Gene Symbol: tsr
Description: methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein I, serine sensor receptor
Alias: ECK4345, JW4318, cheD
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
Products:     tsr

Top Publications

  1. Kehry M, Dahlquist F. The methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins of Escherichia coli. Identification of the multiple methylation sites on methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein I. J Biol Chem. 1982;257:10378-86 pubmed
    ..The ability to acquire six methylations on MCPI allows the bacterial cells to adapt to a broad range of attractant and repellent concentrations. ..
  2. Zhang P, Bos E, Heymann J, Gnaegi H, Kessel M, Peters P, et al. Direct visualization of receptor arrays in frozen-hydrated sections and plunge-frozen specimens of E. coli engineered to overproduce the chemotaxis receptor Tsr. J Microsc. 2004;216:76-83 pubmed
    ..coli cells overproducing the 60-kDa chemotaxis receptor Tsr. Membrane extracts from these cells prepared in the presence of Tween-80 display hexagonally close-packed ..
  3. Gegner J, Graham D, Roth A, Dahlquist F. Assembly of an MCP receptor, CheW, and kinase CheA complex in the bacterial chemotaxis signal transduction pathway. Cell. 1992;70:975-82 pubmed
    We examined the binding interactions of the methylation-dependent chemotaxis receptors Tsr and Tar with the chemotaxis-specific protein kinase CheA and the coupling factor CheW...
  4. Khursigara C, Wu X, Zhang P, Lefman J, Subramaniam S. Role of HAMP domains in chemotaxis signaling by bacterial chemoreceptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:16555-60 pubmed publisher
    ..assemblies in Escherichia coli cells that have been engineered to overproduce the serine chemoreceptor Tsr. We demonstrate that chemoreceptors are organized as trimers of receptor dimers and display two distinct ..
  5. Sourjik V, Berg H. Localization of components of the chemotaxis machinery of Escherichia coli using fluorescent protein fusions. Mol Microbiol. 2000;37:740-51 pubmed
    ..Co-localization with flagellar structures was confirmed by immunofluorescence using an antihook primary antibody. Surprisingly, we did not observe co-localization of CheY with motors, even under conditions in which cells tumbled. ..
  6. Kim K, Yokota H, Kim S. Four-helical-bundle structure of the cytoplasmic domain of a serine chemotaxis receptor. Nature. 1999;400:787-92 pubmed
    ..Two of these domains form a long, supercoiled, four-helical bundle in the cytoplasmic portion of the receptor. ..
  7. Lai R, Manson J, Bormans A, Draheim R, Nguyen N, Manson M. Cooperative signaling among bacterial chemoreceptors. Biochemistry. 2005;44:14298-307 pubmed
    ..The ability of homogeneous populations of the serine receptor Tsr and the aspartate receptor Tar to stimulate CheA was directly proportional to the ratio of the receptor to total ..
  8. Antommattei F, Munzner J, Weis R. Ligand-specific activation of Escherichia coli chemoreceptor transmethylation. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:7556-63 pubmed
    ..g., either the full-length aspartate or serine receptor (Tar or Tsr)...
  9. Briegel A, Ortega D, Tocheva E, Wuichet K, Li Z, Chen S, et al. Universal architecture of bacterial chemoreceptor arrays. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:17181-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the basic mechanism and function of receptor clustering is universal among bacterial species and was thus conserved during evolution. ..

More Information


  1. Li G, Weis R. Covalent modification regulates ligand binding to receptor complexes in the chemosensory system of Escherichia coli. Cell. 2000;100:357-65 pubmed
    ..Also, the finding that a subsaturating serine concentration accelerates active receptor-kinase complex assembly implies that the assembly/disassembly process may also contribute to kinase regulation. ..
  2. Rice M, Dahlquist F. Sites of deamidation and methylation in Tsr, a bacterial chemotaxis sensory transducer. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:9746-53 pubmed
    ..in combination with peptide maps and Edman analysis, have clarified the sites of covalent modification in Tsr. Tsr contains six specific glutamates and glutamines that serve as methyl-accepting sites...
  3. Lefman J, Zhang P, Hirai T, Weis R, Juliani J, Bliss D, et al. Three-dimensional electron microscopic imaging of membrane invaginations in Escherichia coli overproducing the chemotaxis receptor Tsr. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:5052-61 pubmed
    ..the molecular architecture of Escherichia coli cells engineered to overproduce the bacterial chemotaxis receptor Tsr. Tomograms constructed from fixed, cryosectioned cells revealed that overproduction of Tsr led to formation of an ..
  4. Borkovich K, Alex L, Simon M. Attenuation of sensory receptor signaling by covalent modification. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:6756-60 pubmed
    ..Reversible modification provides a mechanism that allows the cell to accumulate a population of receptor molecules capable of generating a wide range of signaling intensities. ..
  5. Li J, Li G, Weis R. The serine chemoreceptor from Escherichia coli is methylated through an inter-dimer process. Biochemistry. 1997;36:11851-7 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate a role for inter-dimer interactions in transmembrane signaling. ..
  6. Gebert J, Overhoff B, Manson M, Boos W. The Tsr chemosensory transducer of Escherichia coli assembles into the cytoplasmic membrane via a SecA-dependent process. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:16652-60 pubmed
    The Tsr protein of Escherichia coli is a chemosensory transducer that mediates taxis toward serine and away from certain repellents...
  7. Besschetnova T, Montefusco D, Asinas A, Shrout A, Antommattei F, Weis R. Receptor density balances signal stimulation and attenuation in membrane-assembled complexes of bacterial chemotaxis signaling proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:12289-94 pubmed publisher
    ..coli pathway. Density-dependent mechanisms are likely to be general and may operate when two or more membrane-related processes are influenced differently by the two-dimensional concentration of pathway elements. ..
  8. Benov L, Fridovich I. Escherichia coli exhibits negative chemotaxis in gradients of hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorite, and N-chlorotaurine: products of the respiratory burst of phagocytic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:4999-5002 pubmed
    ..Hypochlorite and N-chlorotaurine were also strongly repellent. Chemotaxis down gradients of H2O2, OCl-, and N-chlorotaurine may contribute to the survival of commensal or pathogenic microorganisms. ..
  9. Wright S, Walia B, Parkinson J, Khan S. Differential activation of Escherichia coli chemoreceptors by blue-light stimuli. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:3962-71 pubmed
    ..a specific requirement for either the aerotaxis receptor Aer or the chemoreceptor Tar but not the Tar homolog Tsr. The action spectrum of the wild-type response was consistent with a flavin, but the chromophores remain to be ..
  10. Pedetta A, Massazza D, Herrera Seitz M, Studdert C. Mutational Replacements at the "Glycine Hinge" of the Escherichia coli Chemoreceptor Tsr Support a Signaling Role for the C-Helix Residue. Biochemistry. 2017;56:3850-3862 pubmed publisher
    ..hinge" by obtaining nonfunctional replacements at each of its positions in the Escherichia coli serine receptor Tsr and characterizing them...
  11. Kitanovic S, Ames P, Parkinson J. Mutational analysis of the control cable that mediates transmembrane signaling in the Escherichia coli serine chemoreceptor. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:5062-72 pubmed publisher
    During transmembrane signaling by Escherichia coli Tsr, changes in ligand occupancy in the periplasmic serine-binding domain promote asymmetric motions in a four-helix transmembrane bundle...
  12. Maeda K, Imae Y. Thermosensory transduction in Escherichia coli: inhibition of the thermoresponse by L-serine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979;76:91-5 pubmed
    ..Pleiotropic aspartate-taxis mutants (tar) showed normal thermoresponse but pleiotropic serine-taxis mutants (tsr) showed decreased or almost no thermoresponse. These results suggest that the thermosensory transducing system in E...
  13. Edwards J, Johnson M, Taylor B. Differentiation between electron transport sensing and proton motive force sensing by the Aer and Tsr receptors for aerotaxis. Mol Microbiol. 2006;62:823-37 pubmed
    ..PMF, electron transport or redox, all primary candidates for the signal sensed by the aerotaxis receptors, Aer and Tsr. We constructed electron transport mutants that produced different respiratory H+/e- stoichiometries...
  14. Lai W, Hazelbauer G. Carboxyl-terminal extensions beyond the conserved pentapeptide reduce rates of chemoreceptor adaptational modification. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:5115-21 pubmed
    ..for enhancement of both enzyme activities? To address these questions, we created forms of high-abundance receptor Tsr or Tar carrying one, six, or eight additional amino acids extending beyond the pentapeptide at their carboxyl ..
  15. Constantinidou C, Hobman J, Griffiths L, Patel M, Penn C, Cole J, et al. A reassessment of the FNR regulon and transcriptomic analysis of the effects of nitrate, nitrite, NarXL, and NarQP as Escherichia coli K12 adapts from aerobic to anaerobic growth. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:4802-15 pubmed
    ..This is the first report that NarP might function as a global repressor as well as a transcription activator. The data also revealed possible new defense mechanisms against reactive nitrogen species. ..
  16. Khan S, Trentham D. Biphasic excitation by leucine in Escherichia coli chemotaxis. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:588-92 pubmed
    ..applied by photolysis of inert derivatives) triggered swim or tumble responses in Escherichia coli mutants lacking Tsr or Tar, respectively. Wild-type E...
  17. Ridgway H, Silverman M, Simon M. Localization of proteins controlling motility and chemotaxis in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1977;132:657-65 pubmed
    ..The motA, motB, cheM, and cheD gene products were found to be confined exclusively to the inner cytoplasmic membrane fraction, whereas the cheY, ..
  18. Vaknin A, Berg H. Physical responses of bacterial chemoreceptors. J Mol Biol. 2007;366:1416-23 pubmed
    ..Comparison with responses in kinase-activity indicated that higher-order interactions are dominant in receptor clusters. ..
  19. Wolanin P, Baker M, Francis N, Thomas D, Derosier D, Stock J. Self-assembly of receptor/signaling complexes in bacterial chemotaxis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:14313-8 pubmed
    ..To understand this structure in its cellular context, we propose a model involving parallel membrane segments in receptor-mediated CheA activation in vivo. ..
  20. Vaknin A, Berg H. Osmotic stress mechanically perturbs chemoreceptors in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:592-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, changes in homodimer spacing and/or orientation appear to initiate osmotactic signaling. ..
  21. Iwama T, Kawagishi I, Gomi S, Homma M, Imae Y. In vivo sulfhydryl modification of the ligand-binding site of Tsr, the Escherichia coli serine chemoreceptor. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:2218-21 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli chemoreceptor Tsr mediates an attractant response to serine. We substituted Cys for Thr-156, one of the residues involved in serine sensing...
  22. Mowery P, Ostler J, Parkinson J. Different signaling roles of two conserved residues in the cytoplasmic hairpin tip of Tsr, the Escherichia coli serine chemoreceptor. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:8065-74 pubmed publisher
    ..characterized mutant receptors with amino acid replacements at the two nearly invariant hairpin charged residues of Tsr: R388, the most tip-proximal trimer contact residue, and E391, the apex residue of the hairpin turn...
  23. Pasupuleti S, Sule N, Cohn W, Mackenzie D, Jayaraman A, Manson M. Chemotaxis of Escherichia coli to norepinephrine (NE) requires conversion of NE to 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid. J Bacteriol. 2014;196:3992-4000 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that DHMA is sensed by the serine chemoreceptor Tsr and that the chemotaxis response requires an intact serine-binding site...
  24. Gosink K, Burón Barral M, Parkinson J. Signaling interactions between the aerotaxis transducer Aer and heterologous chemoreceptors in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:3487-93 pubmed
    ..We obtained evidence for interactions between Aer and the high-abundance aspartate (Tar) and serine (Tsr) receptors...
  25. Bren A, Eisenbach M. How signals are heard during bacterial chemotaxis: protein-protein interactions in sensory signal propagation. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:6865-73 pubmed
  26. Park Y, Lee B, Seok Y, Peterkofsky A. In vitro reconstitution of catabolite repression in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:6448-54 pubmed
    ..To further study the regulation, AC was produced fused to the transmembrane segments of the serine chemoreceptor Tsr. Cells harboring Tsr-AC and normal AC, expressed from the cya promoter on a low copy number vector, exhibit similar ..
  27. Rebbapragada A, Johnson M, Harding G, Zuccarelli A, Fletcher H, Zhulin I, et al. The Aer protein and the serine chemoreceptor Tsr independently sense intracellular energy levels and transduce oxygen, redox, and energy signals for Escherichia coli behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:10541-6 pubmed
    ..A double mutant deficient in aer and tsr, which codes for the serine chemoreceptor, was negative for aerotaxis, redox taxis, and glycerol taxis, each of ..
  28. Toews M, Goy M, Springer M, Adler J. Attractants and repellents control demethylation of methylated chemotaxis proteins in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979;76:5544-8 pubmed
    ..It is therefore concluded that control of demethylation plays a crucial role in changing the level of methylation of MCP in response to attractants and repellents. ..
  29. Zhulin I, Johnson M, Taylor B. How do bacteria avoid high oxygen concentrations?. Biosci Rep. 1997;17:335-42 pubmed
    ..A novel protein, Aer, and the chemotaxis serine receptor, Tsr, have recently been identified as transducers for aerotaxis which monitor internal energy levels in the bacteria.
  30. Gosink K, Zhao Y, Parkinson J. Mutational analysis of N381, a key trimer contact residue in Tsr, the Escherichia coli serine chemoreceptor. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:6452-60 pubmed publisher
    Chemoreceptors such as Tsr, the serine receptor, function in trimer-of-dimer associations to mediate chemotactic behavior in Escherichia coli...
  31. Arnosti D, Chamberlin M. Secondary sigma factor controls transcription of flagellar and chemotaxis genes in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:830-4 pubmed
    ..The sigma F holoenzyme also transcribes the E. coli tsr and flaAI genes in vitro as well as several Bacillus subtilis genes that are transcribed specifically by the sigma ..
  32. Springer M, Goy M, Adler J. Sensory transduction in Escherichia coli: two complementary pathways of information processing that involve methylated proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977;74:3312-6 pubmed
    The properties of two classes of behavioral mutants of Escherichia coli (called tsr and tar) are described...
  33. Ames P, Parkinson J. Conformational suppression of inter-receptor signaling defects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:9292-7 pubmed
    ..Mutations at the trimer contact sites of Tsr, the serine chemoreceptor, invariably abrogate Tsr function, but some of those lesions (designated Tsr*) are ..
  34. Yu J, Xiao J, Ren X, Lao K, Xie X. Probing gene expression in live cells, one protein molecule at a time. Science. 2006;311:1600-3 pubmed
    ..The quantitative study of low-level gene expression demonstrates the potential of single-molecule experiments in elucidating the workings of fundamental biological processes in living cells. ..
  35. Silverman M, Simon M. Chemotaxis in Escherichia coli: methylation of che gene products. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977;74:3317-21 pubmed
    The products of three chemotaxis-specific genes in Escherichia coli, cheM, cheD, and cheZ, are methylated. The cheZ gene codes for the synthesis of a 24,000 molecular weight polypeptide that appears in the cytoplasm...
  36. Boy E, Borne F, Patte J. Isolation and identification of mutants constitutive for aspartokinase III synthesis in Escherichia coli K 12. Biochimie. 1979;61:1151-60 pubmed
    ..The fact that no repressor mutations could be isolated is discussed. ..
  37. Zhang P, Weis R, Peters P, Subramaniam S. Electron tomography of bacterial chemotaxis receptor assemblies. Methods Cell Biol. 2007;79:373-84 pubmed
  38. Ames P, Parkinson J. Phenotypic suppression methods for analyzing intra- and inter-molecular signaling interactions of chemoreceptors. Methods Enzymol. 2007;423:436-57 pubmed
    ..The suppression patterns exhibit allele-specificity with respect to the compensatory residue positions and amino acid side chains, a hallmark of stereospecific protein-protein interactions. ..
  39. Ortega D, Yang C, Ames P, Baudry J, Parkinson J, Zhulin I. A phenylalanine rotameric switch for signal-state control in bacterial chemoreceptors. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2881 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that interacting aromatic residues, which are common stabilizers of protein tertiary structure, might serve as rotameric molecular switches in other biological processes as well...
  40. Manson M. The tie that binds the dynamic duo: the connector between AS1 and AS2 in the HAMP domain of the Escherichia coli Tsr chemoreceptor. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:6544-7 pubmed publisher
  41. Zhulin I, Rowsell E, Johnson M, Taylor B. Glycerol elicits energy taxis of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:3196-201 pubmed
    ..We propose that positive chemotaxis to glycerol in E. coli and S. typhimurium is an example of energy taxis mediated via a signal transduction pathway that responds to changes in the cellular energy level. ..
  42. Vaknin A, Berg H. Direct evidence for coupling between bacterial chemoreceptors. J Mol Biol. 2008;382:573-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, different receptors are coupled but not as simply as previously thought. ..
  43. Ping L, Weiner B, Kleckner N. Tsr-GFP accumulates linearly with time at cell poles, and can be used to differentiate 'old' versus 'new' poles, in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2008;69:1427-38 pubmed publisher
    In Escherichia coli, the chemotaxis receptor protein Tsr localizes abundantly to cell poles...
  44. Yamamoto K, Macnab R, Imae Y. Repellent response functions of the Trg and Tap chemoreceptors of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:383-8 pubmed
    ..In the absence of all four known methyl-accepting chemoreceptors (Tar, Tsr, Trg, and Tap), cells showed no response to phenol...
  45. Massazza D, Izzo S, Gasperotti A, Herrera Seitz M, Studdert C. Functional and structural effects of seven-residue deletions on the coiled-coil cytoplasmic domain of a chemoreceptor. Mol Microbiol. 2012;83:224-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Shorter functional versions of Tsr with symmetrical deletions form mixed trimers of dimers when coexpressed with Tar, the aspartate receptor of E...
  46. Hegde M, Englert D, Schrock S, Cohn W, Vogt C, Wood T, et al. Chemotaxis to the quorum-sensing signal AI-2 requires the Tsr chemoreceptor and the periplasmic LsrB AI-2-binding protein. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:768-73 pubmed publisher
    AI-2 is an autoinducer made by many bacteria. LsrB binds AI-2 in the periplasm, and Tsr is the l-serine chemoreceptor. We show that AI-2 strongly attracts Escherichia coli...
  47. Massazza D, Parkinson J, Studdert C. Cross-linking evidence for motional constraints within chemoreceptor trimers of dimers. Biochemistry. 2011;50:820-7 pubmed publisher
    ..six different levels along the cytoplasmic signaling domains of the aspartate and serine chemoreceptors, Tar and Tsr, respectively...
  48. Shimizu T, Le Novère N, Levin M, Beavil A, Sutton B, Bray D. Molecular model of a lattice of signalling proteins involved in bacterial chemotaxis. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:792-6 pubmed
    ..This structure creates separate compartments for adaptation and downstream signalling, and indicates a possible basis for the spread of activity within the cluster. ..
  49. Salman H, Libchaber A. A concentration-dependent switch in the bacterial response to temperature. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:1098-100 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that the secreted intercellular signal, glycine, mediates this switch through methylation of Tsr receptors...
  50. Chalah A, Weis R. Site-specific and synergistic stimulation of methylation on the bacterial chemotaxis receptor Tsr by serine and CheW. BMC Microbiol. 2005;5:12 pubmed
    ..that bind to MCPs are known to increase the rate of receptor modification, as with serine and the serine receptor (Tsr), which contributes to an increase in the steady-state (adapted) methylation level...
  51. Falke J, Bass R, Butler S, Chervitz S, Danielson M. The two-component signaling pathway of bacterial chemotaxis: a molecular view of signal transduction by receptors, kinases, and adaptation enzymes. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 1997;13:457-512 pubmed
    ..Overall, the chemosensory pathway and the propulsion system it regulates provide an ideal system in which to probe molecular principles underlying complex cellular signaling and behavior. ..
  52. Kimbrough T, Manoil C. Role of a small cytoplasmic domain in the establishment of serine chemoreceptor membrane topology. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:7118-20 pubmed
  53. Briegel A, Wong M, Hodges H, Oikonomou C, Piasta K, Harris M, et al. New insights into bacterial chemoreceptor array structure and assembly from electron cryotomography. Biochemistry. 2014;53:1575-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The results described here provide new insights into the assembly intermediates and assembly mechanism of this massive macromolecular complex...
  54. Weerasuriya S, Schneider B, Manson M. Chimeric chemoreceptors in Escherichia coli: signaling properties of Tar-Tap and Tap-Tar hybrids. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:914-20 pubmed
    ..It is present in 5- to 10-fold-fewer copies than high-abundance receptors like Tar and Tsr. Cells expressing Tap as the sole receptor, even from a multicopy plasmid at 5- to 10-fold-overexpressed levels, do ..
  55. Lane M, Lloyd A, Markyvech T, Hagan E, Mobley H. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains generally lack functional Trg and Tap chemoreceptors found in the majority of E. coli strains strictly residing in the gut. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:5618-25 pubmed
    The prevalence and function of four chemoreceptors, Tsr, Tar, Trg, and Tap, were determined for a collection of uropathogenic, fecal-commensal, and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains...
  56. Roper D, Fawcett T, Cooper R. The Escherichia coli C homoprotocatechuate degradative operon: hpc gene order, direction of transcription and control of expression. Mol Gen Genet. 1993;237:241-50 pubmed
    ..This region is immediately upstream of a promoter for the pathway structural genes, which has been identified by transcript mapping. ..
  57. Manson M, Cantwell B. Model is as model does. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:E199-201 pubmed
  58. Tatsuno I, Lee L, Kawagishi I, Homma M, Imae Y. Transmembrane signalling by the chimeric chemosensory receptors of Escherichia coli Tsr and Tar with heterologous membrane-spanning regions. Mol Microbiol. 1994;14:755-62 pubmed
    The serine and aspartate chemosensory receptors (Tsr and Tar) of Escherichia coli have two membrane-spanning regions TM1 and TM2...
  59. Khan S, Spudich J, McCray J, Trentham D. Chemotactic signal integration in bacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:9757-61 pubmed
    ..Signaling from Tar and Tsr, two receptors that sense amino acids and pH, was studied...
  60. Stock A. Energy sensors for aerotaxis in Escherichia coli: something old, something new. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:10487-9 pubmed
  61. Shiomi D, Banno S, Homma M, Kawagishi I. Stabilization of polar localization of a chemoreceptor via its covalent modifications and its communication with a different chemoreceptor. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:7647-54 pubmed
    ..of the demethylated version of Tar-GFP was also enhanced by increasing levels of the serine chemoreceptor Tsr. The effect of covalent modification on receptor localization by itself may be too small to account for chemotactic ..
  62. Bespalov V, Zhulin I, Taylor B. Behavioral responses of Escherichia coli to changes in redox potential. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:10084-9 pubmed
    ..The magnitude of the behavioral response was dependent on the reduction potential of the chemoeffector. The Tsr, Tar, Trg, Tap, and CheR proteins, which have a role in chemotaxis, were not essential for redox taxis...
  63. Mizuno T, Imae Y. Conditional inversion of the thermoresponse in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1984;159:360-7 pubmed
    Mutants in Escherichia coli having defects in one of the methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins, Tsr protein, which is the chemoreceptor and transducer for L-serine, showed a reduced but similar type of thermoresponse compared with wild-..
  64. Yeh J, Biemann H, Pandit J, Koshland D, Kim S. The three-dimensional structure of the ligand-binding domain of a wild-type bacterial chemotaxis receptor. Structural comparison to the cross-linked mutant forms and conformational changes upon ligand binding. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:9787-92 pubmed
    ..4) The nature and magnitude of the aspartate-induced conformational changes in the non-cross-linked wild-type structures are very similar to those of the cross-linked structures. ..
  65. De Wulf P, Kwon O, Lin E. The CpxRA signal transduction system of Escherichia coli: growth-related autoactivation and control of unanticipated target operons. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:6772-8 pubmed
    ..Direct negative control of the newly identified targets motABcheAW (specifying motility and chemotaxis) and tsr (encoding the serine chemoreceptor) by CpxR-P was shown by electrophoretic mobility shift analysis and Northern ..
  66. Ames P, Yu Y, Parkinson J. Methylation segments are not required for chemotactic signalling by cytoplasmic fragments of Tsr, the methyl-accepting serine chemoreceptor of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1996;19:737-46 pubmed
    The serine chemoreceptor Tsr and other methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs) control the swimming behaviour of Escherichia coli by generating signals that influence the direction of flagellar rotation...
  67. Barak R, Eisenbach M. Correlation between phosphorylation of the chemotaxis protein CheY and its activity at the flagellar motor. Biochemistry. 1992;31:1821-6 pubmed
    ..This increase in activity requires additional cytoplasmic constituents, the identity of which is not yet known. ..
  68. Yang Y, Sourjik V. Opposite responses by different chemoreceptors set a tunable preference point in Escherichia coli pH taxis. Mol Microbiol. 2012;86:1482-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Such inversion is enabled by opposing pH sensing by the two major chemoreceptors, Tar and Tsr, such that the relative strength of the response is modulated by adaptive receptor methylation...
  69. Greer Phillips S, Alexandre G, Taylor B, Zhulin I. Aer and Tsr guide Escherichia coli in spatial gradients of oxidizable substrates. Microbiology. 2003;149:2661-7 pubmed
    The Aer and Tsr chemoreceptors in Escherichia coli govern tactic responses to oxygen and redox potential that are parts of an overall behaviour known as energy taxis...
  70. Tajima H, Imada K, Sakuma M, Hattori F, Nara T, Kamo N, et al. Ligand specificity determined by differentially arranged common ligand-binding residues in bacterial amino acid chemoreceptors Tsr and Tar. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:42200-10 pubmed publisher
    ..coli has closely related amino acid chemoreceptors with distinct ligand specificity, Tar for l-aspartate and Tsr for l-serine...
  71. Endres R, Wingreen N. Precise adaptation in bacterial chemotaxis through "assistance neighborhoods". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:13040-4 pubmed
    ..We predict two limits of precise adaptation at large attractant concentrations: Either receptors reach full methylation and turn off, or receptors become saturated and cease to respond to attractant but retain their adapted activity. ..
  72. Ames P, Hunter S, Parkinson J. Evidence for a Helix-Clutch Mechanism of Transmembrane Signaling in a Bacterial Chemoreceptor. J Mol Biol. 2016;428:3776-88 pubmed publisher
    The Escherichia coli Tsr protein contains a periplasmic serine-binding domain that transmits ligand occupancy information to a cytoplasmic kinase-control domain to regulate the cell's flagellar motors...
  73. Okumura H, Nishiyama S, Sasaki A, Homma M, Kawagishi I. Chemotactic adaptation is altered by changes in the carboxy-terminal sequence conserved among the major methyl-accepting chemoreceptors. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:1862-8 pubmed
    ..Among the chemoreceptors of these species, Tsr, Tar, and Tcp have a well-conserved carboxy-terminal motif (NWET/SF) that is absent in Trg and Tap...
  74. Liberman L, Berg H, Sourjik V. Effect of chemoreceptor modification on assembly and activity of the receptor-kinase complex in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:6643-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, changes in receptor activity do not appear to be mediated by changes in receptor-kinase assembly. ..
  75. Wang E, Koshland D. Receptor structure in the bacterial sensing system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980;77:7157-61 pubmed
    ..and serine in bacterial chemotaxis have been shown to be the 60,000-dalton proteins encoded by the tar and tsr genes...