Gene Symbol: xerD
Description: site-specific tyrosine recombinase
Alias: ECK2889, JW2862, xprB
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Leslie N, Sherratt D. Site-specific recombination in the replication terminus region of Escherichia coli: functional replacement of dif. EMBO J. 1995;14:1561-70 pubmed
    ..is a substrate for site-specific recombination catalysed by the related chromosomally encoded recombinases XerC and XerD. It has been proposed that this recombination converts chromosome multimers formed by homologous recombination back ..
  2. Barre F, Aroyo M, Colloms S, Helfrich A, Cornet F, Sherratt D. FtsK functions in the processing of a Holliday junction intermediate during bacterial chromosome segregation. Genes Dev. 2000;14:2976-88 pubmed
    ..terminus region of the chromosome, converts dimers to monomers through the sequential action of the XerC and XerD recombinases...
  3. Recchia G, Aroyo M, Wolf D, Blakely G, Sherratt D. FtsK-dependent and -independent pathways of Xer site-specific recombination. EMBO J. 1999;18:5724-34 pubmed
    ..Two recombinases, XerC and XerD, act at the E. coli chromosomal recombination site, dif, and at related sites in plasmids...
  4. Ferreira H, Butler Cole B, Burgin A, Baker R, Sherratt D, Arciszewska L. Functional analysis of the C-terminal domains of the site-specific recombinases XerC and XerD. J Mol Biol. 2003;330:15-27 pubmed
    The tyrosine family site-specific recombinases XerC and XerD convert dimers of the Escherichia coli chromosome and many natural plasmids to monomers...
  5. Spiers A, Sherratt D. Relating primary structure to function in the Escherichia coli XerD site-specific recombinase. Mol Microbiol. 1997;24:1071-82 pubmed
    XerC and XerD are related 298-amino-acid site-specific recombinases, each of which is responsible for the exchange of one pair of strands in Xer recombination...
  6. Hayes F, Sherratt D. Recombinase binding specificity at the chromosome dimer resolution site dif of Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 1997;266:525-37 pubmed
    ..Xer recombination requires two closely related site-specific recombinases, XerC and XerD, which bind cooperatively to the recombination site dif and catalyse separate pairs of strand exchanges...
  7. Blakely G, Davidson A, Sherratt D. Binding and cleavage of nicked substrates by site-specific recombinases XerC and XerD. J Mol Biol. 1997;265:30-9 pubmed
    In Xer site-specific recombination two related recombinases, XerC and XerD, catalyse strand cleavage and rejoining reactions at a site, dif, in order to ensure normal chromosome segregation during cell division in Escherichia coli...
  8. Bloor A, Cranenburgh R. An efficient method of selectable marker gene excision by Xer recombination for gene replacement in bacterial chromosomes. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:2520-5 pubmed
    ..for the native Xer site-specific recombinases responsible for chromosome and plasmid dimer resolution: XerC/XerD in Escherichia coli and RipX/CodV in Bacillus subtilis...
  9. Yates J, Aroyo M, Sherratt D, Barre F. Species specificity in the activation of Xer recombination at dif by FtsK. Mol Microbiol. 2003;49:241-9 pubmed
    ..Recombination is performed by two tyrosine recombinases, XerC and XerD, and requires the action of an additional protein, FtsK...

More Information


  1. Kuempel P, Henson J, Dircks L, Tecklenburg M, Lim D. dif, a recA-independent recombination site in the terminus region of the chromosome of Escherichia coli. New Biol. 1991;3:799-811 pubmed
    ..It is proposed that dif functions to resolve dimeric chromosomes produced by sister chromatid exchange, and that the Dif phenotype is due to the inability of these mutants to resolve multimers prior to cell division. ..
  2. Hallet B, Arciszewska L, Sherratt D. Reciprocal control of catalysis by the tyrosine recombinases XerC and XerD: an enzymatic switch in site-specific recombination. Mol Cell. 1999;4:949-59 pubmed
    ..DNA strand exchange reactions are catalyzed by a heterotetrameric complex composed of two recombinases, XerC and XerD. It is demonstrated that XerC and XerD catalytic activity is controlled by an interaction involving the C-terminal ..
  3. Sirois S, Szatmari G. Detection of XerC and XerD recombinases in gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:4183-6 pubmed
    XerC and XerD are site-specific recombinases of the lambda integrase family which resolve multimeric replicons to monomers by acting at specific sites such as cer, ckr, nmr, parB, and psi, which are found in plasmids, or at the dif site ..
  4. Pérals K, Cornet F, Merlet Y, Delon I, Louarn J. Functional polarization of the Escherichia coli chromosome terminus: the dif site acts in chromosome dimer resolution only when located between long stretches of opposite polarity. Mol Microbiol. 2000;36:33-43 pubmed
    ..Dimers are lethal unless resolved by a system that involves the XerC, XerD and FtsK proteins acting at a site (dif) in the terminus region...
  5. Blakely G, Davidson A, Sherratt D. Sequential strand exchange by XerC and XerD during site-specific recombination at dif. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:9930-6 pubmed
    ..The Xer site-specific recombination system uses two related tyrosine recombinases, XerC and XerD, to catalyze resolution of circular dimers at the chromosomal site, dif...
  6. Ferreira H, Sherratt D, Arciszewska L. Switching catalytic activity in the XerCD site-specific recombination machine. J Mol Biol. 2001;312:45-57 pubmed
    ..In the recombining complex that contains two synapsed recombination sites and two molecules each of XerC and XerD, the DNA strand-exchange reactions are separated in time and space...
  7. Hendrickson H, Lawrence J. Mutational bias suggests that replication termination occurs near the dif site, not at Ter sites. Mol Microbiol. 2007;64:42-56 pubmed
    ..We propose that Ter sites participate in halting replication forks originating from DNA repair events, and not those originating at the chromosomal origin of replication. ..
  8. Colloms S, McCulloch R, Grant K, Neilson L, Sherratt D. Xer-mediated site-specific recombination in vitro. EMBO J. 1996;15:1172-81 pubmed
    ..We show that four proteins, ArgR, PepA, XerC and XerD are necessary and sufficient for recombination between directly repeated cer sites on a supercoiled plasmid in ..
  9. Aussel L, Barre F, Aroyo M, Stasiak A, Stasiak A, Sherratt D. FtsK Is a DNA motor protein that activates chromosome dimer resolution by switching the catalytic state of the XerC and XerD recombinases. Cell. 2002;108:195-205 pubmed
    ..Xer recombination reaction between dif sites by switching the state of activity of the XerCD recombinases so that XerD makes the first pair of strand exchanges to form Holliday junctions that are then resolved by XerC...
  10. Ip S, Bregu M, Barre F, Sherratt D. Decatenation of DNA circles by FtsK-dependent Xer site-specific recombination. EMBO J. 2003;22:6399-407 pubmed
    ..We propose that the FtsK-XerCD recombination machinery, which converts chromosomal dimers to monomers, may also function in vivo in removing the final catenation links remaining upon completion of DNA replication. ..
  11. Subramanya H, Arciszewska L, Baker R, Bird L, Sherratt D, Wigley D. Crystal structure of the site-specific recombinase, XerD. EMBO J. 1997;16:5178-87 pubmed
    The structure of the site-specific recombinase, XerD, that functions in circular chromosome separation, has been solved at 2.5 A resolution and reveals that the protein comprises two domains...
  12. Blakely G, Colloms S, May G, Burke M, Sherratt D. Escherichia coli XerC recombinase is required for chromosomal segregation at cell division. New Biol. 1991;3:789-98 pubmed
  13. Blakely G, May G, McCulloch R, Arciszewska L, Burke M, Lovett S, et al. Two related recombinases are required for site-specific recombination at dif and cer in E. coli K12. Cell. 1993;75:351-61 pubmed
    ..recombinase, whose function has already been implicated in this system, a second chromosomally encoded recombinase, XerD, is required. The XerC and XerD proteins show 37% identity and bind to separate halves of the recombination site...
  14. Blakely G, Sherratt D. Determinants of selectivity in Xer site-specific recombination. Genes Dev. 1996;10:762-73 pubmed
    ..Recombination at both types of site requires the cooperative interactions of two related recombinases, XerC and XerD, with a 30-bp recombination core site...
  15. Bigot S, Saleh O, Cornet F, Allemand J, Barre F. Oriented loading of FtsK on KOPS. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006;13:1026-8 pubmed
    ..DNA transport by FtsK is oriented by 8-base-pair asymmetric sequences ('KOPS'). Here we provide evidence that KOPS promote FtsK loading on DNA and that translocation is oriented at this step. ..
  16. Massey T, Aussel L, Barre F, Sherratt D. Asymmetric activation of Xer site-specific recombination by FtsK. EMBO Rep. 2004;5:399-404 pubmed
    ..frequently form in Escherichia coli, are resolved by the combined action of two tyrosine recombinases, XerC and XerD, acting at a specific site on the chromosome, dif, together with the cell division protein FtsK...
  17. Steiner W, Liu G, Donachie W, Kuempel P. The cytoplasmic domain of FtsK protein is required for resolution of chromosome dimers. Mol Microbiol. 1999;31:579-83 pubmed
  18. Yates J, Zhekov I, Baker R, Eklund B, Sherratt D, Arciszewska L. Dissection of a functional interaction between the DNA translocase, FtsK, and the XerD recombinase. Mol Microbiol. 2006;59:1754-66 pubmed
    ..We show that a 62-amino-acid fragment of FtsK(C) interacts directly with the XerD C-terminus in order to stimulate the cleavage by XerD of BSN, a dif-DNA suicide substrate containing a nick in the '..
  19. Weiss D. Bacterial cell division and the septal ring. Mol Microbiol. 2004;54:588-97 pubmed
    ..Finally, two murein hydrolases, AmiC and EnvC, have been shown to localize to the septal ring of Escherichia coli, where they play an important role in separation of daughter cells. ..
  20. Arciszewska L, Grainge I, Sherratt D. Action of site-specific recombinases XerC and XerD on tethered Holliday junctions. EMBO J. 1997;16:3731-43 pubmed
    In Xer site-specific recombination, two related recombinases, XerC and XerD, mediate the formation of recombinant products using Holliday junction-containing DNA molecules as reaction intermediates...
  21. Hendricks E, Szerlong H, Hill T, Kuempel P. Cell division, guillotining of dimer chromosomes and SOS induction in resolution mutants (dif, xerC and xerD) of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2000;36:973-81 pubmed
    We have studied the growth and division of xerC, xerD and dif mutants of Escherichia coli, which are unable to resolve dimer chromosomes...
  22. Michel B, Recchia G, Penel Colin M, Ehrlich S, Sherratt D. Resolution of holliday junctions by RuvABC prevents dimer formation in rep mutants and UV-irradiated cells. Mol Microbiol. 2000;37:180-91 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the inviability arising from a high frequency of dimer formation in rep or UV-irradiated cells is only observed in the absence of known enzymes that resolve Holliday junctions. ..
  23. El Sayyed H, Le Chat L, Lebailly E, Vickridge E, Pages C, Cornet F, et al. Mapping Topoisomerase IV Binding and Activity Sites on the E. coli Genome. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1006025 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that Topo IV, XerCD/dif and MatP are part of a network dedicated to the final step of chromosome management during the cell cycle. ..
  24. Barre F, Søballe B, Michel B, Aroyo M, Robertson M, Sherratt D. Circles: the replication-recombination-chromosome segregation connection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:8189-95 pubmed
    ..FtsK acts by facilitating a conformational change in the Xer recombination Holliday junction intermediate formed by XerC recombinase. This change provides a substrate for XerD, which then completes the recombination reaction.
  25. Bonné L, Bigot S, Chevalier F, Allemand J, Barre F. Asymmetric DNA requirements in Xer recombination activation by FtsK. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:2371-80 pubmed publisher
    ..coli, chromosome dimers are resolved by the addition of a crossover by two tyrosine recombinases, XerC and XerD, at a specific site on the chromosome, dif...
  26. Lovett S, Clark A. Cloning of the Escherichia coli recJ chromosomal region and identification of its encoded proteins. J Bacteriol. 1985;162:280-5 pubmed
    ..A 9.6-kilobase BamHI-SalI fragment carrying the temperature-sensitive mutation recJ147 was also cloned and used for complementation studies to identify other recJ mutations. ..
  27. Pérals K, Capiaux H, Vincourt J, Louarn J, Sherratt D, Cornet F. Interplay between recombination, cell division and chromosome structure during chromosome dimer resolution in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2001;39:904-13 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the formation of an active XerCD-FtsK-dif complex is restricted to when a dimer is present, the features of chromosome organization that determine the DAZ playing a central role in this control. ..
  28. Steiner W, Kuempel P. Cell division is required for resolution of dimer chromosomes at the dif locus of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1998;27:257-68 pubmed
    ..A density label assay demonstrates that recombination occurs at dif, and that it requires XerC and XerD. The frequency of this recombination is approximately 14% per site per generation, which is doubled in polA12 ..
  29. Tolmasky M, Colloms S, Blakely G, Sherratt D. Stability by multimer resolution of pJHCMW1 is due to the Tn1331 resolvase and not to the Escherichia coli Xer system. Microbiology. 2000;146 ( Pt 3):581-9 pubmed
    ..coli, the recombination that did occur was dependent on ArgR, PepA, XerC and XerD. A supercoiled circular DNA molecule containing two pJHCMW1 mwr sites in direct repeat yielded Holliday-junction-..
  30. Cornet F, Mortier I, Patte J, Louarn J. Plasmid pSC101 harbors a recombination site, psi, which is able to resolve plasmid multimers and to substitute for the analogous chromosomal Escherichia coli site dif. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:3188-95 pubmed
    Plasmid pSC101 harbors a 28-bp sequence which is homologous to dif, the target site of the XerC/XerD-dependent recombination system in Escherichia coli...
  31. Summers D. Timing, self-control and a sense of direction are the secrets of multicopy plasmid stability. Mol Microbiol. 1998;29:1137-45 pubmed
    ..Working in concert, the triumvirate of copy number control, multimer resolution and cell division control achieve an extremely high fidelity of plasmid maintenance. ..
  32. Ting H, Kouzminova E, Kuzminov A. Synthetic lethality with the dut defect in Escherichia coli reveals layers of DNA damage of increasing complexity due to uracil incorporation. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:5841-54 pubmed publisher
    ..xthA); (ii) double-strand DNA break repair (recA, recBC, and ruvABC); and (iii) chromosomal-dimer resolution (xerC, xerD, and ftsK)...
  33. Higgins N. Mutational bias suggests that replication termination occurs near the dif site, not at Ter sites: what's the Dif?. Mol Microbiol. 2007;64:1-4 pubmed
    ..What make this analysis novel are the methods and the revisionist hypotheses for how and why forks might stop at dif. ..
  34. Colloms S, Alen C, Sherratt D. The ArcA/ArcB two-component regulatory system of Escherichia coli is essential for Xer site-specific recombination at psi. Mol Microbiol. 1998;28:521-30 pubmed
    Two recombinases, XerC and XerD, act at the recombination sites psi and cer in plasmids pSC101 and Co1E1 respectively...
  35. Prikryl J, Hendricks E, Kuempel P. DNA degradation in the terminus region of resolvase mutants of Escherichia coli, and suppression of this degradation and the Dif phenotype by recD. Biochimie. 2001;83:171-6 pubmed
    ..This was based on the abnormal pattern of cell division observed in 10-14% of the cells in microcolonies of xerC, xerD and dif mutants...
  36. May P, Zawadzki P, Sherratt D, Kapanidis A, Arciszewska L. Assembly, translocation, and activation of XerCD-dif recombination by FtsK translocase analyzed in real-time by FRET and two-color tethered fluorophore motion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:E5133-41 pubmed publisher
  37. Pham H, Dery K, Sherratt D, Tolmasky M. Osmoregulation of dimer resolution at the plasmid pJHCMW1 mwr locus by Escherichia coli XerCD recombination. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:1607-16 pubmed
    ..coli ARG box consensus. The central region of the mwr core recombination site plays a role in regulation of site-specific recombination by the osmotic pressure of the medium. ..
  38. McCulloch R, Coggins L, Colloms S, Sherratt D. Xer-mediated site-specific recombination at cer generates Holliday junctions in vivo. EMBO J. 1994;13:1844-55 pubmed
    ..Two putative lambda integrase family recombinases, XerC and XerD, participate in the recombination reactions. We have constructed an E...
  39. Blake J, Ganguly N, Sherratt D. DNA sequence of recombinase-binding sites can determine Xer site-specific recombination outcome. Mol Microbiol. 1997;23:387-98 pubmed
    ..Two related recombinases, XerC and XerD, mediate this recombination, which 'undoes' the potential damage of homologous recombination...
  40. Spiers A, Sherratt D. C-terminal interactions between the XerC and XerD site-specific recombinases. Mol Microbiol. 1999;32:1031-42 pubmed
    ..By extrapolating the Cre DNA recombinase structure to the related site-specific recombinases XerC and XerD, it is predicted that the extreme C-termini of XerC and XerD interact with alpha-helix M in XerD and the equivalent ..
  41. Lovett S, Kolodner R. Nucleotide sequence of the Escherichia coli recJ chromosomal region and construction of recJ-overexpression plasmids. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:353-64 pubmed
    ..However, protein sequence comparisons with a gene upstream of recJ, denoted xprB, revealed significant homology with several site-specific recombination proteins...
  42. Arciszewska L, Sherratt D. Xer site-specific recombination in vitro. EMBO J. 1995;14:2112-20 pubmed
    Two related recombinases, XerC and XerD, belonging to the lambda integrase family of enzymes, are required for Xer site-specific recombination in vivo...
  43. Reijns M, Lu Y, Leach S, Colloms S. Mutagenesis of PepA suggests a new model for the Xer/cer synaptic complex. Mol Microbiol. 2005;57:927-41 pubmed
    ..In this model, PepA stabilizes negative plectonemic interwrapping between two segments of DNA by passing one segment through the C-terminal groove while the other is held in place in a loop over the groove. ..
  44. Carnoy C, Roten C. The dif/Xer recombination systems in proteobacteria. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6531 pubmed publisher
    ..These dimers are resolved by XerC and XerD, two tyrosine recombinases that target the 28-nucleotide motif (dif) associated with the chromosome's replication ..
  45. Zawadzki P, May P, Baker R, Pinkney J, Kapanidis A, Sherratt D, et al. Conformational transitions during FtsK translocase activation of individual XerCD-dif recombination complexes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:17302-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We then followed the reaction intermediate transitions as Holliday junctions formed through catalysis by XerD, isomerized, and were converted by XerC to reaction products, which then dissociated...
  46. Cornet F, Hallet B, Sherratt D. Xer recombination in Escherichia coli. Site-specific DNA topoisomerase activity of the XerC and XerD recombinases. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:21927-31 pubmed
    ..Two recombinases of the bacteriophage lambda integrase family, XerC and XerD, are required for recombination at the chromosomal site, dif, and at a range of plasmid-borne sites...
  47. Hojgaard A, Szerlong H, Tabor C, Kuempel P. Norfloxacin-induced DNA cleavage occurs at the dif resolvase locus in Escherichia coli and is the result of interaction with topoisomerase IV. Mol Microbiol. 1999;33:1027-36 pubmed
    ..Recombination at dif resolves circular dimer chromosomes to monomers, and this recombination requires the XerC, XerD and FtsK proteins, as well as cell division...
  48. Sherratt D, Arciszewska L, Blakely G, Colloms S, Grant K, Leslie N, et al. Site-specific recombination and circular chromosome segregation. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1995;347:37-42 pubmed
    ..Two recombinases, XerC and XerD, bind cooperatively to a recombination site present in the E...
  49. Blakely G, Sherratt D. Interactions of the site-specific recombinases XerC and XerD with the recombination site dif. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994;22:5613-20 pubmed
    ..produced by homologous recombination, are converted to monomers by the action of two related recombinases XerC and XerD. Site-specific recombination at a locus, dif, within the chromosomal replication terminus region is thought to ..
  50. Colloms S, Sykora P, Szatmari G, Sherratt D. Recombination at ColE1 cer requires the Escherichia coli xerC gene product, a member of the lambda integrase family of site-specific recombinases. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:6973-80 pubmed
    ..The xerC gene is expressed as part of a multicistronic unit that includes the dapF gene and two other open reading frames. ..
  51. Graham J, Sivanathan V, Sherratt D, Arciszewska L. FtsK translocation on DNA stops at XerCD-dif. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:72-81 pubmed publisher
    ..stoppage at recombinase-DNA complexes does not require the FtsKgamma regulatory subdomain, which interacts with XerD, and is not dependent on either recombinase-mediated DNA cleavage activity, or the formation of synaptic complexes.
  52. Blaby I, Summers D. The role of FIS in the Rcd checkpoint and stable maintenance of plasmid ColE1. Microbiology. 2009;155:2676-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Rcd transcription is triggered in plasmid dimers by the lifting of XerCD-mediated repression in the synaptic complex. ..