Gene Symbol: tsf
Description: translation elongation factor EF-Ts
Alias: ECK0169, JW0165
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Lucas Lenard J. Protein biosynthesis. Annu Rev Biochem. 1971;40:409-48 pubmed
  2. An G, Bendiak D, Mamelak L, Friesen J. Organization and nucleotide sequence of a new ribosomal operon in Escherichia coli containing the genes for ribosomal protein S2 and elongation factor Ts. Nucleic Acids Res. 1981;9:4163-72 pubmed
    ..coli genetic map that includes the genes for ribosomal protein S2 (rpsB) and translation elongation factor EF-Ts (tsf), and the possible location of regulatory sites within this two gene operon...
  3. Han K, Song J, Ahn K, Park J, Seo H, Lee J. Enhanced solubility of heterologous proteins by fusion expression using stress-induced Escherichia coli protein, Tsf. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007;274:132-8 pubmed
    ..coli proteome response to a protein denaturant, guanidine hydrochloride, was analyzed and elongation factor Ts (Tsf) detected as a stress-induced protein...
  4. Wieden H, Gromadski K, Rodnin D, Rodnina M. Mechanism of elongation factor (EF)-Ts-catalyzed nucleotide exchange in EF-Tu. Contribution of contacts at the guanine base. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:6032-6 pubmed
  5. Blumenthal T, Landers T, Weber K. Bacteriophage Q replicase contains the protein biosynthesis elongation factors EF Tu and EF Ts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1972;69:1313-7 pubmed
    ..In addition, Qbeta replicase activity can be reconstituted from subunits I and II with EF Tu and EF Ts. ..
  6. Lathe R, Bollen A, Herzog R. Revised location of the Escherichia coli gene coding for ribosomal protein S2. Mol Gen Genet. 1981;182:178-9 pubmed
  7. Glazier K, Schlessinger D. Magic spot metabolism in an Escherichia coli mutant temperature sensitive in elongation factor Ts. J Bacteriol. 1974;117:1195-200 pubmed
    ..Thus, the absence of MS and the presence of a functional RNA polymerase and charged tRNA are not sufficient to support rRNA accumulation in vivo. An additional element in the regulatory system is suggested. ..
  8. Hwang Y, Sanchez A, Miller D. Mutagenesis of bacterial elongation factor Tu at lysine 136. A conserved amino acid in GTP regulatory proteins. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:8304-9 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that EF-Ts is essential to the growth of E. coli and suggest a technique for studying EF-Ts mutants as well as for identifying other guanine nucleotide exchange enzymes. ..
  9. Wurmbach P, Nierhaus K. Isolation of the protein synthesis elongation factors EF-Tu, EF-Ts, and EF-G from Escherichia coli. Methods Enzymol. 1979;60:593-606 pubmed

More Information


  1. Kita H, Cho J, Matsuura T, Nakaishi T, Taniguchi I, Ichikawa T, et al. Functional Qbeta replicase genetically fusing essential subunits EF-Ts and EF-Tu with beta-subunit. J Biosci Bioeng. 2006;101:421-6 pubmed
    ..The fused protein, a single-chain alpha-less Qbeta replicase, was mostly found in the soluble fraction and could be readily purified. These results pave the way for the large-scale production of the highly purified form of this enzyme. ..
  2. Zhang Y, Li X, Spremulli L. Role of the conserved aspartate and phenylalanine residues in prokaryotic and mitochondrial elongation factor Ts in guanine nucleotide exchange. FEBS Lett. 1996;391:330-2 pubmed
    ..coli EF-Tu while the D80AF81A mutant was nearly 10-fold less active. The D84 and F85 mutants of EF-Tsmt were 5-10-fold less active in stimulating the activity of EF-Tumt. The double mutation completely abolished the activity of EF-Tsmt. ..
  3. Miller D, Weissbach H. An interaction between the transfer factors required for protein synthesis. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1969;132:146-50 pubmed
  4. Chau V, Romero G, Biltonen R. Kinetic studies on the interactions of Escherichia coli K12 elongation factor Tu with GDP and elongation factor Ts. J Biol Chem. 1981;256:5591-6 pubmed
    ..4 x 10(4) M-1 and 1.8 x 10(5) M-1, respectively. These results demonstrate that the dissociation of GDP from EF-Tu in the presence of EF-Ts is not the rate-limiting process in protein synthesis. ..
  5. Bøgestrand S, Wiborg O, Thirup S, Nyborg J. Analysis and crystallization of a 25 kDa C-terminal fragment of cloned elongation factor Ts from Escherichia coli. FEBS Lett. 1995;368:49-54 pubmed
    ..The diffraction pattern shows a pronounced pseudo-C2 symmetry at low resolution. This pseudo symmetry increases when the crystals are irradiated with X-rays for a few hours. ..
  6. Kraal B, Lippmann C, Kleanthous C. Translational regulation by modifications of the elongation factor Tu. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 1999;44:131-41 pubmed
    ..Although the Lit cleavage-mechanism may eventually lead to programmed cell death, the very efficient prevention of phage multiplication may be caused by a novel mechanism of in cis inhibition of late T4 mRNA translation. ..
  7. Zhang Y, Yu N, Spremulli L. Mutational analysis of the roles of residues in Escherichia coli elongation factor Ts in the interaction with elongation factor Tu. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:4556-62 pubmed
    ..Mutations prepared in EF-Tu indicate that His-19 and Gln-114 but not Glu-348 in EF-Tu are moderately important for its interaction with EF-Ts. ..
  8. Wahba A, Miller M, Niveleau A, Landers T, Carmichael G, Weber K, et al. Subunit I of G beta replicase and 30 S ribosomal protein S1 of Escherichia coli. Evidence for the identity of the two proteins. J Biol Chem. 1974;249:3314-6 pubmed
  9. Wittinghofer A, Guariguata R, Leberman R. Bacterial elongation factor Ts: isolation and reactivity with elongation factor Tu. J Bacteriol. 1983;153:1266-71 pubmed
    ..Thus, e.g., EF-Tu from E. coli formed a complex with EF-Ts from B. stearothermophilus which was 10 times more stable than the corresponding homologous complex. ..
  10. Navratil T, Spremulli L. Effects of mutagenesis of Gln97 in the switch II region of Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu on its interaction with guanine nucleotides, elongation factor Ts, and aminoacyl-tRNA. Biochemistry. 2003;42:13587-95 pubmed
    ..Strikingly, the Q97P variant was completely inactive in ternary complex formation, accounting for its inability to function in polymerization. The structural basis of these observations is discussed. ..
  11. Karring H, Bjornsson A, Thirup S, Clark B, Knudsen C. Functional effects of deleting the coiled-coil motif in Escherichia coli elongation factor Ts. Eur J Biochem. 2003;270:4294-305 pubmed
    ..The present results also indicate that the deletion alters the competition between EF-Ts and kirromycin for the binding to EF-Tu. ..
  12. Kondo M, Gallerani R, Weissmann C. Subunit structure of Q-beta replicase. Nature. 1970;228:525-7 pubmed
  13. Hwang Y, Sanchez A, Hwang M, Miller D. The role of cysteinyl residues in the activity of bacterial elongation factor Ts, a guanosine nucleotide dissociation protein. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1997;348:157-62 pubmed
    ..The return of EF-Ts to its native conformation may provide the driving force for the rate-determining step in the catalytic cycle, the dissociation of EF-Ts from EF-Tu.GNP. ..
  14. Aseev L, Levandovskaya A, Tchufistova L, Scaptsova N, Boni I. A new regulatory circuit in ribosomal protein operons: S2-mediated control of the rpsB-tsf expression in vivo. RNA. 2008;14:1882-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Control mechanisms have been studied in detail for most of ribosomal protein operons, except for rpsB-tsf encoding essential r-protein S2 and elongation factor Ts, where even the promoter has remained unknown...
  15. Andersen G, Nissen P, Nyborg J. Elongation factors in protein biosynthesis. Trends Biochem Sci. 2003;28:434-41 pubmed
    ..Very recent structures of the yeast translocation factor and its complex with the antifungal drug sordarin reveal an unexpected conformational flexibility that might be crucial to the mechanism of translocation. ..
  16. Bollen A, Lathe R, Herzog A, Denicourt D, Lecocq J, Desmarez L, et al. A conditionally lethal mutation of Escherichia coli affecting the gene coding for ribosomal protein S2 (rpsB). J Mol Biol. 1979;132:219-33 pubmed
  17. Hori K, Harada K, Kuwano M. Function of bacteriophage Qbeta replicase containing an altered subunit IV. J Mol Biol. 1974;86:699-708 pubmed
  18. Zhang Y, Sun V, Spremulli L. Role of domains in Escherichia coli and mammalian mitochondrial elongation factor Ts in the interaction with elongation factor Tu. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:21956-63 pubmed
    ..coli EF-Tu approximately 25-fold more tightly than E. coli EF-Ts. Thus, the higher strength of the interaction between EF-Tsmt and EF-Tu can be localized primarily to a single subdomain. ..
  19. Sigdel T, Cilliers R, Gursahaney P, Thompson P, Easton J, Crowder M. Probing the adaptive response of Escherichia coli to extracellular Zn(II). Biometals. 2006;19:461-71 pubmed
    ..coli proteins, and the results are discussed in light of recent genomic profiling studies on the adaptive response of E. coli cells to stress by Zn(II) excess. ..
  20. Yamanaka K, Ogura T, Niki H, Hiraga S. Identification and characterization of the smbA gene, a suppressor of the mukB null mutant of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:7517-26 pubmed
    ..coli chromosome, between the tsf and frr genes. The smbA gene is essential for cell proliferation in the range from 22 to 42 degrees C...
  21. Weissbach H, Brot N, Miller D, Rosman M, Ertel R. Interaction of guanosine triphosphate with E. coli soluble transfer factors. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1969;34:419-31 pubmed
  22. Landers T, Blumenthal T, Weber K. Function and structure in ribonucleic acid phage Q beta ribonucleic acid replicase. The roles of the different subunits in transcription of synthetic templates. J Biol Chem. 1974;249:5801-8 pubmed
  23. Krab I, te Biesebeke R, Bernardi A, Parmeggiani A. Elongation factor Ts can act as a steric chaperone by increasing the solubility of nucleotide binding-impaired elongation factor-Tu. Biochemistry. 2001;40:8531-5 pubmed
  24. Miyajima A, Kaziro Y. Coordination of levels of elongation factors Tu, Ts, and G, and ribosomal protein SI in Escherichia coli. J Biochem. 1978;83:453-62 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that in E. coli the syntheses of the above four proteins are regulated in a coordinated manner and are subject to stringent control. ..
  25. Degryse E. Polymorphism in the dgt-dapD-tsf region of Escherichia coli K-12 strains. Gene. 1991;102:141-2 pubmed
    ..This RFLP, which includes the BamHI, EcoRI and SalI sites, may be useful in classification of various E. coli strains. ..
  26. Gromadski K, Wieden H, Rodnina M. Kinetic mechanism of elongation factor Ts-catalyzed nucleotide exchange in elongation factor Tu. Biochemistry. 2002;41:162-9 pubmed
    ..At in vivo concentrations of nucleotides and factors, the overall exchange rate, as calculated from the elemental rate constants, is 30 s(-1), which is compatible with the rate of protein synthesis in the cell. ..
  27. Kamen R, Kondo M, Römer W, Weissmann C. Reconstitution of Q replicase lacking subunit with protein-synthesis-interference factor i. Eur J Biochem. 1972;31:44-51 pubmed
  28. Miller D, Weissbach H. Interactions between the elongation factors: the displacement of GPD from the TU-GDP complex by factor Ts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1970;38:1016-22 pubmed
  29. Blumenthal T, Carmichael G. RNA replication: function and structure of Qbeta-replicase. Annu Rev Biochem. 1979;48:525-48 pubmed
  30. Kamen R. Characterization of the subunits of Q-beta replicase. Nature. 1970;228:527-33 pubmed
  31. Hachmann J, Miller D, Weissbach H. Purification of factor Ts: studies on the formation and stability of nucleotide complexes containing transfer factor Tu. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1971;147:457-66 pubmed
  32. Lucas Lenard J, Lipmann F. Separation of three microbial amino acid polymerization factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1966;55:1562-6 pubmed
  33. Kawashima T, Berthet Colominas C, Wulff M, Cusack S, Leberman R. The structure of the Escherichia coli EF-Tu.EF-Ts complex at 2.5 A resolution. Nature. 1996;379:511-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The interaction of EF-Ts with EF-Tu results principally in the disruption of the Mg2+ ion binding site, thereby reducing the affinity of EF-Tu for guanine nucleotides...
  34. Blumenthal T, Landers T. Renaturation of a multisubunit multiactivity enzyme complex: recovery of phage Qbeta RNA replicase, EF-Tu, and EF-Ts activities after denaturation in urea. Biochemistry. 1976;15:422-5 pubmed
    ..The rate of recovery of the poly(G) polymerase activity was found to be limited by the renaturation of EF-Tu, since the rate was dramatically increased by the addition of undenatured EF-Tu. ..
  35. Manchester K. Determination of the kinetics of guanine nucleotide exchange on EF-Tu and EF-Ts: continuing uncertainties. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;314:1-5 pubmed
    ..Metabolic control analysis has been applied to determine the degree of flux control of the different steps in the pathway. ..
  36. Alexander C, Bilgin N, Lindschau C, Mesters J, Kraal B, Hilgenfeld R, et al. Phosphorylation of elongation factor Tu prevents ternary complex formation. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:14541-7 pubmed
    ..A model for the function of EF-Tu phosphorylation in protein biosynthesis is presented. ..
  37. Miller D, Hachmann J, Weissbach H. The reactions of the sulfhydryl groups on the elongation factors Tu and Ts. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1971;144:115-21 pubmed
  38. Katayama A, Tsujii A, Wada A, Nishino T, Ishihama A. Systematic search for zinc-binding proteins in Escherichia coli. Eur J Biochem. 2002;269:2403-13 pubmed
    ..DnaK, serine hydroxymethyltransferase (GlyA), transketolase isozymes (TktA/TktB), translation elongation factor Ts (Tsf), ribosomal proteins L2 (RplB), L13 (RplM) and one of S15 (RpsO), S16 (RpsP) or S17 (RpsQ)...
  39. Nierhaus K. Protein synthesis. An elongation factor turn-on. Nature. 1996;379:491-2 pubmed
  40. Weissbach H, Miller D, Hachmann J. Studies on the role of factor Ts in polypeptide synthesis. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1970;137:262-9 pubmed
  41. Kraal B, Bosch L, Mesters J, de Graaf J, Woudt L, Vijgenboom E, et al. Elongation factors in protein synthesis. Ciba Found Symp. 1993;176:28-43; discussion 44-52 pubmed
    ..We have found a synergistic effect between EF-Tu and EF-G in their uncoupled GTPase reactions on empty ribosomes. Only the EF-G reaction is perturbed by fluoroaluminates. ..
  42. Karring H, Mathu S, van Duin J, Clark B, Kraal B, Knudsen C. Qbeta-phage resistance by deletion of the coiled-coil motif in elongation factor Ts. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:1878-84 pubmed
    ..The present study shows that the Escherichia coli mutant GRd.tsf lacking the coiled-coil motif of EF-Ts is completely resistant to phage Qbeta and that Qbeta-polymerase complex ..
  43. Ivanova N, Pavlov M, Bouakaz E, Ehrenberg M, Schiavone L. Mapping the interaction of SmpB with ribosomes by footprinting of ribosomal RNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:3529-39 pubmed
  44. Bendiak D, Friesen J. Organization of genes in the four minute region of the Escherichia coli chromosome: evidence that rpsB and tsf are co-transcribed. Mol Gen Genet. 1981;181:356-62 pubmed
    ..the following gene order in the four minute region of the Escherichia coli chromosome: tonA-dapD4-dapD2-rpsB-tsf-22 kilodalton protein - fir 27,000-firA-dnaE...