M, Bachs O, Aligue R. Cmk2, a novel serine/threonine kinase in fission yeast. FEBS Lett. 2002;524:79-86 pubmed
  11. Nakamura T, Moser B, Russell P. Telomere binding of checkpoint sensor and DNA repair proteins contributes to maintenance of functional fission yeast telomeres. Genetics. 2002;161:1437-52 pubmed
    ..On the basis of telomere lengths of mutant combinations of various checkpoint-related proteins (Rad1, Rad3, Rad9, Rad17, Rad26, Hus1, Crb2, Chk1, Cds1), Tel1, a telomere-binding protein (Taz1), and DNA repair ..
  12. Yoshida S, Al Amodi H, Nakamura T, McInerny C, Shimoda C. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe cdt2(+) gene, a target of G1-S phase-specific transcription factor complex DSC1, is required for mitotic and premeiotic DNA replication. Genetics. 2003;164:881-93 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that cdt2(+) plays an important role in DNA replication in both the mitotic and the meiotic life cycles of fission yeast. ..
  13. Sakai T. Cdk inhibitor ste9p/srw1p is involved in response to protein synthesis inhibition in fission yeast. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;315:984-90 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that cell cycle be positively controlled in an ste9-dependent manner before essential factors for viability and other important functions are exhausted when protein synthesis is inhibited. ..
  14. Nasim A, Smith B. Genetic control of radiation sensitivity in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Genetics. 1975;79:573-82 pubmed
    ..pombe for repair of radiation-induced damage. The bearing of these data on cellular repair mechanisms in eukaryotes is discussed. ..
  15. Win T, Stevenson A, Wang S. Fission yeast Cid12 has dual functions in chromosome segregation and checkpoint control. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:4435-47 pubmed
    ..To account for the effects of Cid12 on various aspects of DNA metabolism, including chromosome segregation and the checkpoint control, we suggest that Cid12 has dual functions in RNAi silencing and regulating mRNA stability. ..
  16. Leatherwood J, Lopez Girona A, Russell P. Interaction of Cdc2 and Cdc18 with a fission yeast ORC2-like protein. Nature. 1996;379:360-3 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that ORC functions are conserved among eukaryotes and provide evidence that Cdc2 controls DNA replication initiation by acting directly at chromosomal origins. ..
  17. Caspari T, Dahlen M, Kanter Smoler G, Lindsay H, Hofmann K, Papadimitriou K, et al. Characterization of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Hus1: a PCNA-related protein that associates with Rad1 and Rad9. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:1254-62 pubmed
    ..The main form, Hus1-B, participates in a protein complex with Rad9 and Rad1, consistent with reports that Rad1-Hus1 immunoprecipitation is dependent on the rad9(+) locus...
  18. Dolan W, Le A, Schmidt H, Yuan J, Green M, Forsburg S. Fission yeast Hsk1 (Cdc7) kinase is required after replication initiation for induced mutagenesis and proper response to DNA alkylation damage. Genetics. 2010;185:39-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Hsk1-Dfp1 kinase functions post-initiation to maintain replication fork stability, an activity potentially mediated by the C terminus of Dfp1. ..
  19. Arroyo M, Wang T. Mutant PCNA alleles are associated with cdc phenotypes and sensitivity to DNA damage in fission yeast. Mol Gen Genet. 1998;257:505-18 pubmed
    ..A model for how pcn1-3 defects may affect DNA repair and replication is presented. ..
  20. Luncsford P, Chang D, Shi G, Bernstein J, Madabushi A, Patterson D, et al. A structural hinge in eukaryotic MutY homologues mediates catalytic activity and Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 checkpoint complex interactions. J Mol Biol. 2010;403:351-70 pubmed publisher
    ..A key feature of MYH activity is its coordination with cell cycle checkpoint via interaction with the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1) complex...
  21. Yin L, Locovei A, D URSO G. Activation of the DNA damage checkpoint in mutants defective in DNA replication initiation. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:4374-82 pubmed publisher
  22. S nchez A, Sharma S, Rozenzhak S, Roguev A, Krogan N, Chabes A, et al. Replication fork collapse and genome instability in a deoxycytidylate deaminase mutant. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:4445-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, Brc1 suppresses spontaneous mutagenesis in dcd1? cells. We propose that replication forks stall and collapse in dcd1? cells, burdening DNA damage and checkpoint responses to maintain genome integrity...
  23. Belfield C, Queenan C, Rao H, Kitamura K, Walworth N. The oxidative stress responsive transcription factor Pap1 confers DNA damage resistance on checkpoint-deficient fission yeast cells. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e89936 pubmed publisher
    ..of Pap1 to confer resistance to DNA damage was not specific to chk1 mutants, as it also improved survival of rad1- and rad9-deficient cells in the presence of CPT...
  24. Marchetti M, Kumar S, Hartsuiker E, Maftahi M, Carr A, Freyer G, et al. A single unbranched S-phase DNA damage and replication fork blockage checkpoint pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:7472-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that, in fission yeast, the signal activating the intra-S-phase checkpoint is generated only when replication forks encounter DNA damage. ..
  25. Tanaka H, Tanaka K, Murakami H, Okayama H. Fission yeast cdc24 is a replication factor C- and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-interacting factor essential for S-phase completion. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:1038-48 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that Cdc24 is an RFC- and PCNA-interacting factor required for DNA replication and might serve as a target for regulation. ..
  26. Yamaguchi S, Murakami H, Okayama H. A WD repeat protein controls the cell cycle and differentiation by negatively regulating Cdc2/B-type cyclin complexes. Mol Biol Cell. 1997;8:2475-86 pubmed
  27. Francesconi S, Grenon M, Bouvier D, Baldacci G. p56(chk1) protein kinase is required for the DNA replication checkpoint at 37 degrees C in fission yeast. EMBO J. 1997;16:1332-41 pubmed
  28. Williams D, McIntosh J. mcl1+, the Schizosaccharomyces pombe homologue of CTF4, is important for chromosome replication, cohesion, and segregation. Eukaryot Cell. 2002;1:758-73 pubmed
    ..It interacts genetically with replication components and causes an S-phase delay when overexpressed. We propose that Mcl1p, like Ctf4p, has a role in regulating DNA replication complexes. ..
  29. Walworth N, Davey S, Beach D. Fission yeast chk1 protein kinase links the rad checkpoint pathway to cdc2. Nature. 1993;363:368-71 pubmed
    ..Multiple copies of chk1 partially rescue the ultraviolet sensitivity of rad1-1, a mutant deficient in checkpoint control...
  30. Rowley R, Subramani S, Young P. Checkpoint controls in Schizosaccharomyces pombe: rad1. EMBO J. 1992;11:1335-42 pubmed
    ..Five were identified. A characterization of one (rad1-1) and the wild-type is presented...
  31. Synnes M, Nilssen E, Boye E, Grallert B. A novel chk1-dependent G1/M checkpoint in fission yeast. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:3609-18 pubmed
    ..We also show that commitment to cutting occurs already in early G1 phase. ..
  32. Alao J, Olesch J, Sunnerhagen P. Inhibition of type I histone deacetylase increases resistance of checkpoint-deficient cells to genotoxic agents through mitotic delay. Mol Cancer Ther. 2009;8:2606-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Effective use of these agents as chemosensitizers and radiosensitizers may require specific treatment schedules that circumvent their inhibition of cell cycle progression. ..
  33. Maiorano D, Van Assendelft G, Kearsey S. Fission yeast cdc21, a member of the MCM protein family, is required for onset of S phase and is located in the nucleus throughout the cell cycle. EMBO J. 1996;15:861-72 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with the view that individual proteins in the MCM family are required for all initiation events, and defective initiation may impair the coordination between mitosis and S phase. ..
  34. Wan S, Capasso H, Walworth N. The topoisomerase I poison camptothecin generates a Chk1-dependent DNA damage checkpoint signal in fission yeast. Yeast. 1999;15:821-8 pubmed
    ..Finally, as a well-characterized, soluble agent that specifically causes DNA damage, CPT will allow a biochemical analysis of the checkpoint pathway that responds to DNA damage. ..
  35. Kostrub C, Knudsen K, Subramani S, Enoch T. Hus1p, a conserved fission yeast checkpoint protein, interacts with Rad1p and is phosphorylated in response to DNA damage. EMBO J. 1998;17:2055-66 pubmed
    ..negative allele of hus1+, we have demonstrated a genetic interaction between hus1+ and another checkpoint rad gene, rad1+...
  36. Griffiths D, Barbet N, McCready S, Lehmann A, Carr A. Fission yeast rad17: a homologue of budding yeast RAD24 that shares regions of sequence similarity with DNA polymerase accessory proteins. EMBO J. 1995;14:5812-23 pubmed
    ..Six of these (rad1, rad3, rad9, rad17, rad26 and hus1) are also required for the checkpoint which prevents mitosis from occurring ..