Gene Symbol: waaF
Description: ADP-heptose:LPS heptosyltransferase II
Alias: ECK3610, JW3595, rfaF
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
Products:     waaF

Top Publications

  1. Klena J, Ashford R, Schnaitman C. Role of Escherichia coli K-12 rfa genes and the rfp gene of Shigella dysenteriae 1 in generation of lipopolysaccharide core heterogeneity and attachment of O antigen. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:7297-307 pubmed
    ..All of these studies indicate that the apparent heterogeneity of E. coli K-12 LPS observed on gels is not an artifact but instead a reflection of functional differences among LPS species. ..
  2. Roncero C, Casadaban M. Genetic analysis of the genes involved in synthesis of the lipopolysaccharide core in Escherichia coli K-12: three operons in the rfa locus. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:3250-60 pubmed
    ..The genetic organization of this locus seems to be identical in E. coli K-12 and S. typhimurium. ..
  3. Klena J, Pradel E, Schnaitman C. Comparison of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis genes rfaK, rfaL, rfaY, and rfaZ of Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:4746-52 pubmed
    ..coli K-12 and S. typhimurium, as do the rfaF and rfaD genes which lie beyond it...
  4. Sirisena D, MacLachlan P, Liu S, Hessel A, Sanderson K. Molecular analysis of the rfaD gene, for heptose synthesis, and the rfaF gene, for heptose transfer, in lipopolysaccharide synthesis in Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:2379-85 pubmed
    We report the analysis of three open reading frames of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 which we identified as rfaF, the structural gene for ADP-heptose:LPS heptosyltransferase II; rfaD, the structural gene for ADP-L-glycero-D-manno-heptose-6-..
  5. Brabetz W, Muller Loennies S, Holst O, Brade H. Deletion of the heptosyltransferase genes rfaC and rfaF in Escherichia coli K-12 results in an Re-type lipopolysaccharide with a high degree of 2-aminoethanol phosphate substitution. Eur J Biochem. 1997;247:716-24 pubmed
    The chromosomal genes rfaC and rfaF of Escherichia coli W3110 were inactivated by allelic-replacement mutagenesis to generate a defined strain lacking both heptosyltransferases which catalyze in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis the ..
  6. Heinrichs D, Yethon J, Whitfield C. Molecular basis for structural diversity in the core regions of the lipopolysaccharides of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. Mol Microbiol. 1998;30:221-32 pubmed
  7. Gronow S, Brabetz W, Brade H. Comparative functional characterization in vitro of heptosyltransferase I (WaaC) and II (WaaF) from Escherichia coli. Eur J Biochem. 2000;267:6602-11 pubmed
    Heptosyltransferase II, encoded by the waaF gene of Escherichia coli, is a glycosyltransferase involved in the synthesis of the inner core region of lipopolysaccharide. The gene was subcloned from plasmid pWSB33 [Brabetz, W...
  8. Gronow S, Oertelt C, Ervelä E, Zamyatina A, Kosma P, Skurnik M, et al. Characterization of the physiological substrate for lipopolysaccharide heptosyltransferases I and II. J Endotoxin Res. 2001;7:263-70 pubmed
    ..In Escherichia coli two heptosyltransferases, namely WaaC and WaaF, are known to transfer L-glycero-D-manno-heptopyranose to Re-LPS and Rd(2)-LPS, respectively...
  9. Parker C, Pradel E, Schnaitman C. Identification and sequences of the lipopolysaccharide core biosynthetic genes rfaQ, rfaP, and rfaG of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:930-4 pubmed
    ..RfaQ shares regions of homology with proteins RfaC and RfaF, which are involved in synthesis of the heptose region of the core...

More Information


  1. Schnaitman C, Parker C, Klena J, Pradel E, Pearson N, Sanderson K, et al. Physical maps of the rfa loci of Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:7410-1 pubmed
  2. Coleman W, Deshpande K. New cysE-pyrE-linked rfa mutation in Escherichia coli K-12 that results in a heptoseless lipopolysaccharide. J Bacteriol. 1985;161:1209-14 pubmed
  3. Chen L, Coleman W. Cloning and characterization of the Escherichia coli K-12 rfa-2 (rfaC) gene, a gene required for lipopolysaccharide inner core synthesis. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:2534-40 pubmed
    ..Brozek, P. R. MacLachlan, K. E. Sanderson, and C. R. H. Raetz, J. Biol. Chem. 267:18874-18884, 1992), the S. typhimurium rfaC gene sequence and its product (heptosyltransferase 1), the E. coli K-12 rfa-2 locus will be designated rfaC. ..
  4. Joloba M, Clemmer K, Sledjeski D, Rather P. Activation of the gab operon in an RpoS-dependent manner by mutations that truncate the inner core of lipopolysaccharide in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:8542-6 pubmed
    ..Defined mutations in hldE, required for heptose synthesis, and waaF, required for the addition of the second heptose to the inner core, also resulted in high-level gabT::lacZ ..
  5. Pegues J, Chen L, Gordon A, Ding L, Coleman W. Cloning, expression, and characterization of the Escherichia coli K-12 rfaD gene. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:4652-60 pubmed
    ..The primary structure of the rfaD protein contains the sequence fingerprint for the ADP-binding beta alpha beta fold at the N terminus. ..
  6. Schnaitman C, Klena J. Genetics of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in enteric bacteria. Microbiol Rev. 1993;57:655-82 pubmed
  7. Reeves P, Hobbs M, Valvano M, Skurnik M, Whitfield C, Coplin D, et al. Bacterial polysaccharide synthesis and gene nomenclature. Trends Microbiol. 1996;4:495-503 pubmed
    ..We propose a scheme applicable to all species that distinguishes different classes of genes, provides a single name for all genes of a given function and greatly facilitates comparative studies. ..