Gene Symbol: waaC
Description: ADP-heptose:LPS heptosyl transferase I
Alias: ECK3611, JW3596, rfaC, yibC
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Reeves P, Hobbs M, Valvano M, Skurnik M, Whitfield C, Coplin D, et al. Bacterial polysaccharide synthesis and gene nomenclature. Trends Microbiol. 1996;4:495-503 pubmed
    ..We propose a scheme applicable to all species that distinguishes different classes of genes, provides a single name for all genes of a given function and greatly facilitates comparative studies. ..
  2. Schnaitman C, Klena J. Genetics of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in enteric bacteria. Microbiol Rev. 1993;57:655-82 pubmed
  3. Gronow S, Lindner B, Brade H, Muller Loennies S. Kdo-(2 --> 8)-Kdo-(2 --> 4)-Kdo but not Kdo-(2 --> 4)-Kdo-(2 --> 4)-Kdo is an acceptor for transfer of L-glycero-alpha-D-manno-heptose by Escherichia coli heptosyltransferase I (WaaC). Innate Immun. 2009;15:13-23 pubmed publisher
    ..It has been suggested that the transfer of L-glycero-alpha-D-manno-heptose (Hep) to Kdo by an E. coli WaaC may not be possible in the presence of (2 --> 8)-linked Kdo. E...
  4. Parker C, Pradel E, Schnaitman C. Identification and sequences of the lipopolysaccharide core biosynthetic genes rfaQ, rfaP, and rfaG of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:930-4 pubmed
    ..RfaQ shares regions of homology with proteins RfaC and RfaF, which are involved in synthesis of the heptose region of the core...
  5. Kadrmas J, Raetz C. Enzymatic synthesis of lipopolysaccharide in Escherichia coli. Purification and properties of heptosyltransferase i. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:2799-807 pubmed
    Heptosyltransferase I, encoded by the rfaC(waaC) gene of Escherichia coli, is thought to add L-glycero-D-manno-heptose to the inner 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo) residue of the lipopolysaccharide core...
  6. Chen L, Coleman W. Cloning and characterization of the Escherichia coli K-12 rfa-2 (rfaC) gene, a gene required for lipopolysaccharide inner core synthesis. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:2534-40 pubmed
    ..By interspecies complementation, a Salmonella typhimurium rfaC mutant (LPS chemotype Re) is transformed with the E...
  7. Klein G, Kobylak N, Lindner B, Stupak A, Raina S. Assembly of lipopolysaccharide in Escherichia coli requires the essential LapB heat shock protein. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:14829-53 pubmed publisher
    ..lapA lapB) mutant accumulated extragenic suppressors that mapped either to lpxC, waaC, and gmhA, or to the waaQ operon (LPS biosynthesis) and lpp (Braun's lipoprotein)...
  8. Czyzyk D, Sawant S, Ramirez Mondragon C, Hingorani M, Taylor E. Escherichia coli heptosyltransferase I: investigation of protein dynamics of a GT-B structural enzyme. Biochemistry. 2013;52:5158-60 pubmed publisher
  9. Czyzyk D, Liu C, Taylor E. Lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis without the lipids: recognition promiscuity of Escherichia coli heptosyltransferase I. Biochemistry. 2011;50:10570-2 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Grizot S, Salem M, Vongsouthi V, Durand L, Moreau F, Dohi H, et al. Structure of the Escherichia coli heptosyltransferase WaaC: binary complexes with ADP and ADP-2-deoxy-2-fluoro heptose. J Mol Biol. 2006;363:383-94 pubmed
    ..The heptosyltransferase WaaC is a glycosyltransferase (GT) involved in the synthesis of the inner core region of LPS...
  2. Coleman W, Deshpande K. New cysE-pyrE-linked rfa mutation in Escherichia coli K-12 that results in a heptoseless lipopolysaccharide. J Bacteriol. 1985;161:1209-14 pubmed
  3. Kadrmas J, Brozek K, Raetz C. Lipopolysaccharide core glycosylation in Rhizobium leguminosarum. An unusual mannosyl transferase resembling the heptosyl transferase I of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:32119-25 pubmed
    ..coli (the product of the rfaC gene) catalyzes mannose transfer from ADP-mannose to Kdo2-lipid IVA. Extracts of E...
  4. Beher M, Schnaitman C. Regulation of the OmpA outer membrane protein of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1981;147:972-85 pubmed
    ..By selecting for simultaneous resistance to phages K3 and U3, we obtained mutants defective in rfaC (biosynthesis of core heptose) and in rfaP (phosphorylation of core heptose), and both of these mutant strains ..
  5. Heinrichs D, Yethon J, Whitfield C. Molecular basis for structural diversity in the core regions of the lipopolysaccharides of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. Mol Microbiol. 1998;30:221-32 pubmed
  6. Gronow S, Brabetz W, Brade H. Comparative functional characterization in vitro of heptosyltransferase I (WaaC) and II (WaaF) from Escherichia coli. Eur J Biochem. 2000;267:6602-11 pubmed
    ..The in vitro activity of the enzyme was investigated in comparison to that of heptosyltransferase I (WaaC) using as a source for the sugar nucleotide donor, ADP-LglyceroDmanno-heptose, a low molecular mass filtrate from a ..
  7. Schnaitman C, Parker C, Klena J, Pradel E, Pearson N, Sanderson K, et al. Physical maps of the rfa loci of Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:7410-1 pubmed
  8. Brabetz W, Muller Loennies S, Holst O, Brade H. Deletion of the heptosyltransferase genes rfaC and rfaF in Escherichia coli K-12 results in an Re-type lipopolysaccharide with a high degree of 2-aminoethanol phosphate substitution. Eur J Biochem. 1997;247:716-24 pubmed
    The chromosomal genes rfaC and rfaF of Escherichia coli W3110 were inactivated by allelic-replacement mutagenesis to generate a defined strain lacking both heptosyltransferases which catalyze in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis the ..
  9. Moreau F, Desroy N, Genevard J, Vongsouthi V, Gerusz V, Le Fralliec G, et al. Discovery of new Gram-negative antivirulence drugs: structure and properties of novel E. coli WaaC inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008;18:4022-6 pubmed publisher
    Heptosyltransferases such as WaaC represent promising and attractive targets for the discovery of new Gram-negative antibacterial drugs based on antivirulence mechanisms...
  10. Klena J, Pradel E, Schnaitman C. Comparison of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis genes rfaK, rfaL, rfaY, and rfaZ of Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:4746-52 pubmed
    ..typhimurium. The next gene in the cluster, rfaC, encodes a product which also shows strong protein sequence homology between E. coli K-12 and S...
  11. Reyes Cortes R, Martínez Peñafiel E, Martínez Pérez F, de la Garza M, Kameyama L. A novel strategy to isolate cell-envelope mutants resistant to phage infection: bacteriophage mEp213 requires lipopolysaccharides in addition to FhuA to enter Escherichia coli K-12. Microbiology. 2012;158:3063-71 pubmed publisher
    ..nine mutants resistant to coliphage infection that we selected, six were in the fhuA gene, two were mutated in the waaC gene, and one was mutated in the gmhD gene...
  12. Sirisena D, Brozek K, MacLachlan P, Sanderson K, Raetz C. The rfaC gene of Salmonella typhimurium. Cloning, sequencing, and enzymatic function in heptose transfer to lipopolysaccharide. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:18874-84 pubmed
    We have cloned a gene from a Salmonella typhimurium with the ability to complement the rfaC mutation (heptose-deficient lipopolysaccharide, sensitivity to rough-specific bacteriophages, and susceptibility to hydrophobic antibiotics)...
  13. Klena J, Ashford R, Schnaitman C. Role of Escherichia coli K-12 rfa genes and the rfp gene of Shigella dysenteriae 1 in generation of lipopolysaccharide core heterogeneity and attachment of O antigen. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:7297-307 pubmed
    ..All of these studies indicate that the apparent heterogeneity of E. coli K-12 LPS observed on gels is not an artifact but instead a reflection of functional differences among LPS species. ..
  14. Sirisena D, MacLachlan P, Liu S, Hessel A, Sanderson K. Molecular analysis of the rfaD gene, for heptose synthesis, and the rfaF gene, for heptose transfer, in lipopolysaccharide synthesis in Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:2379-85 pubmed
    ..The RfaF (heptosyl transferase II) protein shares regions of amino acid homology with RfaC (heptosyltransferase I), RfaQ (postulated to be heptosyltransferase III), and KdtA (ketodeoxyoctonate transferase), ..
  15. Gronow S, Oertelt C, Ervelä E, Zamyatina A, Kosma P, Skurnik M, et al. Characterization of the physiological substrate for lipopolysaccharide heptosyltransferases I and II. J Endotoxin Res. 2001;7:263-70 pubmed
    ..In Escherichia coli two heptosyltransferases, namely WaaC and WaaF, are known to transfer L-glycero-D-manno-heptopyranose to Re-LPS and Rd(2)-LPS, respectively...
  16. Roncero C, Casadaban M. Genetic analysis of the genes involved in synthesis of the lipopolysaccharide core in Escherichia coli K-12: three operons in the rfa locus. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:3250-60 pubmed
    ..The genetic organization of this locus seems to be identical in E. coli K-12 and S. typhimurium. ..