Gene Symbol: waaG
Description: UDP-glucose:(heptosyl)lipopolysaccharide alpha-1,3-glucosyltransferase; lipopolysaccharide core biosynthesis protein; lipopolysaccharide glucosyltransferase I
Alias: ECK3621, JW3606, rfaG
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Schnaitman C, Klena J. Genetics of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in enteric bacteria. Microbiol Rev. 1993;57:655-82 pubmed
  2. Austin E, Graves J, Hite L, Parker C, Schnaitman C. Genetic analysis of lipopolysaccharide core biosynthesis by Escherichia coli K-12: insertion mutagenesis of the rfa locus. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:5312-25 pubmed
    ..One of these appeared to be rfaG, which encodes a function required for attachment of the first glucose residue to the heptose region of the core...
  3. Yethon J, Vinogradov E, Perry M, Whitfield C. Mutation of the lipopolysaccharide core glycosyltransferase encoded by waaG destabilizes the outer membrane of Escherichia coli by interfering with core phosphorylation. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:5620-3 pubmed
    ..Mutation of the core glucosyltransferase encoded by waaG (formerly rfaG) resulted in lipopolysaccharide truncated immediately after the inner core heptose residues, which ..
  4. Heinrichs D, Yethon J, Whitfield C. Molecular basis for structural diversity in the core regions of the lipopolysaccharides of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. Mol Microbiol. 1998;30:221-32 pubmed
  5. Creeger E, Rothfield L. Cloning of genes for bacterial glycosyltransferases. I. Selection of hybrid plasmids carrying genes for two glucosyltransferases. J Biol Chem. 1979;254:804-10 pubmed
    ..strain of Salmonella typhimurium which lacks UDP-glucose:lipopolysaccharide glucosyltransferase I due to an rfaG mutation...
  6. Clementz T. The gene coding for 3-deoxy-manno-octulosonic acid transferase and the rfaQ gene are transcribed from divergently arranged promoters in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:7750-6 pubmed
  7. Reeves P, Hobbs M, Valvano M, Skurnik M, Whitfield C, Coplin D, et al. Bacterial polysaccharide synthesis and gene nomenclature. Trends Microbiol. 1996;4:495-503 pubmed
    ..We propose a scheme applicable to all species that distinguishes different classes of genes, provides a single name for all genes of a given function and greatly facilitates comparative studies. ..
  8. Parker C, Kloser A, Schnaitman C, Stein M, Gottesman S, Gibson B. Role of the rfaG and rfaP genes in determining the lipopolysaccharide core structure and cell surface properties of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:2525-38 pubmed
    ..Complementation of delta rfa1 with rfaG+ DNA fragments resulted in a larger core and restored the synthesis of flagella and pili but did not reverse the ..
  9. Qian J, Garrett T, Raetz C. In vitro assembly of the outer core of the lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella typhimurium. Biochemistry. 2014;53:1250-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Six outer core glycosyltransferases, E. coli K-12 WaaG, WaaB, and WaaO and Salmonella typhimurium WaaI, WaaJ, and WaaK, were cloned, overexpressed, and purified...

More Information


  1. Pilipcinec E, Huisman T, Willemsen P, Appelmelk B, de Graaf F, Oudega B. Identification by Tn10 transposon mutagenesis of host factors involved in the biosynthesis of K99 fimbriae of Escherichia coli: effect of LPS core mutations. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1994;123:201-6 pubmed
    ..Preliminary experiments indicated that K99 major subunits, in contrast to K88 subunits, strongly bind LPS molecules. ..
  2. Schnaitman C, Parker C, Klena J, Pradel E, Pearson N, Sanderson K, et al. Physical maps of the rfa loci of Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:7410-1 pubmed
  3. Parker C, Pradel E, Schnaitman C. Identification and sequences of the lipopolysaccharide core biosynthetic genes rfaQ, rfaP, and rfaG of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:930-4 pubmed
    ..coli rfa restriction fragments indicated that the second and third genes in the block were rfaG and rfaP...
  4. Creeger E, Rothfield L. Cloning genes for bacterial glycosyltransferases. Methods Enzymol. 1982;83:326-31 pubmed
  5. Creeger E, Schulte T, Rothfield L. Regulation of membrane glycosyltransferases by the sfrB and rfaH genes of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. J Biol Chem. 1984;259:3064-9 pubmed
    ..typhimurium galactosyltransferase. Taken together, the results indicate that the sfrB(rfaH) gene acts as a positive regulatory element in expression of multiple glycosyltransferases in E. coli and S. typhimurium. ..
  6. Pradel E, Schnaitman C. Effect of rfaH (sfrB) and temperature on expression of rfa genes of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:6428-31 pubmed
    ..In addition, expression of the lacZ fusion to rfaJ was reduced by growth at 42 degrees C, and this correlated with a temperature-induced change in the electrophoretic profile of the core lipopolysaccharide. ..
  7. Klena J, Pradel E, Schnaitman C. Comparison of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis genes rfaK, rfaL, rfaY, and rfaZ of Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:4746-52 pubmed
    ..We speculate that protein RfaL may interact in a strain- or species-specific way with one or more Rfb proteins in the expression of surface O antigen. ..
  8. Genevaux P, Bauda P, DuBow M, Oudega B. Identification of Tn10 insertions in the rfaG, rfaP, and galU genes involved in lipopolysaccharide core biosynthesis that affect Escherichia coli adhesion. Arch Microbiol. 1999;172:1-8 pubmed
    ..Two insertions were located in the rfaG gene, two in the rfaP gene, and three in the galU gene...
  9. Martinez Fleites C, Proctor M, Roberts S, Bolam D, Gilbert H, Davies G. Insights into the synthesis of lipopolysaccharide and antibiotics through the structures of two retaining glycosyltransferases from family GT4. Chem Biol. 2006;13:1143-52 pubmed
    ..One of the largest families is GT4, which contains several enzymes of therapeutic significance, exemplified by WaaG and AviGT4...
  10. Klena J, Ashford R, Schnaitman C. Role of Escherichia coli K-12 rfa genes and the rfp gene of Shigella dysenteriae 1 in generation of lipopolysaccharide core heterogeneity and attachment of O antigen. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:7297-307 pubmed
    ..the nucleotide sequence that the rfp gene encodes a protein of 41,864 Da which has a structure similar to that of RfaG protein. Expression of this gene in E...
  11. Roncero C, Casadaban M. Genetic analysis of the genes involved in synthesis of the lipopolysaccharide core in Escherichia coli K-12: three operons in the rfa locus. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:3250-60 pubmed
    ..The genetic organization of this locus seems to be identical in E. coli K-12 and S. typhimurium. ..
  12. Agladze K, Wang X, Romeo T. Spatial periodicity of Escherichia coli K-12 biofilm microstructure initiates during a reversible, polar attachment phase of development and requires the polysaccharide adhesin PGA. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:8237-46 pubmed
    ..In contrast, biofilm mutants with altered lipopolysaccharide synthesis (waaG) exhibited increased cell-cell interactions, bypassed the polar attachment step, and produced FFT spectra ..
  13. McBroom A, Johnson A, Vemulapalli S, Kuehn M. Outer membrane vesicle production by Escherichia coli is independent of membrane instability. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:5385-92 pubmed
    ..Detergent sensitivity, leakiness, and growth characteristics of the novel vesiculation mutant strains did not correlate with vesiculation levels, demonstrating that vesicle production is not predictive of envelope instability. ..