Gene Symbol: waaP
Description: kinase that phosphorylates core heptose of lipopolysaccharide
Alias: ECK3620, JW3605, rfaP
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Roncero C, Casadaban M. Genetic analysis of the genes involved in synthesis of the lipopolysaccharide core in Escherichia coli K-12: three operons in the rfa locus. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:3250-60 pubmed
    ..The genetic organization of this locus seems to be identical in E. coli K-12 and S. typhimurium. ..
  2. Yethon J, Vinogradov E, Perry M, Whitfield C. Mutation of the lipopolysaccharide core glycosyltransferase encoded by waaG destabilizes the outer membrane of Escherichia coli by interfering with core phosphorylation. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:5620-3 pubmed
    ..Structural analyses of waaG mutant lipopolysaccharide showed that the cause for this phenotype was a decrease in core phosphorylation, an unexpected side effect of the waaG mutation. ..
  3. Parker C, Kloser A, Schnaitman C, Stein M, Gottesman S, Gibson B. Role of the rfaG and rfaP genes in determining the lipopolysaccharide core structure and cell surface properties of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:2525-38 pubmed
    ..reverse the deep rough phenotype or the induction of cps-lacZ, while complementation with a fragment carrying only rfaP+ reversed the deep rough phenotype but not the loss of flagella and pili...
  4. Parker C, Pradel E, Schnaitman C. Identification and sequences of the lipopolysaccharide core biosynthetic genes rfaQ, rfaP, and rfaG of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:930-4 pubmed
    ..coli rfa restriction fragments indicated that the second and third genes in the block were rfaG and rfaP. The deduced sizes of the RfaQ, RfaG, and RfaP proteins are 36,298, 42,284, and 30,872 Da, respectively, and the ..
  5. Schnaitman C, Parker C, Klena J, Pradel E, Pearson N, Sanderson K, et al. Physical maps of the rfa loci of Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:7410-1 pubmed
  6. Schnaitman C, Klena J. Genetics of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in enteric bacteria. Microbiol Rev. 1993;57:655-82 pubmed
  7. Reeves P, Hobbs M, Valvano M, Skurnik M, Whitfield C, Coplin D, et al. Bacterial polysaccharide synthesis and gene nomenclature. Trends Microbiol. 1996;4:495-503 pubmed
    ..We propose a scheme applicable to all species that distinguishes different classes of genes, provides a single name for all genes of a given function and greatly facilitates comparative studies. ..
  8. Yethon J, Whitfield C. Purification and characterization of WaaP from Escherichia coli, a lipopolysaccharide kinase essential for outer membrane stability. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:5498-504 pubmed
    In Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the waaP (rfaP) gene product is required for the addition of phosphate to O-4 of the first heptose residue of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inner core region...
  9. Klena J, Ashford R, Schnaitman C. Role of Escherichia coli K-12 rfa genes and the rfp gene of Shigella dysenteriae 1 in generation of lipopolysaccharide core heterogeneity and attachment of O antigen. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:7297-307 pubmed
    ..All of these studies indicate that the apparent heterogeneity of E. coli K-12 LPS observed on gels is not an artifact but instead a reflection of functional differences among LPS species. ..

More Information


  1. Yethon J, Heinrichs D, Monteiro M, Perry M, Whitfield C. Involvement of waaY, waaQ, and waaP in the modification of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide and their role in the formation of a stable outer membrane. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:26310-6 pubmed
    The waaY, waaQ, and waaP genes are located in the central operon of the waa (formerly rfa) locus on the chromosome of Escherichia coli...
  2. Heinrichs D, Yethon J, Whitfield C. Molecular basis for structural diversity in the core regions of the lipopolysaccharides of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. Mol Microbiol. 1998;30:221-32 pubmed
  3. Genevaux P, Bauda P, DuBow M, Oudega B. Identification of Tn10 insertions in the rfaG, rfaP, and galU genes involved in lipopolysaccharide core biosynthesis that affect Escherichia coli adhesion. Arch Microbiol. 1999;172:1-8 pubmed
    ..Two insertions were located in the rfaG gene, two in the rfaP gene, and three in the galU gene...
  4. Rotman E, Bratcher P, Kuzminov A. Reduced lipopolysaccharide phosphorylation in Escherichia coli lowers the elevated ori/ter ratio in seqA mutants. Mol Microbiol. 2009;72:1273-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We also found that colethality of rfaP with defects in the production of acidic phospholipids is suppressed by alternative initiation of chromosomal ..
  5. Klena J, Pradel E, Schnaitman C. Comparison of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis genes rfaK, rfaL, rfaY, and rfaZ of Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:4746-52 pubmed
    ..We speculate that protein RfaL may interact in a strain- or species-specific way with one or more Rfb proteins in the expression of surface O antigen. ..
  6. Pradel E, Schnaitman C. Effect of rfaH (sfrB) and temperature on expression of rfa genes of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:6428-31 pubmed
    ..In addition, expression of the lacZ fusion to rfaJ was reduced by growth at 42 degrees C, and this correlated with a temperature-induced change in the electrophoretic profile of the core lipopolysaccharide. ..
  7. Beher M, Schnaitman C. Regulation of the OmpA outer membrane protein of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1981;147:972-85 pubmed
    ..resistance to phages K3 and U3, we obtained mutants defective in rfaC (biosynthesis of core heptose) and in rfaP (phosphorylation of core heptose), and both of these mutant strains failed to express OmpA protein in the outer ..