Gene Symbol: waaL
Description: O-antigen ligase
Alias: ECK3612, JW3597, rfaL
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Meredith T, Mamat U, Kaczynski Z, Lindner B, Holst O, Woodard R. Modification of lipopolysaccharide with colanic acid (M-antigen) repeats in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:7790-8 pubmed
    ..MLPS biosynthesis is dependent upon (i) CA induction, (ii) LPS core biosynthesis, and (iii) the O-antigen ligase WaaL. Compositional analysis, mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of a purified MLPS sample ..
  2. Schnaitman C, Parker C, Klena J, Pradel E, Pearson N, Sanderson K, et al. Physical maps of the rfa loci of Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:7410-1 pubmed
  3. Perez J, McGarry M, Marolda C, Valvano M. Functional analysis of the large periplasmic loop of the Escherichia coli K-12 WaaL O-antigen ligase. Mol Microbiol. 2008;70:1424-40 pubmed publisher
    b>WaaL is a membrane enzyme implicated in ligating undecaprenyl-diphosphate (Und-PP)-linked O antigen to lipid A-core oligosaccharide...
  4. Diago Navarro E, Mora L, Buckingham R, Díaz Orejas R, Lemonnier M. Novel Escherichia coli RF1 mutants with decreased translation termination activity and increased sensitivity to the cytotoxic effect of the bacterial toxins Kid and RelE. Mol Microbiol. 2009;71:66-78 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss these results and their utility for the design of novel antibacterial strategies in the light of the recently reported structure of ribosome-bound RF1. ..
  5. Schnaitman C, Klena J. Genetics of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in enteric bacteria. Microbiol Rev. 1993;57:655-82 pubmed
  6. Chen L, Coleman W. Cloning and characterization of the Escherichia coli K-12 rfa-2 (rfaC) gene, a gene required for lipopolysaccharide inner core synthesis. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:2534-40 pubmed
    ..Brozek, P. R. MacLachlan, K. E. Sanderson, and C. R. H. Raetz, J. Biol. Chem. 267:18874-18884, 1992), the S. typhimurium rfaC gene sequence and its product (heptosyltransferase 1), the E. coli K-12 rfa-2 locus will be designated rfaC. ..
  7. Whitfield C, Amor P, Koplin R. Modulation of the surface architecture of gram-negative bacteria by the action of surface polymer:lipid A-core ligase and by determinants of polymer chain length. Mol Microbiol. 1997;23:629-38 pubmed
    ..Emphasis is placed on the Enterobacteriaceae, but similarities to other bacteria suggest that aspects of the enterobacterial system will have broader significance...
  8. Billips B, Schaeffer A, Klumpp D. Molecular basis of uropathogenic Escherichia coli evasion of the innate immune response in the bladder. Infect Immun. 2008;76:3891-900 pubmed publisher
    ..Disruption of ampG (peptidoglycan permease), waaL (lipopolysaccharide O antigen ligase), or alr (alanine racemase) resulted in increased urothelial interleukin-8 (IL-..
  9. Roncero C, Casadaban M. Genetic analysis of the genes involved in synthesis of the lipopolysaccharide core in Escherichia coli K-12: three operons in the rfa locus. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:3250-60 pubmed
    ..The genetic organization of this locus seems to be identical in E. coli K-12 and S. typhimurium. ..

More Information


  1. Sirisena D, MacLachlan P, Liu S, Hessel A, Sanderson K. Molecular analysis of the rfaD gene, for heptose synthesis, and the rfaF gene, for heptose transfer, in lipopolysaccharide synthesis in Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:2379-85 pubmed
    ..coli K-12 is about 35%, much lower than the average of enteric bacteria; if this low G+C content is due to lateral transfer from a source of low G+C content, it must have occurred prior to evolutionary divergence of the two genera. ..
  2. Heinrichs D, Monteiro M, Perry M, Whitfield C. The assembly system for the lipopolysaccharide R2 core-type of Escherichia coli is a hybrid of those found in Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella enterica. Structure and function of the R2 WaaK and WaaL homologs. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:8849-59 pubmed
    ..coli K-12. However, the products of waaK (rfaK) and waaL (rfaL) each resemble homologs in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium but share little similarity with E. coli K-12...
  3. Kenyon J, Hall R. Variation in the complex carbohydrate biosynthesis loci of Acinetobacter baumannii genomes. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62160 pubmed publisher
    ..The absence of a gene encoding a WaaL ligase, required to link the carbohydrate polymer to the lipid A-core oligosaccharide (lipooligosaccharide) forming ..
  4. Grabowicz M, Andres D, Lebar M, Malojčić G, Kahne D, Silhavy T. A mutant Escherichia coli that attaches peptidoglycan to lipopolysaccharide and displays cell wall on its surface. elife. 2014;3:e05334 pubmed publisher
    ..We have identified a point-mutation in the gene for O-antigen ligase (WaaL) in Escherichia coli that causes LPS to be modified with PG subunits, intersecting these two pathways...
  5. Klena J, Ashford R, Schnaitman C. Role of Escherichia coli K-12 rfa genes and the rfp gene of Shigella dysenteriae 1 in generation of lipopolysaccharide core heterogeneity and attachment of O antigen. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:7297-307 pubmed
    ..Mutation of rfaL results in a loss of the rough LPS band which appears to be modified by Rfp and prevents the appearance of the Rfp-..
  6. Klena J, Pradel E, Schnaitman C. Comparison of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis genes rfaK, rfaL, rfaY, and rfaZ of Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:4746-52 pubmed
    ..Genes 3 and 4 were identified as rfaK and rfaL on the basis of size and position, but the derived amino acid sequences of the products of these genes showed very ..
  7. Heinrichs D, Yethon J, Whitfield C. Molecular basis for structural diversity in the core regions of the lipopolysaccharides of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. Mol Microbiol. 1998;30:221-32 pubmed