Gene Symbol: waaQ
Description: lipopolysaccharide core biosynthesis protein
Alias: ECK3622, JW3607, rfaQ
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Parker C, Kloser A, Schnaitman C, Stein M, Gottesman S, Gibson B. Role of the rfaG and rfaP genes in determining the lipopolysaccharide core structure and cell surface properties of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:2525-38 pubmed
    ..removed rfaQGPBIJ was also constructed, and complementation studies with this deletion showed that the product of rfaQ was not required for the functions of rfaG and rfaP. Thus, the function of rfaQ remains unknown...
  2. Clementz T. The gene coding for 3-deoxy-manno-octulosonic acid transferase and the rfaQ gene are transcribed from divergently arranged promoters in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:7750-6 pubmed
    ..subsequent sequencing of the region upstream of kdtA revealed an open reading frame identified as the first gene (rfaQ) in an rfa gene cluster...
  3. Schnaitman C, Klena J. Genetics of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in enteric bacteria. Microbiol Rev. 1993;57:655-82 pubmed
  4. Klena J, Schnaitman C. Genes for TDP-rhamnose synthesis affect the pattern of lipopolysaccharide heterogeneity in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:4003-10 pubmed
    ..of the broad major band seen in W1485F- LPS and the shift in gel migration of a component of this band when an rfaQ mutation was introduced indicated that this broad band contained the unique form of rough E...
  5. Corsaro M, Parrilli E, Lanzetta R, Naldi T, Pieretti G, Lindner B, et al. The presence of OMP inclusion bodies in a Escherichia coli K-12 mutated strain is not related to lipopolysaccharide structure. J Biochem. 2009;146:231-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrated that this difference is due to a mutation in waaQ, a gene encoding the transferase for the branch heptose HepIII residue...
  6. Klena J, Pradel E, Schnaitman C. Comparison of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis genes rfaK, rfaL, rfaY, and rfaZ of Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:4746-52 pubmed
    ..We speculate that protein RfaL may interact in a strain- or species-specific way with one or more Rfb proteins in the expression of surface O antigen. ..
  7. Parker C, Pradel E, Schnaitman C. Identification and sequences of the lipopolysaccharide core biosynthetic genes rfaQ, rfaP, and rfaG of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:930-4 pubmed
    ..The function of the first of these genes is unknown, but we have designated it rfaQ on the basis of its location and similarity to other rfa genes...
  8. Schnaitman C, Parker C, Klena J, Pradel E, Pearson N, Sanderson K, et al. Physical maps of the rfa loci of Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:7410-1 pubmed
  9. Pilipcinec E, Huisman T, Willemsen P, Appelmelk B, de Graaf F, Oudega B. Identification by Tn10 transposon mutagenesis of host factors involved in the biosynthesis of K99 fimbriae of Escherichia coli: effect of LPS core mutations. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1994;123:201-6 pubmed
    ..Analysis by inversed PCR and nucleotide sequencing showed that one mutant (EP14) contained the Tn10 transposon in rfaQ, affecting the expression of the rfaQGP gene cluster, whereas the other mutant (EP35) was affected in a, to date, ..

More Information


  1. Reeves P, Hobbs M, Valvano M, Skurnik M, Whitfield C, Coplin D, et al. Bacterial polysaccharide synthesis and gene nomenclature. Trends Microbiol. 1996;4:495-503 pubmed
    ..We propose a scheme applicable to all species that distinguishes different classes of genes, provides a single name for all genes of a given function and greatly facilitates comparative studies. ..
  2. Mudapaka J, Taylor E. Cloning and characterization of the Escherichia coli Heptosyltransferase III: Exploring substrate specificity in lipopolysaccharide core biosynthesis. FEBS Lett. 2015;589:1423-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Inspired by results from our lab on the E. coli HepI, we assessed the catalytic efficiency with phospho-Hep2-Kdo2-Lipid A (PH2K2LA) and two deacylated analogues. ..
  3. Shapira R, Mimran E. Isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli mutants exhibiting altered response to thymol. Microb Drug Resist. 2007;13:157-65 pubmed
    ..Of four mutants showing more sensitivity, three were found in rfaQ, whose product is involved in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, and the fourth in the quorum-sensing gene qseC...
  4. Møller A, Leatham M, Conway T, Nuijten P, de Haan L, Krogfelt K, et al. An Escherichia coli MG1655 lipopolysaccharide deep-rough core mutant grows and survives in mouse cecal mucus but fails to colonize the mouse large intestine. Infect Immun. 2003;71:2142-52 pubmed
    ..Sequencing revealed that the insertion in MD42 was in the waaQ gene, which is involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core biosynthesis. Like "deep-rough" E...
  5. Heinrichs D, Yethon J, Whitfield C. Molecular basis for structural diversity in the core regions of the lipopolysaccharides of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. Mol Microbiol. 1998;30:221-32 pubmed
  6. Yethon J, Heinrichs D, Monteiro M, Perry M, Whitfield C. Involvement of waaY, waaQ, and waaP in the modification of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide and their role in the formation of a stable outer membrane. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:26310-6 pubmed
    The waaY, waaQ, and waaP genes are located in the central operon of the waa (formerly rfa) locus on the chromosome of Escherichia coli...
  7. Pradel E, Schnaitman C. Effect of rfaH (sfrB) and temperature on expression of rfa genes of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:6428-31 pubmed
    ..core, the transposon TnlacZ was used to generate in-frame lacZ fusions to the coding regions of five genes (rfaQ, -G, -P, -B and -J) within this block...
  8. Pradel E, Parker C, Schnaitman C. Structures of the rfaB, rfaI, rfaJ, and rfaS genes of Escherichia coli K-12 and their roles in assembly of the lipopolysaccharide core. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:4736-45 pubmed
  9. Roncero C, Casadaban M. Genetic analysis of the genes involved in synthesis of the lipopolysaccharide core in Escherichia coli K-12: three operons in the rfa locus. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:3250-60 pubmed
    ..The genetic organization of this locus seems to be identical in E. coli K-12 and S. typhimurium. ..
  10. Klena J, Ashford R, Schnaitman C. Role of Escherichia coli K-12 rfa genes and the rfp gene of Shigella dysenteriae 1 in generation of lipopolysaccharide core heterogeneity and attachment of O antigen. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:7297-307 pubmed
    ..The products of rfaK and rfaQ also appear to be involved in modification of the core prior to attachment of O antigen, and the sites of rfaK ..
  11. Lundborg M, Modhukur V, Widmalm G. Glycosyltransferase functions of E. coli O-antigens. Glycobiology. 2010;20:366-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The procedure suggests a novel way of combining genetic information with experimental techniques in structural analysis of oligo- and polysaccharides. ..