Gene Symbol: umuC
Description: translesion error-prone DNA polymerase V subunit; DNA polymerase activity
Alias: ECK1172, JW1173, uvm
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Sommer S, Becherel O, Coste G, Bailone A, Fuchs R. Altered translesion synthesis in E. coli Pol V mutants selected for increased recombination inhibition. DNA Repair (Amst). 2003;2:1361-9 pubmed
    ..on the nature of the lesion, it generally requires the Pol V DNA polymerase (formed by two SOS proteins, UmuD' and UmuC) and the RecA protein...
  2. Sutton M, Duzen J. Specific amino acid residues in the beta sliding clamp establish a DNA polymerase usage hierarchy in Escherichia coli. DNA Repair (Amst). 2006;5:312-23 pubmed
    ..These findings are discussed in terms of a model whereby amino acid residues in the vicinity of those mutated in beta159 (G66 and G174) help to define a DNA polymerase usage hierarchy in E. coli following UV irradiation. ..
  3. Delmas S, Matic I. Interplay between replication and recombination in Escherichia coli: impact of the alternative DNA polymerases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:4564-9 pubmed
  4. Rehrauer W, Bruck I, Woodgate R, Goodman M, Kowalczykowski S. Modulation of RecA nucleoprotein function by the mutagenic UmuD'C protein complex. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:32384-7 pubmed
    The RecA, UmuC, and UmuD' proteins are essential for error-prone, replicative bypass of DNA lesions. Normally, RecA protein mediates homologous pairing of DNA. We show that purified Umu(D')2C blocks this recombination function...
  5. Rangarajan S, Woodgate R, Goodman M. A phenotype for enigmatic DNA polymerase II: a pivotal role for pol II in replication restart in UV-irradiated Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:9224-9 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate that pol II and UmuD'(2)C act in independent pathways of replication restart, thereby providing a phenotype for pol II in the repair of UV-damaged DNA. ..
  6. Beuning P, Sawicka D, Barsky D, Walker G. Two processivity clamp interactions differentially alter the dual activities of UmuC. Mol Microbiol. 2006;59:460-74 pubmed
    ..One Escherichia coli member of this family, DNA pol V (UmuC), which is primarily responsible for UV-induced and chemically induced mutagenesis, possesses a canonical beta ..
  7. Erdem A, Jaszczur M, Bertram J, Woodgate R, Cox M, Goodman M. DNA polymerase V activity is autoregulated by a novel intrinsic DNA-dependent ATPase. elife. 2014;3:e02384 pubmed publisher
    ..No similar ATPase activity or autoregulatory mechanism has previously been found for a DNA polymerase.DOI: ..
  8. Sutton M, Smith B, Godoy V, Walker G. The SOS response: recent insights into umuDC-dependent mutagenesis and DNA damage tolerance. Annu Rev Genet. 2000;34:479-497 pubmed
    ..Here we discuss the SOS response of E. coli and concentrate in particular on the roles of the umuD(+)C(+) gene products in promoting cell survival after DNA damage via TLS and a primitive DNA damage checkpoint. ..
  9. Boudsocq F, Ling H, Yang W, Woodgate R. Structure-based interpretation of missense mutations in Y-family DNA polymerases and their implications for polymerase function and lesion bypass. DNA Repair (Amst). 2002;1:343-58 pubmed
    ..What was once known as the UmuC/DinB/Rev1/Rad30 superfamily of mutagenesis proteins, is now known as the Y-family of DNA polymerases...

More Information


  1. Berdichevsky A, Izhar L, Livneh Z. Error-free recombinational repair predominates over mutagenic translesion replication in E. coli. Mol Cell. 2002;10:917-24 pubmed
    ..This molecular hierarchy in the tolerance of DNA lesions ensures that the nonmutagenic RR predominates over the mutagenic TLR, thereby contributing to genetic stability. ..
  2. López de Saro F, Georgescu R, Goodman M, O Donnell M. Competitive processivity-clamp usage by DNA polymerases during DNA replication and repair. EMBO J. 2003;22:6408-18 pubmed
    ..Escherichia coli DNA polymerases I, II, IV and V (UmuC) interact with beta at the same site...
  3. Schlacher K, Leslie K, Wyman C, Woodgate R, Cox M, Goodman M. DNA polymerase V and RecA protein, a minimal mutasome. Mol Cell. 2005;17:561-72 pubmed
    ..Pol V activity is strongly enhanced with RecA mutants constitutive for mutagenesis in vivo, suggesting that RecA is an obligate accessory factor that activates pol V for SOS mutagenesis. ..
  4. Yeiser B, Pepper E, Goodman M, Finkel S. SOS-induced DNA polymerases enhance long-term survival and evolutionary fitness. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:8737-41 pubmed
    ..These polymerases contribute to survival by providing essential functions to ensure replication of the chromosome and by generating genetic diversity. ..
  5. Bruck I, Woodgate R, McEntee K, Goodman M. Purification of a soluble UmuD'C complex from Escherichia coli. Cooperative binding of UmuD'C to single-stranded DNA. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:10767-74 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli UmuD' and UmuC proteins play essential roles in SOS-induced mutagenesis. Previous studies investigating the molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis have been hindered by the lack of availability of a soluble UmuC protein...
  6. Frank E, Ennis D, Gonzalez M, Levine A, Woodgate R. Regulation of SOS mutagenesis by proteolysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:10291-6 pubmed
    DNA damage-inducible mutagenesis in Escherichia coli is largely dependent upon the activity of the UmuD (UmuD') and UmuC proteins...
  7. Boudsocq F, Campbell M, Devoret R, Bailone A. Quantitation of the inhibition of Hfr x F- recombination by the mutagenesis complex UmuD'C. J Mol Biol. 1997;270:201-11 pubmed
    ..This would position the UmuD'C complex right at a lesion while the capping by UmuD'C would destabilize a RecA polymer and thereby abort the recombination process. ..
  8. Sommer S, Coste G, Bailone A. Specific amino acid changes enhance the anti-recombination activity of the UmuD'C complex. Mol Microbiol. 2000;35:1443-53 pubmed
    ..Using as a genetic screen enhanced cell killing on mitomycin plates, we isolated novel umuD' and umuC mutations that restored mitomycin sensitivity to recA D112G [UmuR] bacteria overproducing the UmuD'C complex...
  9. Woodgate R. Construction of a umuDC operon substitution mutation in Escherichia coli. Mutat Res. 1992;281:221-5 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that the UmuDC proteins, which are normally required for inducible mutagenesis, are not essential for cell survival. ..
  10. Rangarajan S, Woodgate R, Goodman M. Replication restart in UV-irradiated Escherichia coli involving pols II, III, V, PriA, RecA and RecFOR proteins. Mol Microbiol. 2002;43:617-28 pubmed
    ..In con-trast, only RecF is required for the activation of RecA that leads to the formation of pol V (UmuD'2C) and facilitates replication readthrough. ..
  11. Jiang Q, Karata K, Woodgate R, Cox M, Goodman M. The active form of DNA polymerase V is UmuD'(2)C-RecA-ATP. Nature. 2009;460:359-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Reactivation of pol V Mut is triggered by replacement of RecA-ATP from RecA*. Thus, the principal role of RecA* in SOS mutagenesis is to transfer RecA-ATP to pol V, and thus generate active mutasomal complex for translesion synthesis. ..
  12. Shurtleff B, Ollivierre J, Tehrani M, Walker G, Beuning P. Steric gate variants of UmuC confer UV hypersensitivity on Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:4815-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We constructed variants of E. coli UmuC with mutations of the steric gate residue Y11 and of residue F10 and determined that strains harboring these ..
  13. Tang M, Shen X, Frank E, O Donnell M, Woodgate R, Goodman M. UmuD'(2)C is an error-prone DNA polymerase, Escherichia coli pol V. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:8919-24 pubmed
    The damage-inducible UmuD' and UmuC proteins are required for most SOS mutagenesis in Escherichia coli...
  14. Sutton M. The Escherichia coli dnaN159 mutant displays altered DNA polymerase usage and chronic SOS induction. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:6738-48 pubmed
    ..These findings are discussed in terms of a model to describe how the beta clamp might help to coordinate protein traffic at the replication fork. ..
  15. Pham P, Seitz E, Saveliev S, Shen X, Woodgate R, Cox M, et al. Two distinct modes of RecA action are required for DNA polymerase V-catalyzed translesion synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:11061-6 pubmed
    ..However, it is only a RecA molecule located at the 3' filament tip, proximal to a damaged template base, that is directly responsible for translesion synthesis. ..
  16. Sommer S, Bailone A, Devoret R. The appearance of the UmuD'C protein complex in Escherichia coli switches repair from homologous recombination to SOS mutagenesis. Mol Microbiol. 1993;10:963-71 pubmed
    ..Thus, at a high enough concentration, the UmuD'C complex will switch repair from recombination to SOS mutagenesis. ..
  17. Becherel O, Fuchs R, Wagner J. Pivotal role of the beta-clamp in translesion DNA synthesis and mutagenesis in E. coli cells. DNA Repair (Amst). 2002;1:703-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, in addition to its crucial role as the processivity factor of the PolIII replicase, the beta-clamp plays a pivotal role during the TLS process. ..
  18. Opperman T, Murli S, Smith B, Walker G. A model for a umuDC-dependent prokaryotic DNA damage checkpoint. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:9218-23 pubmed
    ..Expression of the noncleavable UmuD(S60A) protein and UmuC was found to increase survival after UV irradiation, despite the inability of the UmuD(S60A) protein to participate ..
  19. Friedberg E, Fischhaber P, Kisker C. Error-prone DNA polymerases: novel structures and the benefits of infidelity. Cell. 2001;107:9-12 pubmed
  20. Dalrymple B, Kongsuwan K, Wijffels G, Dixon N, Jennings P. A universal protein-protein interaction motif in the eubacterial DNA replication and repair systems. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:11627-32 pubmed
    ..Representatives of this motif are present in most sequenced members of the eubacterial DnaE, PolC, PolB, DinB, and UmuC families of DNA polymerases and the MutS1 mismatch repair protein family...
  21. Reuven N, Arad G, Maor Shoshani A, Livneh Z. The mutagenesis protein UmuC is a DNA polymerase activated by UmuD', RecA, and SSB and is specialized for translesion replication. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:31763-6 pubmed
    ..In Escherichia coli this process is regulated by the SOS stress response, and requires the mutagenesis proteins UmuC and UmuD'. Analysis of translesion replication using a recently reconstituted in vitro system (Reuven, N. B...
  22. Friedman N, Vardi S, Ronen M, Alon U, Stavans J. Precise temporal modulation in the response of the SOS DNA repair network in individual bacteria. PLoS Biol. 2005;3:e238 pubmed
  23. Beuning P, Chan S, Waters L, Addepalli H, Ollivierre J, Walker G. Characterization of novel alleles of the Escherichia coli umuDC genes identifies additional interaction sites of UmuC with the beta clamp. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:5910-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The Escherichia coli umuDC gene products, UmuC and the cleaved form of UmuD, UmuD', comprise a specialized, potentially mutagenic translesion DNA polymerase, ..
  24. Tago Y, Imai M, Ihara M, Atofuji H, Nagata Y, Yamamoto K. Escherichia coli mutator (Delta)polA is defective in base mismatch correction: the nature of in vivo DNA replication errors. J Mol Biol. 2005;351:299-308 pubmed
    ..The mutation rate of this strain was 219x10(-8), about a 100-fold increase relative to the wild-type strain. Uncorrected polymerase III replication errors were predominantly frameshifts and base substitutions followed by deletions. ..
  25. Fujii S, Gasser V, Fuchs R. The biochemical requirements of DNA polymerase V-mediated translesion synthesis revisited. J Mol Biol. 2004;341:405-17 pubmed
    ..Genetic studies have established that mutagenesis requires both UmuC and a proteolytic product of UmuD (UmuD')...
  26. Fujii S, Fuchs R. Biochemical basis for the essential genetic requirements of RecA and the beta-clamp in Pol V activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:14825-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The present article presents an integrated view of TLS under physiologically relevant conditions in E. coli that may represent a paradigm for lesion bypass in other organisms. ..
  27. Curti E, McDonald J, Mead S, Woodgate R. DNA polymerase switching: effects on spontaneous mutagenesis in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2009;71:315-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations suggest that there is considerable interplay among all five E. coli polymerases that either reduces or enhances the mutagenic load on the E. coli chromosome. ..
  28. Maor Shoshani A, Reuven N, Tomer G, Livneh Z. Highly mutagenic replication by DNA polymerase V (UmuC) provides a mechanistic basis for SOS untargeted mutagenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:565-70 pubmed
    ..Here we report that DNA polymerase V (pol V; UmuC), which previously has been shown to be a lesion-bypass DNA polymerase, was highly mutagenic during in vitro gap-..
  29. Opperman T, Murli S, Walker G. The genetic requirements for UmuDC-mediated cold sensitivity are distinct from those for SOS mutagenesis. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:4400-11 pubmed
    ..Following the posttranslational processing of UmuD to UmuD' by RecA-mediated cleavage, UmuD' acts in concert with UmuC, RecA, and DNA polymerase III to facilitate the process of translesion synthesis, which results in the introduction ..
  30. Fernandez de Henestrosa A, Ogi T, Aoyagi S, Chafin D, Hayes J, Ohmori H, et al. Identification of additional genes belonging to the LexA regulon in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2000;35:1560-72 pubmed
    ..These experiments have allowed us to identify seven new LexA-regulated genes, thus bringing the present number of genes in the E. coli LexA regulon to 31. The potential function of each newly identified LexA-regulated gene is discussed. ..
  31. Sutton M, Opperman T, Walker G. The Escherichia coli SOS mutagenesis proteins UmuD and UmuD' interact physically with the replicative DNA polymerase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:12373-8 pubmed
    ..UmuD', UmuC, RecA, and some form of the E...
  32. Sutton M, Farrow M, Burton B, Walker G. Genetic interactions between the Escherichia coli umuDC gene products and the beta processivity clamp of the replicative DNA polymerase. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:2897-909 pubmed
    ..Four possible models for how interactions of UmuD(2)C with the epsilon and the beta subunits of DNA polymerase III might help to regulate DNA replication in response to DNA damage are discussed. ..
  33. Sutton M, Duzen J, Maul R. Mutant forms of the Escherichia colibeta sliding clamp that distinguish between its roles in replication and DNA polymerase V-dependent translesion DNA synthesis. Mol Microbiol. 2005;55:1751-66 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings indicate that: (i) the beta clamp plays an essential role in pol V-dependent TLS in vivo and (ii) pol III and pol V interact with non-identical surfaces of the beta clamp. ..
  34. Tang M, Pham P, Shen X, Taylor J, O Donnell M, Woodgate R, et al. Roles of E. coli DNA polymerases IV and V in lesion-targeted and untargeted SOS mutagenesis. Nature. 2000;404:1014-8 pubmed
    ..Lesion bypass by pol V does not require beta,gamma-complex in the presence of non-hydrolysable ATPgammaS, indicating that an intact RecA filament may be required for translesion synthesis. ..
  35. O Grady P, Borden A, Vandewiele D, Ozgenc A, Woodgate R, Lawrence C. Intrinsic polymerase activities of UmuD'(2)C and MucA'(2)B are responsible for their different mutagenic properties during bypass of a T-T cis-syn cyclobutane dimer. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:2285-91 pubmed
    ..Our observations also show that the mutagenic properties of a lesion can depend strongly on the particular enzyme employed in bypass. ..
  36. Schlacher K, Cox M, Woodgate R, Goodman M. RecA acts in trans to allow replication of damaged DNA by DNA polymerase V. Nature. 2006;442:883-7 pubmed
  37. Maor Shoshani A, Livneh Z. Analysis of the stimulation of DNA polymerase V of Escherichia coli by processivity proteins. Biochemistry. 2002;41:14438-46 pubmed
    Bypass of replication-blocking lesions in Escherichia coli is carried out by DNA polymerase V (UmuC) in a reaction that requires UmuD', RecA, and single-strand DNA-binding protein (SSB)...
  38. Borden A, O Grady P, Vandewiele D, Fernández de Henestrosa A, Lawrence C, Woodgate R. Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III can replicate efficiently past a T-T cis-syn cyclobutane dimer if DNA polymerase V and the 3' to 5' exonuclease proofreading function encoded by dnaQ are inactivated. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:2674-81 pubmed
    ..This mutant polymerase does not replicate past the much more distorted T-T (6-4) photoadduct, however, suggesting that it may only replicate past lesions, like the T-T dimer, that form base pairs normally. ..
  39. Napolitano R, Janel Bintz R, Wagner J, Fuchs R. All three SOS-inducible DNA polymerases (Pol II, Pol IV and Pol V) are involved in induced mutagenesis. EMBO J. 2000;19:6259-65 pubmed
    Most organisms contain several members of a recently discovered class of DNA polymerases (umuC/dinB superfamily) potentially involved in replication of damaged DNA...
  40. Tang M, Bruck I, Eritja R, Turner J, Frank E, Woodgate R, et al. Biochemical basis of SOS-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli: reconstitution of in vitro lesion bypass dependent on the UmuD'2C mutagenic complex and RecA protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:9755-60 pubmed
    ..on the biochemical basis of SOS mutagenesis have been hampered by difficulties in obtaining biologically active UmuC protein, which, when overproduced, is insoluble in aqueous solution...
  41. Woodgate R, Rajagopalan M, Lu C, Echols H. UmuC mutagenesis protein of Escherichia coli: purification and interaction with UmuD and UmuD'. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:7301-5 pubmed
    ..regulated process dependent on two RecA-mediated proteolytic events: cleavage of the LexA repressor to induce the UmuC and UmuD mutagenesis proteins, and cleavage of UmuD to UmuD' to activate the mutation pathway...
  42. Marsh L, Walker G. Cold sensitivity induced by overproduction of UmuDC in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1985;162:155-61 pubmed
    The UmuD and UmuC proteins of Escherichia coli are essential for mutagenesis by UV and most chemicals. Their mode of action is presently unknown...
  43. Wang Z. Translesion synthesis by the UmuC family of DNA polymerases. Mutat Res. 2001;486:59-70 pubmed
    ..During 1999-2000, the UmuC superfamily had emerged, which consists of the following prototypic members: the E. coli UmuC, the E...
  44. Fuchs R, Fujii S. Translesion synthesis in Escherichia coli: lessons from the NarI mutation hot spot. DNA Repair (Amst). 2007;6:1032-41 pubmed
    ..The beta-clamp, to which all DNA polymerases bind, plays a critical role in allowing the specialized DNA polymerases to synthesize TLS patches that are long enough to resist such "external proofreading" activities. ..
  45. Arad G, Hendel A, Urbanke C, Curth U, Livneh Z. Single-stranded DNA-binding protein recruits DNA polymerase V to primer termini on RecA-coated DNA. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:8274-82 pubmed publisher
  46. Robinson A, McDonald J, Caldas V, Patel M, Wood E, Punter C, et al. Regulation of Mutagenic DNA Polymerase V Activation in Space and Time. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005482 pubmed publisher
    ..Using single-molecule fluorescence microscopy to visualize UmuC inside living cells in space and time, we now show that pol V is also subject to a novel form of spatial regulation...
  47. Courcelle C, Belle J, Courcelle J. Nucleotide excision repair or polymerase V-mediated lesion bypass can act to restore UV-arrested replication forks in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:6953-61 pubmed
    ..We discuss a model in which cells first use DNA repair to process replication-arresting UV lesions before resorting to mutagenic pathways such as translesion DNA synthesis to bypass these impediments to replication progression. ..
  48. Elledge S, Walker G. Proteins required for ultraviolet light and chemical mutagenesis. Identification of the products of the umuC locus of Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 1983;164:175-92 pubmed
    b>umuC is the genetic locus showing the greatest specificity for the "error-prone repair" process that is responsible for u.v. and chemical mutagenesis in Escherichia coli...
  49. Fuchs R, Fujii S, Wagner J. Properties and functions of Escherichia coli: Pol IV and Pol V. Adv Protein Chem. 2004;69:229-64 pubmed
    ..In fact, despite extensive knowledge of the individual enzymatic properties of all five E. coli DNA polymerases, much more work is needed to understand how their activities are orchestrated within a living cell. ..
  50. Koffel Schwartz N, Coin F, Veaute X, Fuchs R. Cellular strategies for accommodating replication-hindering adducts in DNA: control by the SOS response in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:7805-10 pubmed
    ..Error-free replication evidently proceeds efficiently by means of the damage avoidance pathway. We conclude that SOS mutagenesis results from increased TLS rather than from an increased frameshift error rate of the polymerase. ..
  51. Woodgate R. A plethora of lesion-replicating DNA polymerases. Genes Dev. 1999;13:2191-5 pubmed
  52. Otterlei M, Kavli B, Standal R, Skjelbred C, Bharati S, Krokan H. Repair of chromosomal abasic sites in vivo involves at least three different repair pathways. EMBO J. 2000;19:5542-51 pubmed
    ..Preferential incorporation of dAMP opposite a chromosomal AP site ('A rule') required UmuC. Furthermore, we observed an 'A rule-like' pattern of spontaneous mutations that was also UmuC dependent...
  53. Krishna S, Maslov S, Sneppen K. UV-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli SOS response: a quantitative model. PLoS Comput Biol. 2007;3:e41 pubmed
    ..In particular, we suggest that the recently observed second peak in the activity of promoters in the SOS regulon (Friedman et al., 2005, PLoS Biology 3(7): e238) is the result of positive feedback from Pol V to RecA filaments. ..
  54. Beuning P, Simon S, Godoy V, Jarosz D, Walker G. Characterization of Escherichia coli translesion synthesis polymerases and their accessory factors. Methods Enzymol. 2006;408:318-40 pubmed
    ..and several regulatory factors, including those encoded by the umuD gene that influence the activity of UmuC. This chapter outlines procedures for in vivo and in vitro analysis of these proteins. Study of the E...
  55. Sedgwick S, Lodwick D, Doyle N, Crowne H, Strike P. Functional complementation between chromosomal and plasmid mutagenic DNA repair genes in bacteria. Mol Gen Genet. 1991;229:428-36 pubmed
    ..typhimurium umu operons were reciprocally interchangeable whereas impCA and mucA could not function with umuC in either of these species. mucA and impB could also combine to give a mutagenic response to UV...
  56. Seo K, Yin J, Donthamsetti P, Chandani S, Lee C, Loechler E. Amino acid architecture that influences dNTP insertion efficiency in Y-family DNA polymerase V of E. coli. J Mol Biol. 2009;392:270-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Since no X-ray structures existed for UmuC (the polymerase subunit of DNAP V) or DNAP IV, we previously built molecular models...
  57. Reuven N, Arad G, Stasiak A, Stasiak A, Livneh Z. Lesion bypass by the Escherichia coli DNA polymerase V requires assembly of a RecA nucleoprotein filament. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:5511-7 pubmed
    Translesion replication is carried out in Escherichia coli by the SOS-inducible DNA polymerase V (UmuC), an error-prone polymerase, which is specialized for replicating through lesions in DNA, leading to the formation of mutations...
  58. Fuchs R, Koffel Schwartz N, Pelet S, Janel Bintz R, Napolitano R, Becherel O, et al. DNA polymerases II and V mediate respectively mutagenic (-2 frameshift) and error-free bypass of a single N-2-acetylaminofluorene adduct. Biochem Soc Trans. 2001;29:191-5 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that, in order to cope with the large diversity of existing DNA lesions, cells use a single or a combination of translesional DNA polymerases to achieve translesion synthesis. ..
  59. Perry K, Elledge S, Mitchell B, Marsh L, Walker G. umuDC and mucAB operons whose products are required for UV light- and chemical-induced mutagenesis: UmuD, MucA, and LexA proteins share homology. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985;82:4331-5 pubmed
    ..The reading frames of umuD and umuC overlap by 1 base pair, and the reading frames of mucA and mucB overlap by 13 base pairs...
  60. Shen X, Woodgate R, Goodman M. Lyase activities intrinsic to Escherichia coli polymerases IV and V. DNA Repair (Amst). 2005;4:1368-73 pubmed
    ..Incubation of pol V (UmuD'(2)C) with a molar excess of UmuD drives an exchange of subunits to form UmuD'D+insoluble UmuC causing inactivation of polymerase and lyase activities...
  61. Shen X, Woodgate R, Goodman M. Escherichia coli DNA polymerase V subunit exchange: a post-SOS mechanism to curtail error-prone DNA synthesis. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:52546-50 pubmed
    DNA polymerase V consisting of a heterotrimer composed of one molecule of UmuC and two molecules of UmuD' (UmuD'2C) is responsible for SOS damage-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli...
  62. Sedgwick S, Ho C, Woodgate R. Mutagenic DNA repair in enterobacteria. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:5604-11 pubmed
    ..In Escherichia coli, mutagenic DNA repair is encoded by the umuDC operon. Synthesis of UmuD and UmuC proteins is induced as part of the SOS response to DNA damage, and after induction, the UmuD protein undergoes an ..
  63. Kroeger K, Kim J, Goodman M, Greenberg M. Effects of the C4'-oxidized abasic site on replication in Escherichia coli. An unusually large deletion is induced by a small lesion. Biochemistry. 2004;43:13621-7 pubmed
    ..Formation of the C4-AP lesion may also be responsible for the formation of mutant proteins containing single-amino acid deletions that exhibit altered phenotypes. ..
  64. Lee C, Chandani S, Loechler E. Homology modeling of four Y-family, lesion-bypass DNA polymerases: the case that E. coli Pol IV and human Pol kappa are orthologs, and E. coli Pol V and human Pol eta are orthologs. J Mol Graph Model. 2006;25:87-102 pubmed
    ..Herein, we do homology modeling to construct a model for UmuC, which is the polymerase subunit of DNAP V...