Gene Symbol: trxA
Description: thioredoxin 1
Alias: ECK3773, JW5856, dasC, fip, fipA, tsnC
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
Products:     trxA

Top Publications

  1. Potamitou A, Holmgren A, Vlamis Gardikas A. Protein levels of Escherichia coli thioredoxins and glutaredoxins and their relation to null mutants, growth phase, and function. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:18561-7 pubmed
    ..The levels of Grx2 and Grx3 behaved exactly the opposite, suggesting that the transcription factor OxyR does not regulate their expression. ..
  2. Prinz W, Aslund F, Holmgren A, Beckwith J. The role of the thioredoxin and glutaredoxin pathways in reducing protein disulfide bonds in the Escherichia coli cytoplasm. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:15661-7 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest the existence of a novel thioredoxin in E. coli. ..
  3. MUNOZ V, Sanchez Ruiz J. Exploring protein-folding ensembles: a variable-barrier model for the analysis of equilibrium unfolding experiments. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:17646-51 pubmed
    ..These results illustrate the potential of our approach for extracting the general features of protein ensembles from equilibrium folding experiments. ..
  4. Ortenberg R, Gon S, Porat A, Beckwith J. Interactions of glutaredoxins, ribonucleotide reductase, and components of the DNA replication system of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:7439-44 pubmed
    ..Our results also suggest an unexpected regulatory interaction between the DnaA and DnaN proteins. ..
  5. Kumar J, Tabor S, Richardson C. Role of the C-terminal residue of the DNA polymerase of bacteriophage T7. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:34905-12 pubmed
    ..Biochemical data along with structural observations imply that the terminal amino acid residue of T7 DNA polymerase plays a critical role in partitioning DNA between the polymerase and exonuclease sites. ..
  6. Hall M, Mata Cabana A, Akerlund H, Florencio F, Schröder W, Lindahl M, et al. Thioredoxin targets of the plant chloroplast lumen and their implications for plastid function. Proteomics. 2010;10:987-1001 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that redox-controlled reactions in the chloroplast lumen play essential roles in the function of photosystem II and the regulation of adaptation to light intensity. ..
  7. Ghosh S, Hamdan S, Cook T, Richardson C. Interactions of Escherichia coli thioredoxin, the processivity factor, with bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase and helicase. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:32077-84 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first demonstration that thioredoxin interacts with replication proteins other than T7 DNA polymerase...
  8. Fang J, Holmgren A. Inhibition of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal in vitro and in vivo. J Am Chem Soc. 2006;128:1879-85 pubmed
  9. Hamdan S, Marintcheva B, Cook T, Lee S, Tabor S, Richardson C. A unique loop in T7 DNA polymerase mediates the binding of helicase-primase, DNA binding protein, and processivity factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:5096-101 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the thioredoxin-binding domain is a molecular switch that regulates the interaction of T7 DNA polymerase with other proteins of the replisome...

More Information


  1. Aldea M, Claverie Martin F, Diaz Torres M, Kushner S. Transcript mapping using [35S]DNA probes, trichloroacetate solvent and dideoxy sequencing ladders: a rapid method for identification of transcriptional start points. Gene. 1988;65:101-10 pubmed
    ..The method was tested by analyzing the transcripts controlled by lac, ptr and trxA promoters...
  2. Sands J, Regnier P, Cummings H, Grunberg Manago M, Hershey J. The existence of two genes between infB and rpsO in the Escherichia coli genome: DNA sequencing and S1 nuclease mapping. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988;16:10803-16 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that P15B and P35 are expressed as part of the metY operon, but that some transcriptional read through into the rpsO operon also occurs, thereby, functionally linking the expression of these two complex systems. ..
  3. Ingle C, Kushner S. Development of an in vitro mRNA decay system for Escherichia coli: poly(A) polymerase I is necessary to trigger degradation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:12926-31 pubmed
    ..The in vitro decay of two different mRNAs (trxA and lpp) is triggered by the addition of ATP only when polysomes are prepared from s strain carrying the wild-type ..
  4. Ajouz B, Berrier C, Garrigues A, Besnard M, Ghazi A. Release of thioredoxin via the mechanosensitive channel MscL during osmotic downshock of Escherichia coli cells. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:26670-4 pubmed
    ..It follows that the other mechanosensitive channels, which are known to be activated at lower tension, must also open during osmotic shock. Their opening and that of MscL could account for the rapid release of osmolytes. ..
  5. Aldea M, Maples V, Kushner S. Generation of a detailed physical and genetic map of the ilv-metE-udp region of the Escherichia coli chromosome. J Mol Biol. 1988;200:427-38 pubmed
  6. Quan S, Schneider I, Pan J, Von Hacht A, Bardwell J. The CXXC motif is more than a redox rheostat. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:28823-33 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that the CXXC motif has the remarkable ability to confer a large number of very specific properties on thioredoxin-related proteins. ..
  7. Vazquez D, Sánchez I, Garrote A, Sica M, Santos J. The E. coli thioredoxin folding mechanism: the key role of the C-terminal helix. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1854:127-37 pubmed publisher
  8. Ravi D, Das K. Redox-cycling of anthracyclines by thioredoxin system: increased superoxide generation and DNA damage. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2004;54:449-58 pubmed
    ..coli Trx followed by doxorubicin treatment, increased levels of ROS generation were observed. Taken together, these results show a novel property of the Trx system in bioreductive activation of anthracyclines. ..
  9. Scholle M, Banach B, Hamdan S, Richardson C, Kay B. Peptide ligands specific to the oxidized form of Escherichia coli thioredoxin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1784:1735-41 pubmed publisher
    ..A competition study revealed that the peptide selectively inhibits the interaction of gp5Delta22 with Trx, under oxidizing conditions, with an IC50 of approximately 10 microM. ..
  10. Miranda Vizuete A, Rodriguez Ariza A, Toribio F, Holmgren A, Lopez Barea J, Pueyo C. The levels of ribonucleotide reductase, thioredoxin, glutaredoxin 1, and GSH are balanced in Escherichia coli K12. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:19099-103 pubmed
    ..and glutathione (GSH) and the glutathione redox status in new Escherichia coli K12 strains lacking thioredoxin (trxA-), glutaredoxin 1 (grxA-), and/or GSH (gshA-) or overproducing Trx or Grx1 from multicopy plasmids...
  11. Russel M, Model P. A bacterial gene, fip, required for filamentous bacteriophage fl assembly. J Bacteriol. 1983;154:1064-76 pubmed
    ..The bacterial mutation defines a new gene, fip (for filamentous phage production), located near 84.2 min on the E coli chromosome.
  12. Cline D, Redding S, Brohawn S, Psathas J, Schneider J, Thorpe C. New water-soluble phosphines as reductants of peptide and protein disulfide bonds: reactivity and membrane permeability. Biochemistry. 2004;43:15195-203 pubmed
    ..In sum, these data suggest that there is considerable scope for the synthesis of phosphine analogues tailored for specific applications in biological systems...
  13. Masip L, Klein Marcuschamer D, Quan S, Bardwell J, Georgiou G. Laboratory evolution of Escherichia coli thioredoxin for enhanced catalysis of protein oxidation in the periplasm reveals a phylogenetically conserved substrate specificity determinant. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:840-8 pubmed
    ..In vivo the TrxA(G74S) mutant exhibited enhanced catalytic activity in the oxidation of alkaline phosphatase but was unable to ..
  14. Leichert L, Jakob U. Protein thiol modifications visualized in vivo. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:e333 pubmed
    ..Remarkably, a number of these proteins were previously or are now shown to be redox regulated. ..
  15. Ghosh S, Hamdan S, Richardson C. Two modes of interaction of the single-stranded DNA-binding protein of bacteriophage T7 with the DNA polymerase-thioredoxin complex. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:18103-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Loop B appears to play an important role in communication with the helicase and gp2.5, whereas loop A plays a stabilizing role in these interactions. ..
  16. Chiu J, Tillett D, March P. Mutation of Phe102 to Ser in the carboxyl terminal helix of Escherichia coli thioredoxin affects the stability and processivity of T7 DNA polymerase. Proteins. 2006;64:477-85 pubmed
    ..Thus, Ser substitution at position 102 affected the structural stability of thioredoxin resulting in a reduced binding affinity for gp5 and loss of processivity. ..
  17. Nikkola M, Gleason F, Fuchs J, Eklund H. Crystal structure analysis of a mutant Escherichia coli thioredoxin in which lysine 36 is replaced by glutamic acid. Biochemistry. 1993;32:5093-8 pubmed
    ..The substituted Glu-36 makes extensive crystal contacts. The static fluorescence of this mutant thioredoxin has a different pH dependence than the wild type. ..
  18. Yang X, Richardson C. Amino acid changes in a unique sequence of bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase alter the processivity of nucleotide polymerization. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:6599-606 pubmed
    ..The observed dissociation constant of the gene 5 protein K(300,302,304)E-thioredoxin complex is 7-fold higher than that of the wild type complex. The altered polymerase also has a lower binding affinity for double-stranded DNA. ..
  19. Kumar S, Tsai C, Nussinov R. Temperature range of thermodynamic stability for the native state of reversible two-state proteins. Biochemistry. 2003;42:4864-73 pubmed
    ..Our results have interesting implications for protein thermostability. ..
  20. Huber D, Chaffotte A, Eser M, Planson A, Beckwith J. Amino acid residues important for folding of thioredoxin are revealed only by study of the physiologically relevant reduced form of the protein. Biochemistry. 2010;49:8922-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate the importance of studying the physiologically relevant folding species. ..
  21. Pan J, Bardwell J. The origami of thioredoxin-like folds. Protein Sci. 2006;15:2217-27 pubmed
  22. Schultz L, Chivers P, Raines R. The CXXC motif: crystal structure of an active-site variant of Escherichia coli thioredoxin. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 1999;55:1533-8 pubmed
    ..Protein molecules related by a crystallographic twofold axis form a dimer in the crystal. The dimer forms as an extension of the twisted mixed beta-sheet which composes the backbone of each Trx structure...
  23. Hoog J, von Bahr Lindström H, Josephson S, Wallace B, Kushner S, Jornvall H, et al. Nucleotide sequence of the thioredoxin gene from Escherichia coli. Biosci Rep. 1984;4:917-23 pubmed
    ..The predicted amino acid sequence differs by two inversions from the previously given thioredoxin sequence. The revised sequence is presented and the results further show that thioredoxins from E. coli B and K12 are identical. ..
  24. Mössner E, Huber Wunderlich M, Rietsch A, Beckwith J, Glockshuber R, Aslund F. Importance of redox potential for the in vivo function of the cytoplasmic disulfide reductant thioredoxin from Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:25254-9 pubmed
  25. Cho S, Beckwith J. Two snapshots of electron transport across the membrane: insights into the structure and function of DsbD. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:11416-24 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we also find water-exposed residues in the cytoplasmic proximal portion of TM3, allowing a more detailed characterization of the cavity in DsbDbeta. ..
  26. Sa J, Namgung M, Lim C, Fuchs J. Expression of the Escherichia coli thioredoxin gene is negatively regulated by cyclic AMP. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997;234:564-7 pubmed
    Regulation of the Escherichia coli thioredoxin gene (trxA) was studied using trxA-lac translational fusion constructed in the vector pMC1403...
  27. Hupp T, Kaguni J. Suppression of the Escherichia coli dnaA46 mutation by a mutation in trxA, the gene for thioredoxin. Mol Gen Genet. 1988;213:471-8 pubmed
    The dasC mutation, an extragenic suppressor of dnaA46, was mapped by P1 transduction near the rep, trxA, rho region of the Escherichia coli chromosome...
  28. Bayer M, Bayer M, Lunn C, Pigiet V. Association of thioredoxin with the inner membrane and adhesion sites in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:2659-66 pubmed
    ..A. Lunn and V. Pigiet, J. Biol. Chem. 257:11424-11430, 1982; C.A. Lunn and V. Pigiet, J. Biol. Chem. 261:832-838, 1986). Specific label was absent in the periplasmic space. ..
  29. Russel M, Model P, Holmgren A. Thioredoxin or glutaredoxin in Escherichia coli is essential for sulfate reduction but not for deoxyribonucleotide synthesis. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:1923-9 pubmed
    ..Here we show that X is a cysA mutation. Our data suggest that the inviability of a trxA grx double mutant is due to the accumulation of 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS), an intermediate in ..
  30. Setterdahl A, Chivers P, Hirasawa M, Lemaire S, Keryer E, Miginiac Maslow M, et al. Effect of pH on the oxidation-reduction properties of thioredoxins. Biochemistry. 2003;42:14877-84 pubmed
    ..coli thioredoxin and C. reinhardtii thioredoxin h. ..
  31. Himawan J, Richardson C. Genetic analysis of the interaction between bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase and Escherichia coli thioredoxin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:9774-8 pubmed
    ..Each suppressor mutation alone is necessary and sufficient to confer the revertant phenotype. ..
  32. Toledano M, Kumar C, Le Moan N, Spector D, Tacnet F. The system biology of thiol redox system in Escherichia coli and yeast: differential functions in oxidative stress, iron metabolism and DNA synthesis. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:3598-607 pubmed
    ..We show that although prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems have a similar architecture, they profoundly differ in their overall cellular functions. ..
  33. Barth P, Alber T, Harbury P. Accurate, conformation-dependent predictions of solvent effects on protein ionization constants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:4898-903 pubmed
    ..FDPB_MF provides a faithful, quantitative assessment of electrostatic interactions in biological macromolecules...
  34. Jeng M, Campbell A, Begley T, Holmgren A, Case D, Wright P, et al. High-resolution solution structures of oxidized and reduced Escherichia coli thioredoxin. Structure. 1994;2:853-68 pubmed
    ..Functional differences between the two forms are probably therefore related to differences in local conformational flexibility in and near the active site loop...
  35. Yang X, Richardson C. Structural and functional organization of the DNA polymerase of bacteriophage T7. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:24207-12 pubmed
    ..coli thioredoxin. Thioredoxin protects this region from proteolysis, and alteration of this region reduces the ability of thioredoxin to stimulate polymerase activity. ..
  36. Gleason F, Lim C, Gerami Nejad M, Fuchs J. Characterization of Escherichia coli thioredoxins with altered active site residues. Biochemistry. 1990;29:3701-9 pubmed
    ..The lysine is most likely conserved to facilitate thioredoxin-protein interactions. ..
  37. Nakai H, Richardson C. Interactions of the DNA polymerase and gene 4 protein of bacteriophage T7. Protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions involved in RNA-primed DNA synthesis. J Biol Chem. 1986;261:15208-16 pubmed
    ..Preincubation of gene 4 protein, DNA polymerase, and M13 DNA in the presence of dTTP forms protein-DNA complexes that most efficiently catalyze RNA-primed DNA synthesis in the presence of excess single-stranded competitor DNA...
  38. Debarbieux L, Beckwith J. The reductive enzyme thioredoxin 1 acts as an oxidant when it is exported to the Escherichia coli periplasm. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:10751-6 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the in vivo redox function of thioredoxin 1 depends on the redox environment in which it is localized. ..
  39. DOUBLIE S, Tabor S, Long A, Richardson C, Ellenberger T. Crystal structure of a bacteriophage T7 DNA replication complex at 2.2 A resolution. Nature. 1998;391:251-8 pubmed
    ..The structure illustrates how nucleotides are selected in a template-directed manner, and provides a structural basis for a metal-assisted mechanism of phosphoryl transfer by a large group of related polymerases. ..
  40. Holmgren A, S derberg B, Eklund H, Br nd n C. Three-dimensional structure of Escherichia coli thioredoxin-S2 to 2.8 A resolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1975;72:2305-9 pubmed
    ..Thioredoxin is an example of a protein with the active center located on a protrusion rather than in a cleft, thus demonstrating the existence of male proteins...
  41. Eklund H, Cambillau C, Sjoberg B, Holmgren A, Jornvall H, Hoog J, et al. Conformational and functional similarities between glutaredoxin and thioredoxins. EMBO J. 1984;3:1443-9 pubmed
    ..In particular, a lysine residue close to an aromatic ring is conserved in all molecules. ..
  42. Russel M, Model P. Characterization of the cloned fip gene and its product. J Bacteriol. 1984;157:526-32 pubmed
    A DNA fragment encoding the fip (filamentous phage production) gene from Escherichia coli, when cloned in a filamentous phage vector, restored to the phage ability to assemble progeny in fip mutant hosts...
  43. Bhutani N, Udgaonkar J. Folding subdomains of thioredoxin characterized by native-state hydrogen exchange. Protein Sci. 2003;12:1719-31 pubmed
    ..The native-state HX methodology has made it possible to characterize the free energy landscape that Trx can sample under equilibrium native conditions. ..
  44. Marulanda D, Tasayco M, Cataldi M, Arriaran V, Polenova T. Resonance assignments and secondary structure analysis of E. coli thioredoxin by magic angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy. J Phys Chem B. 2005;109:18135-45 pubmed
    ..It is anticipated that with a combination of two-dimensional correlation experiments and high magnetic fields, resonance assignments and secondary structure can be generally derived for other noncrystalline proteins. ..
  45. Wang Z, Zhang H, Li X, Le X. Study of interactions between arsenicals and thioredoxins (human and E. coli) using mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2007;21:3658-66 pubmed
    ..Mass spectral evidence also suggests that the pentavalent arsenicals could be reduced by Trx. This study provides the first detailed chemical characterization of the interactions between Trx and arsenic species. ..
  46. De Spiegeleer P, Sermon J, Lietaert A, Aertsen A, Michiels C. Source of tryptone in growth medium affects oxidative stress resistance in Escherichia coli. J Appl Microbiol. 2004;97:124-33 pubmed
    ..This work highlights the importance of controlling very subtle differences in composition of nonselective growth media in studies on bacterial physiology. ..
  47. Huber D, Cha M, Debarbieux L, Planson A, Cruz N, López G, et al. A selection for mutants that interfere with folding of Escherichia coli thioredoxin-1 in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:18872-7 pubmed
  48. Reid E, Eaves D, Cole J. The CcmE protein from Escherichia coli is a haem-binding protein. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1998;166:369-75 pubmed
    ..A trxA mutant, like the dipZ mutant, was unable to assemble c-type cytochromes or catalyse formate-dependent nitrite ..
  49. Wallace B, Kushner S. Genetic and physical analysis of the thioredoxin (trxA) gene of Escherichia coli K-12. Gene. 1984;32:399-408 pubmed
    The trxA gene of Escherichia coli K-12 has been cloned into multicopy plasmids on DNA fragments of varying sizes. The smallest of these was a 1-kb fragment resulting from partial digestion with Sau3A (pBHK10)...
  50. Kotani H, Nakajima K. Cloning and sequence of thioredoxin gene of Salmonella typhimurium LT2. Nucleic Acids Res. 1992;20:1424 pubmed
  51. Polianskiĭ A, Kosinskiĭ I, Efremov R. [The influence of local changes in the temperature-dependent conformational mobility of thioredoxins on their thermostability]. Bioorg Khim. 2004;30:470-80 pubmed
    ..The English version of the paper: Russian Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry, 2004, vol. 30, no. 5; see also http: // ..
  52. Schierle C, Berkmen M, Huber D, Kumamoto C, Boyd D, Beckwith J. The DsbA signal sequence directs efficient, cotranslational export of passenger proteins to the Escherichia coli periplasm via the signal recognition particle pathway. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:5706-13 pubmed
    ..Finally, probably because of its rapid folding in the cytoplasm, thioredoxin provides, along with gene fusion approaches, a sensitive assay system for signal sequences that utilize the SRP pathway. ..
  53. Bhutani N, Udgaonkar J. GroEL channels the folding of thioredoxin along one kinetic route. J Mol Biol. 2001;314:1167-79 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that such channeling might be a mechanism to avoid possible aggregation-prone routes available to a refolding polypeptide in vivo. ..
  54. Holmgren A. Thioredoxin. Annu Rev Biochem. 1985;54:237-71 pubmed
  55. Russel M, Model P. Thioredoxin is required for filamentous phage assembly. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985;82:29-33 pubmed
    Sequence comparisons show that the fip gene product of Escherichia coli, which is required for filamentous phage assembly, is thioredoxin...
  56. Matsumoto Y, Shigesada K, Hirano M, Imai M. Autogenous regulation of the gene for transcription termination factor rho in Escherichia coli: localization and function of its attenuators. J Bacteriol. 1986;166:945-58 pubmed
    ..a rho-dependent manner in the leader region and that neither a read-through transcription from the upstream gene, trxA, nor a modulation of transcription initiation of the rho promoter is involved in the self-control of rho...
  57. Indu S, Kumar S, Thakurela S, Gupta M, Bhaskara R, Ramakrishnan C, et al. Disulfide conformation and design at helix N-termini. Proteins. 2010;78:1228-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, a protein with CYS residues at positions N-Cap and 3 of an alpha-helix is likely to have redox activity. ..
  58. Jensen M, Petersen G, Lauritzen C, Pedersen J, Led J. Metal binding sites in proteins: identification and characterization by paramagnetic NMR relaxation. Biochemistry. 2005;44:11014-23 pubmed
    ..In addition, Ni(2+) binds specifically but more weakly to the surface-exposed side chain carboxylate groups of residues D10, D20, D47, and E85. ..
  59. Soderberg B, Holmgren A, Branden C. Structure of oxidized thioredoxin to 4 with 5 A resolution. J Mol Biol. 1974;90:143-52 pubmed
  60. Chartron J, Shiau C, Stout C, Carroll K. 3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate reductase in complex with thioredoxin: a structural snapshot in the catalytic cycle. Biochemistry. 2007;46:3942-51 pubmed
  61. Johnson D, Richardson C. A covalent linkage between the gene 5 DNA polymerase of bacteriophage T7 and Escherichia coli thioredoxin, the processivity factor: fate of thioredoxin during DNA synthesis. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:23762-72 pubmed
    ..However, a complex stalled at secondary structure becomes unstable, and both subunits dissociate from each other as the polymerase prematurely releases from M13 DNA. ..
  62. Huber H, Tabor S, Richardson C. Escherichia coli thioredoxin stabilizes complexes of bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase and primed templates. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:16224-32 pubmed
  63. Lim C, Geraghty D, Fuchs J. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the trxA gene of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1985;163:311-6 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli K-12 trxA gene, the gene encoding thioredoxin, has been cloned and sequenced. The DNA sequence includes 280 base pairs upstream and 46 base pairs downstream of the coding region...
  64. Gon S, Faulkner M, Beckwith J. In vivo requirement for glutaredoxins and thioredoxins in the reduction of the ribonucleotide reductases of Escherichia coli. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2006;8:735-42 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate a role for these enzymes either for NrdDG reactivation or some other essential anaerobic process. ..
  65. Harrison J, Tremaroli V, Stan M, Chan C, Vacchi Suzzi C, Heyne B, et al. Chromosomal antioxidant genes have metal ion-specific roles as determinants of bacterial metal tolerance. Environ Microbiol. 2009;11:2491-509 pubmed publisher
    ..This characterized approximately 250 gene-metal combinations and identified that sodA, sodB, gor, trxA, gshA, grxA and marR have distinct roles in safeguarding or sensitizing cells to different toxic metal ions (Cr(2)O(..
  66. Chung J, Noguera Mazon V, Lancelin J, Kim S, Hirasawa M, Hologne M, et al. Interaction domain on thioredoxin for Pseudomonas aeruginosa 5'-adenylylsulfate reductase. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:31181-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the thiol of the active-site Cys-256 of PaAPR is the point of the initial nucleophilic attack by reduced thioredoxin, mutagenic replacement of Cys-256 by serine has no effect on thioredoxin binding to PaAPR. ..
  67. Katti S, LeMaster D, Eklund H. Crystal structure of thioredoxin from Escherichia coli at 1.68 A resolution. J Mol Biol. 1990;212:167-84 pubmed publisher
    ..94 A). The differences, which may be related to the crystal contacts, are localized mostly to regions far from the active site...
  68. Miranda Vizuete A, Martínez Galisteo E, Aslund F, Lopez Barea J, Pueyo C, Holmgren A. Null thioredoxin and glutaredoxin Escherichia coli K-12 mutants have no enhanced sensitivity to mutagens due to a new GSH-dependent hydrogen donor and high increases in ribonucleotide reductase activity. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:16631-7 pubmed
    ..To this end, new Escherichia coli K-12 strains carrying delta trxA and/or grx::kan null mutations were constructed to monitor mutagenesis by selecting forward mutations to L-..
  69. Dutta S, Li Y, Johnson D, Dzantiev L, Richardson C, Romano L, et al. Crystal structures of 2-acetylaminofluorene and 2-aminofluorene in complex with T7 DNA polymerase reveal mechanisms of mutagenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:16186-91 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the dG-AF base at the templating position is not well defined by the electron density, consistent with weak binding to the polymerase and a possible interchange of this adduct between the syn and anti conformations...
  70. Lin T, Chen T. A positive charge at position 33 of thioredoxin primarily affects its interaction with other proteins but not redox potential. Biochemistry. 2004;43:945-52 pubmed
    ..Together with the G33D mutation, the overall results show that a charged residue at the first X has a greater influence on the molecular interaction of the protein than the redox potential...
  71. Dangi B, Dobrodumov A, Louis J, Gronenborn A. Solution structure and dynamics of the human-Escherichia coli thioredoxin chimera: insights into thermodynamic stability. Biochemistry. 2002;41:9376-88 pubmed
    ..88. Increased mobility is primarily present in two external loop regions comprising residues 72-74 and 92-94 that contain glycine and proline residues. ..
  72. Dyson H, Gippert G, Case D, Holmgren A, Wright P. Three-dimensional solution structure of the reduced form of Escherichia coli thioredoxin determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Biochemistry. 1990;29:4129-36 pubmed
    ..This conformational change has important implications for the mechanism of thioredoxin as a protein disulfide oxidoreductase...
  73. Lim C, Daws T, Gerami Nejad M, Fuchs J. Growth-phase regulation of the Escherichia coli thioredoxin gene. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1491:1-6 pubmed
    The two promoters of Escherichia coli trxA gene were separately cloned into pKO100 as well as pJEL170...
  74. Brieba L, Kokoska R, Bebenek K, Kunkel T, Ellenberger T. A lysine residue in the fingers subdomain of T7 DNA polymerase modulates the miscoding potential of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine. Structure. 2005;13:1653-9 pubmed
    ..We propose that Lys536 acts as a steric and/or electrostatic filter that attenuates the miscoding potential of 8oG by normally interfering with the binding of 8oG in a syn conformation that pairs with dATP. ..
  75. Rudresh -, Jain R, Dani V, Mitra A, Srivastava S, Sarma S, et al. Structural consequences of replacement of an alpha-helical Pro residue in Escherichia coli thioredoxin. Protein Eng. 2002;15:627-33 pubmed
    ..Instead, these main chain atoms are hydrogen bonded to water molecules. The increased stability of P40S is likely to be due to the net increase in the number of hydrogen bonds in helix two of E.coli thioredoxin. ..
  76. Mark D, Chase J, Richardson C. Genetic mapping of trxA, a gene affecting thioredoxin in Escherichia coli K12. Mol Gen Genet. 1977;155:145-52 pubmed
  77. Marulanda D, Tasayco M, McDermott A, Cataldi M, Arriaran V, Polenova T. Magic angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy for structural studies of protein interfaces. resonance assignments of differentially enriched Escherichia coli thioredoxin reassembled by fragment complementation. J Am Chem Soc. 2004;126:16608-20 pubmed
  78. Rietsch A, Bessette P, Georgiou G, Beckwith J. Reduction of the periplasmic disulfide bond isomerase, DsbC, occurs by passage of electrons from cytoplasmic thioredoxin. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:6602-8 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the activity of mutant forms of DsbC in which either or both of these cysteines have been altered further supports the role of DsbC as a disulfide bond isomerase. ..
  79. Tao K. Subcellular localization and in vivo oxidation-reduction kinetics of thiol peroxidase in Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2008;289:41-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Reanalysis of Tpx localization, using active site cysteine mutants of thioredoxin 1 (Trx1), demonstrated that Tpx forms a mixed-disulfide complex with cytoplasmic Trx1, indicating that Tpx localizes in the cytoplasm...
  80. Brieba L, Eichman B, Kokoska R, DOUBLIE S, Kunkel T, Ellenberger T. Structural basis for the dual coding potential of 8-oxoguanosine by a high-fidelity DNA polymerase. EMBO J. 2004;23:3452-61 pubmed
    ..This explains why translesion synthesis is permitted without proofreading of an 8oG.dA mismatch, thus providing insight into the high mutagenic potential of 8oG...
  81. Tabor S, Richardson C. Selective oxidation of the exonuclease domain of bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:15330-3 pubmed
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    ..2 kcal.m-1) and entropy (TDeltaS =-8.4 kcal.m-1) upon formation of the complex suggested that the interaction is driven by an increase in enthalpy and opposed by a decrease in entropy. ..