Gene Symbol: waaO
Description: UDP-D-galactose:(glucosyl)lipopolysaccharide-alpha-1,3-D-galactosyltransferase
Alias: ECK3617, JW3602, rfaI, rfaM, waaI
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
Products:     waaO

Top Publications

  1. Schnaitman C, Klena J. Genetics of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in enteric bacteria. Microbiol Rev. 1993;57:655-82 pubmed
  2. Pradel E, Parker C, Schnaitman C. Structures of the rfaB, rfaI, rfaJ, and rfaS genes of Escherichia coli K-12 and their roles in assembly of the lipopolysaccharide core. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:4736-45 pubmed
    ..The third and fourth genes encode proteins of 39,423 and 36,046 Da which are strongly homologous to the RfaI and RfaJ proteins of S. typhimurium...
  3. Shibayama K, Ohsuka S, Tanaka T, Arakawa Y, Ohta M. Conserved structural regions involved in the catalytic mechanism of Escherichia coli K-12 WaaO (RfaI). J Bacteriol. 1998;180:5313-8 pubmed
    Escherichia coli K-12 WaaO (formerly known as RfaI) is a nonprocessive alpha-1,3 glucosyltransferase, involved in the synthesis of the R core of lipopolysaccharide...
  4. Heinrichs D, Yethon J, Whitfield C. Molecular basis for structural diversity in the core regions of the lipopolysaccharides of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. Mol Microbiol. 1998;30:221-32 pubmed
  5. Klena J, Ashford R, Schnaitman C. Role of Escherichia coli K-12 rfa genes and the rfp gene of Shigella dysenteriae 1 in generation of lipopolysaccharide core heterogeneity and attachment of O antigen. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:7297-307 pubmed
    ..All of these studies indicate that the apparent heterogeneity of E. coli K-12 LPS observed on gels is not an artifact but instead a reflection of functional differences among LPS species. ..
  6. Schnaitman C, Parker C, Klena J, Pradel E, Pearson N, Sanderson K, et al. Physical maps of the rfa loci of Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:7410-1 pubmed
  7. Qian J, Garrett T, Raetz C. In vitro assembly of the outer core of the lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella typhimurium. Biochemistry. 2014;53:1250-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Six outer core glycosyltransferases, E. coli K-12 WaaG, WaaB, and WaaO and Salmonella typhimurium WaaI, WaaJ, and WaaK, were cloned, overexpressed, and purified. A novel substrate for WaaG was isolated from ?waaG E...
  8. Roncero C, Casadaban M. Genetic analysis of the genes involved in synthesis of the lipopolysaccharide core in Escherichia coli K-12: three operons in the rfa locus. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:3250-60 pubmed
    ..The genetic organization of this locus seems to be identical in E. coli K-12 and S. typhimurium. ..
  9. Reeves P, Hobbs M, Valvano M, Skurnik M, Whitfield C, Coplin D, et al. Bacterial polysaccharide synthesis and gene nomenclature. Trends Microbiol. 1996;4:495-503 pubmed
    ..We propose a scheme applicable to all species that distinguishes different classes of genes, provides a single name for all genes of a given function and greatly facilitates comparative studies. ..

More Information


  1. Traurig M, Misra R. Identification of bacteriophage K20 binding regions of OmpF and lipopolysaccharide in Escherichia coli K-12. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1999;181:101-8 pubmed
  2. Creeger E, Rothfield L. Cloning of genes for bacterial glycosyltransferases. I. Selection of hybrid plasmids carrying genes for two glucosyltransferases. J Biol Chem. 1979;254:804-10 pubmed
    ..Two plasmids were identified which carried the rfaG+ gene; one of these plasmids also contained genetic information for a second glucosyltransferase, the E. coli glucosyltransferase II, which normally is not present in S. typhimurium. ..
  3. Parker C, Kloser A, Schnaitman C, Stein M, Gottesman S, Gibson B. Role of the rfaG and rfaP genes in determining the lipopolysaccharide core structure and cell surface properties of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:2525-38 pubmed
    ..A model is presented which relates the deep rough phenotype to the loss of heptose-linked P and PPEA. ..
  4. Klena J, Pradel E, Schnaitman C. Comparison of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis genes rfaK, rfaL, rfaY, and rfaZ of Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:4746-52 pubmed
    ..We speculate that protein RfaL may interact in a strain- or species-specific way with one or more Rfb proteins in the expression of surface O antigen. ..
  5. Creeger E, Rothfield L. Cloning genes for bacterial glycosyltransferases. Methods Enzymol. 1982;83:326-31 pubmed
  6. Creeger E, Schulte T, Rothfield L. Regulation of membrane glycosyltransferases by the sfrB and rfaH genes of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. J Biol Chem. 1984;259:3064-9 pubmed
    ..typhimurium galactosyltransferase. Taken together, the results indicate that the sfrB(rfaH) gene acts as a positive regulatory element in expression of multiple glycosyltransferases in E. coli and S. typhimurium. ..