Gene Symbol: waaS
Description: lipopolysaccharide rhamnose:KdoIII transferase; lipopolysaccharide core biosynthesis protein
Alias: ECK3619, JW3604, rfaS
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Roncero C, Casadaban M. Genetic analysis of the genes involved in synthesis of the lipopolysaccharide core in Escherichia coli K-12: three operons in the rfa locus. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:3250-60 pubmed
    ..The genetic organization of this locus seems to be identical in E. coli K-12 and S. typhimurium. ..
  2. Schnaitman C, Parker C, Klena J, Pradel E, Pearson N, Sanderson K, et al. Physical maps of the rfa loci of Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:7410-1 pubmed
  3. Parker C, Kloser A, Schnaitman C, Stein M, Gottesman S, Gibson B. Role of the rfaG and rfaP genes in determining the lipopolysaccharide core structure and cell surface properties of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:2525-38 pubmed
    ..A model is presented which relates the deep rough phenotype to the loss of heptose-linked P and PPEA. ..
  4. Klena J, Ashford R, Schnaitman C. Role of Escherichia coli K-12 rfa genes and the rfp gene of Shigella dysenteriae 1 in generation of lipopolysaccharide core heterogeneity and attachment of O antigen. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:7297-307 pubmed
    ..coli K-12 and S. typhimurium. In contrast, mutations in rfaS and rfaZ result in changes in the LPS core but do not affect the attachment of O antigen...
  5. Pradel E, Parker C, Schnaitman C. Structures of the rfaB, rfaI, rfaJ, and rfaS genes of Escherichia coli K-12 and their roles in assembly of the lipopolysaccharide core. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:4736-45 pubmed
    ..It has been designated rfaS. The second gene was identified as rfaB on the basis of its ability to complement a Salmonella typhimurium rfaB ..
  6. Klena J, Pradel E, Schnaitman C. Comparison of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis genes rfaK, rfaL, rfaY, and rfaZ of Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:4746-52 pubmed
    ..We speculate that protein RfaL may interact in a strain- or species-specific way with one or more Rfb proteins in the expression of surface O antigen. ..
  7. Austin E, Graves J, Hite L, Parker C, Schnaitman C. Genetic analysis of lipopolysaccharide core biosynthesis by Escherichia coli K-12: insertion mutagenesis of the rfa locus. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:5312-25 pubmed
    ..We speculate that the product of this gene is involved in the attachment of phosphate or phosphorylethanolamine to the core and that it is the lack of one of these substituents which results in the deep rough phenotype. ..
  8. Schnaitman C, Klena J. Genetics of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in enteric bacteria. Microbiol Rev. 1993;57:655-82 pubmed
  9. Klena J, Schnaitman C. Genes for TDP-rhamnose synthesis affect the pattern of lipopolysaccharide heterogeneity in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:4003-10 pubmed
    ..The requirement for the rfaS gene for synthesis of the broad major band seen in W1485F- LPS and the shift in gel migration of a component of ..

More Information


  1. Klena J, Pradel E, Schnaitman C. The rfaS gene, which is involved in production of a rough form of lipopolysaccharide core in Escherichia coli K-12, is not present in the rfa cluster of Salmonella typhimurium LT2. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:1524-7 pubmed
    ..of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 indicated a region of 336 bp between rfaP and rfaB in the site occupied by the rfaS gene in Escherichia coli K-12...
  2. Heinrichs D, Yethon J, Whitfield C. Molecular basis for structural diversity in the core regions of the lipopolysaccharides of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. Mol Microbiol. 1998;30:221-32 pubmed