Gene Symbol: wcaG
Description: bifunctional GDP-fucose synthetase: GDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-mannose epimerase/ GDP-4-dehydro-6-L-deoxygalactose reductase
Alias: ECK2046, JW2037, fcl, yefB
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Stevenson G, Andrianopoulos K, Hobbs M, Reeves P. Organization of the Escherichia coli K-12 gene cluster responsible for production of the extracellular polysaccharide colanic acid. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:4885-93 pubmed
    ..Since homologs of these genes are found in other extracellular polysaccharide gene clusters, they may have a common function, such as export of polysaccharide from the cell. ..
  2. Tonetti M, Rizzi M, Vigevani P, Sturla L, Bisso A, De Flora A, et al. Preliminary crystallographic investigations of recombinant GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-mannose epimerase/reductase from E. coli. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 1998;54:684-6 pubmed
    ..GM_ER has been crystallized in a trigonal crystalline form, containing one molecule per asymmetric unit, suitable for high-resolution crystallographic investigations. ..
  3. Rizzi M, Tonetti M, Vigevani P, Sturla L, Bisso A, Flora A, et al. GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-mannose epimerase/reductase from Escherichia coli, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of GDP-L-fucose, displays the structural characteristics of the RED protein homology superfamily. Structure. 1998;6:1453-65 pubmed
    ..The location of the NADP+ nicotinamide ring at an interdomain cleft is compatible with substrate binding in the C-terminal domain. ..
  4. Tonetti M, Sturla L, Bisso A, Zanardi D, Benatti U, De Flora A. The metabolism of 6-deoxyhexoses in bacterial and animal cells. Biochimie. 1998;80:923-31 pubmed
    ..We have also cloned and fully characterized a human protein, formerly named FX, and an E. coli protein, WcaG, which display both the epimerase and the reductase activities, thus indicating that only two enzymes are required ..
  5. Struve C, Forestier C, Krogfelt K. Application of a novel multi-screening signature-tagged mutagenesis assay for identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae genes essential in colonization and infection. Microbiology. 2003;149:167-76 pubmed
    ..Transposon insertion sites in attenuated mutants were, among others, in genes encoding well-known K. pneumoniae virulence factors such as lipopolysaccharide and capsule, as well as in genes of unknown function...
  6. Andrianopoulos K, Wang L, Reeves P. Identification of the fucose synthetase gene in the colanic acid gene cluster of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:998-1001 pubmed
    ..coli colanic acid gene cluster and identified one of the GDP-L-fucose biosynthetic pathway genes, gmd. We report here the identification of the gene (fcl), located downstream of gmd, encoding the fucose synthetase.
  7. Somers W, Stahl M, Sullivan F. GDP-fucose synthetase from Escherichia coli: structure of a unique member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family that catalyzes two distinct reactions at the same active site. Structure. 1998;6:1601-12 pubmed
    ..Additionally, the X-ray structure has allowed us to identify other residues that are potentially required for substrate binding and catalysis. ..
  8. Menon S, Stahl M, Kumar R, Xu G, Sullivan F. Stereochemical course and steady state mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by the GDP-fucose synthetase from Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:26743-50 pubmed
  9. Rosano C, Bisso A, Izzo G, Tonetti M, Sturla L, De Flora A, et al. Probing the catalytic mechanism of GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-d-mannose Epimerase/Reductase by kinetic and crystallographic characterization of site-specific mutants. J Mol Biol. 2000;303:77-91 pubmed
    ..Finally, the additional role of mutated active-site residues involved in substrate recognition and in enzyme stability has been analyzed. ..

More Information


  1. Ginsburg V. Studies on the biosynthesis of guanosine diphosphate L-fucose. J Biol Chem. 1961;236:2389-93 pubmed
  2. Aoyama K, Haase A, Reeves P. Evidence for effect of random genetic drift on G+C content after lateral transfer of fucose pathway genes to Escherichia coli K-12. Mol Biol Evol. 1994;11:829-38 pubmed
    ..coli took place approximately 45 million years ago. This is the first report we are aware of demonstrating the expected adjustment of P3 after lateral transfer between species with different G+C content DNA. ..