Gene Symbol: zwf
Description: glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase
Alias: ECK1853, JW1841
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
Products:     zwf

Top Publications

  1. Thomson J, Gerstenberger P, Goldberg D, Gociar E, Orozco de Silva A, Fraenkel D. ColE1 hybrid plasmids for Escherichia coli genes of glycolysis and the hexose monophosphate shunt. J Bacteriol. 1979;137:502-6 pubmed
    ..pfkA), triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), phosphoglucose isomerase (pgi), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (zwf), gluconate-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (gnd), enolase (eno), phosphoglycerate kinase (pgk), and fructose-1,6-P2 ..
  2. Sanwal B. Regulatory mechanisms involving nicotinamide adenine nucleotides as allosteric effectors. 3. Control of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase. J Biol Chem. 1970;245:1626-31 pubmed
  3. Nicolas C, Kiefer P, Letisse F, Krömer J, Massou S, Soucaille P, et al. Response of the central metabolism of Escherichia coli to modified expression of the gene encoding the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:3771-6 pubmed
    The deletion of the zwf gene encoding G6PDH activity led to restructuring of the carbon flux through central metabolism in Escherichia coli, though over-expression of this gene had only minor consequences for overall carbon flux...
  4. Kolodkin Gal I, Hazan R, Gaathon A, Carmeli S, Engelberg Kulka H. A linear pentapeptide is a quorum-sensing factor required for mazEF-mediated cell death in Escherichia coli. Science. 2007;318:652-5 pubmed
    ..Structural analysis revealed that EDF is a linear pentapeptide, Asn-Asn-Trp-Asn-Asn. Each of the five amino acids of EDF is important for its activity. ..
  5. Conway T, Yi K, Egan S, Wolf R, Rowley D. Locations of the zwf, edd, and eda genes on the Escherichia coli physical map. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:5247-8 pubmed
  6. De Spiegeleer P, Sermon J, Lietaert A, Aertsen A, Michiels C. Source of tryptone in growth medium affects oxidative stress resistance in Escherichia coli. J Appl Microbiol. 2004;97:124-33 pubmed
    ..This work highlights the importance of controlling very subtle differences in composition of nonselective growth media in studies on bacterial physiology. ..
  7. Rowley D, Wolf R. Molecular characterization of the Escherichia coli K-12 zwf gene encoding glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:968-77 pubmed
    In Escherichia coli K-12, expression of zwf, the gene for glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, is coordinated with the cellular growth rate and induced by superoxide-generating agents...
  8. Peyru G, Fraenkel D. Genetic mapping of loci for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, gluconate-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and gluconate-6-phosphate dehydrase in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1968;95:1272-8 pubmed
    ..on the Escherichia coli genome of mutations affecting the constitutive enzymes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (zwf) and gluconate-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (gnd), and the inducible enzyme gluconate-6-phosphate dehydrase (edd), ..
  9. Kolodkin Gal I, Engelberg Kulka H. The extracellular death factor: physiological and genetic factors influencing its production and response in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:3169-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, stress response and the gene specifying MazEF, the Zwf (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) gene, and the protease ClpXP are critical in EDF production...

More Information


  1. Acebron S, Martín I, Del Castillo U, Moro F, Muga A. DnaK-mediated association of ClpB to protein aggregates. A bichaperone network at the aggregate surface. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:2991-6 pubmed publisher
    ..After initial DnaJ binding, the cochaperone drives association of DnaK to aggregates, and in the third step, as shown here, DnaK mediates ClpB interaction with the aggregate surface. ..
  2. Niazi J, Kim B, Gu M. Characterization of superoxide-stress sensing recombinant Escherichia coli constructed using promoters for genes zwf and fpr fused to lux operon. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007;74:1276-83 pubmed superoxide-generating compounds, two plasmids were constructed in which the superoxide-inducible fpr and zwf promoters from Escherichia coli were fused to promoterless Vibrio fischeri luxCDABE operon present in plasmid ..
  3. Brumaghim J, Li Y, Henle E, Linn S. Effects of hydrogen peroxide upon nicotinamide nucleotide metabolism in Escherichia coli: changes in enzyme levels and nicotinamide nucleotide pools and studies of the oxidation of NAD(P)H by Fe(III). J Biol Chem. 2003;278:42495-504 pubmed
    ..NADPH complex than for the Fe3+.NADH complex. We therefore suggest that upon exposure to H2O2 the NADH pool is depleted, and NADPH, which is less reactive with Fe3+, functions as the major nicotinamide nucleotide reductant. ..
  4. Vinopal R, Hillman J, Schulman H, Reznikoff W, Fraenkel D. New phosphoglucose isomerase mutants of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1975;122:1172-4 pubmed
    ..However, they might be preferred for certain physiological studies, and we have prepared for this a new double mutant, strain DF214, with a Mu insertion in pgi and a deletion in zwf (flucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase).
  5. Fraenkel D. The accumulation of glucose 6-phosphate from glucose and its effect in an Escherichia coli mutant lacking phosphoglucose isomerase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase. J Biol Chem. 1968;243:6451-7 pubmed
  6. Zhao J, Baba T, Mori H, Shimizu K. Effect of zwf gene knockout on the metabolism of Escherichia coli grown on glucose or acetate. Metab Eng. 2004;6:164-74 pubmed
    The mutant deficient in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) was constructed by disrupting zwf gene by one-step inactivation protocol using polymerase chain reaction primers...
  7. Banerjee S, Fraenkel D. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli and from a "high-level" mutant. J Bacteriol. 1972;110:155-60 pubmed
    ..The two enzymes are the same in all characteristics studied thus far: specific activity, kinetics, specificity, and subunit size. ..
  8. Lu C, Bentley W, Rao G. Comparisons of oxidative stress response genes in aerobic Escherichia coli fermentations. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2003;83:864-70 pubmed
    The promoter regions of five SoxRS regulon genes (sodA, fumC, zwf, acnA, and acrAB) and one SoxRS regulatory protein gene (soxS) were inserted upstream of the gene of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in pGlow-TOPO...
  9. Fraenkel D. Selection of Escherichia coli mutants lacking glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase or gluconate-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. J Bacteriol. 1968;95:1267-71 pubmed
    ..Thus, these enzymes are not essential for glucose metabolism in E. coli. ..
  10. Fraenkel D, Banerjee S. A mutation increasing the amount of a constitutive enzyme in Escherichia coli, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase. J Mol Biol. 1971;56:183-94 pubmed
  11. Dykhuizen D, de Framond J, Hartl D. Potential for hitchhiking in the eda-edd-zwf gene cluster of Escherichia coli. Genet Res. 1984;43:229-39 pubmed
  12. Zhao J, Baba T, Mori H, Shimizu K. Global metabolic response of Escherichia coli to gnd or zwf gene-knockout, based on 13C-labeling experiments and the measurement of enzyme activities. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2004;64:91-8 pubmed glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase were constructed by disrupting the zwf and gnd genes and were grown in minimal media with two different carbon sources, such as glucose or pyruvate...
  13. Trinh C, Carlson R, Wlaschin A, Srienc F. Design, construction and performance of the most efficient biomass producing E. coli bacterium. Metab Eng. 2006;8:628-38 pubmed
    ..The results show that the theoretical predictions are closely matched by the properties of the designed strain. ..
  14. Fong S, Palsson B. Metabolic gene-deletion strains of Escherichia coli evolve to computationally predicted growth phenotypes. Nat Genet. 2004;36:1056-8 pubmed
    ..These results show that computational models can be used to predict the eventual effects of genetic modifications. ..
  15. Carter A, Pearson B, Dickinson J, Lancashire W. Sequence of the Escherichia coli K-12 edd and eda genes of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Gene. 1993;130:155-6 pubmed
    ..Part of the zwf gene, encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and all of the edd and eda genes, encoding 6-phosphogluconate ..
  16. Siddiquee K, Arauzo Bravo M, Shimizu K. Effect of a pyruvate kinase (pykF-gene) knockout mutation on the control of gene expression and metabolic fluxes in Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004;235:25-33 pubmed
    ..pckA, maeB and mdh genes were strongly up-regulated, and that the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway genes such as zwf and gnd were significantly up-regulated in the pykF mutant...
  17. Echtenkamp P, Wilson D, Shuler M. Cell cycle progression in Escherichia coli B/r affects transcription of certain genes: Implications for synthetic genome design. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2009;102:902-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Transcripts levels for hns, uspA, and zwf were affected by the cell division cycle, but did not fit well into either class...
  18. Flores S, de Anda Herrera R, Gosset G, Bolívar F. Growth-rate recovery of Escherichia coli cultures carrying a multicopy plasmid, by engineering of the pentose-phosphate pathway. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2004;87:485-94 pubmed
    ..We constructed a high-copy number plasmid carrying the gene for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, zwf, under the control of an inducible trc promoter (pTRzwf04 plasmid)...
  19. Hua Q, Yang C, Baba T, Mori H, Shimizu K. Responses of the central metabolism in Escherichia coli to phosphoglucose isomerase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase knockouts. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:7053-67 pubmed
  20. Rowley D, Fawcett W, Wolf R. Molecular characterization of mutations affecting expression level and growth rate-dependent regulation of the Escherichia coli zwf gene. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:623-6 pubmed
    ..DNA sequencing and transcript mapping showed that the "up" mutations created new promoters whose hyperactive expression overrides the normal regulation of the native promoter. ..
  21. Fraenkel D, Banerjee S. Deletion mapping of zwf, the gene for a constitutive enzyme, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli. Genetics. 1972;71:481-9 pubmed
    Genes for three enzymes of intermediary sugar metabolism in E. coli, zwf (glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, constitutive), edd (gluconate 6-phosphate dehydrase, inducible), and eda (2-keto-3-deoxygluconate 6-phosphate aldolase, ..
  22. Jair K, Yu X, Skarstad K, Thony B, Fujita N, Ishihama A, et al. Transcriptional activation of promoters of the superoxide and multiple antibiotic resistance regulons by Rob, a binding protein of the Escherichia coli origin of chromosomal replication. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:2507-13 pubmed
    ..We found that Rob (i) activates the transcription of zwf,fpr,fumC, micF, nfo, and sodA, (ii) requires a 21-bp soxbox-marbox-robbox sequence to activate zwf transcription, (..
  23. Cheng W, Hardwick J. A quorum on bacterial programmed cell death. Mol Cell. 2007;28:515-7 pubmed
    ..2007) reported a novel programmed cell death mechanism for Escherichia coli that occurs during cellular overcrowding via the release of a fratricidal pentapeptide derived from the metabolic enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. ..
  24. Fawcett W, Wolf R. Genetic definition of the Escherichia coli zwf "soxbox," the DNA binding site for SoxS-mediated induction of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase in response to superoxide. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:1742-50 pubmed
    In Escherichia coli K-12, transcription of zwf, the gene for glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, is subject to growth rate-dependent regulation and is activated by SoxS in response to superoxide stress...
  25. Wood T, Griffith K, Fawcett W, Jair K, Schneider T, Wolf R. Interdependence of the position and orientation of SoxS binding sites in the transcriptional activation of the class I subset of Escherichia coli superoxide-inducible promoters. Mol Microbiol. 1999;34:414-30 pubmed
    ..At class I SoxS-dependent promoters, e.g. zwf and fpr, whose SoxS binding sites ('soxbox') lie upstream of the -35 region of the promoter, activation requires ..
  26. Bore E, Hebraud M, Chafsey I, Chambon C, Skjaeret C, Moen B, et al. Adapted tolerance to benzalkonium chloride in Escherichia coli K-12 studied by transcriptome and proteome analyses. Microbiology. 2007;153:935-46 pubmed
    ..The results revealed that BC treatment might result in superoxide stress in E. coli. ..
  27. Giró M, Carrillo N, Krapp A. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and ferredoxin-NADP(H) reductase contribute to damage repair during the soxRS response of Escherichia coli. Microbiology. 2006;152:1119-28 pubmed
    ..glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and ferredoxin(flavodoxin)-NADP(H) reductase (FPR), encoded by the zwf and fpr genes, respectively, are committed members of the soxRS regulatory system involved in superoxide resistance ..
  28. Griffith K, Wolf R. Systematic mutagenesis of the DNA binding sites for SoxS in the Escherichia coli zwf and fpr promoters: identifying nucleotides required for DNA binding and transcription activation. Mol Microbiol. 2001;40:1141-54 pubmed
    ..are important for SoxS binding, we conducted a systematic mutagenesis of the DNA binding sites for SoxS in the zwf and fpr promoters and determined the effect of the soxbox mutations on SoxS DNA binding and transcription ..
  29. Guttman D, Dykhuizen D. Clonal divergence in Escherichia coli as a result of recombination, not mutation. Science. 1994;266:1380-3 pubmed
    ..Thus, recombination has been the dominant force driving the clonal divergence of the ECOR group A strains and must be considered a significant factor in structuring E. coli populations. ..
  30. Ariza R, Li Z, Ringstad N, Demple B. Activation of multiple antibiotic resistance and binding of stress-inducible promoters by Escherichia coli Rob protein. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:1655-61 pubmed
    ..10(-9) M Rob) as strongly as it did oriC, and it bound more weakly to DNA containing the sodA, nfo, or zwf promoter (50% bound at 10(-8) to 10(-7) M)...