Gene Symbol: trpC
Description: indole-3-glycerolphosphate synthetase and N-(5-phosphoribosyl)anthranilate isomerase
Alias: ECK1256, JW1254, trpF
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Wilmanns M, Priestle J, Niermann T, Jansonius J. Three-dimensional structure of the bifunctional enzyme phosphoribosylanthranilate isomerase: indoleglycerolphosphate synthase from Escherichia coli refined at 2.0 A resolution. J Mol Biol. 1992;223:477-507 pubmed
    ..coli results from a gene duplication event of a monomeric beta/alpha-barrel ancestor. ..
  2. Horowitz H, Platt T. Identification of trp-p2, an internal promoter in the tryptophan operon of Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 1982;156:257-67 pubmed
  3. Christie G, Platt T. Gene structure in the tryptophan operon of Escherichia coli. Nucleotide sequence of trpC and the flanking intercistronic regions. J Mol Biol. 1980;142:519-30 pubmed
  4. Patrick W, Matsumura I. A study in molecular contingency: glutamine phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase is a promiscuous and evolvable phosphoribosylanthranilate isomerase. J Mol Biol. 2008;377:323-36 pubmed publisher
    ..of (His)(6)-tagged glutamine phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase (PurF) unexpectedly rescued a Delta trpF E. coli strain from starvation on minimal media...
  5. Santillan M, Zeron E. Dynamic influence of feedback enzyme inhibition and transcription attenuation on the tryptophan operon response to nutritional shifts. J Theor Biol. 2004;231:287-98 pubmed
    ..The model equations are numerically solved. An analysis of these solutions reveals that transcription attenuation helps to speed up the operon response to nutritional shifts, while enzyme inhibition increases the operon stability. ..
  6. Doy C, Rivera A, Srinivasan P. Evidence for the enzymatic synthesis of N-(5'-phosphoribosyl) anthranilic acid, a new intermediate in tryptophan biosynthesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1961;4:83-8 pubmed
  7. Han K, Park J, Seo H, Ahn K, Lee J. Multiple stressor-induced proteome responses of Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). J Proteome Res. 2008;7:1891-903 pubmed publisher
    ..The quantitative and systematic proteome analyses that we have performed provide more detailed information on E. coli BL21(DE3), a widely used host strain for recombinant protein overexpression. ..
  8. Wilmanns M, Schlagenhauf E, Fol B, Jansonius J. Crystallization and structure solution at 4 A resolution of the recombinant synthase domain of N-(5'-phosphoribosyl)anthranilate isomerase:indole-3-glycerol-phosphate synthase from Escherichia coli complexed to a substrate analogue. Protein Eng. 1990;3:173-80 pubmed
    ..This system provides a model for an interface which is used in both intermolecular and intramolecular domain contacts. ..
  9. Smith O. Structure of the trpC cistron specifying indoleglycerol phosphate synthetase, and its localization in the tryptophan operon of Escherichia coli. Genetics. 1967;57:95-105 pubmed

More Information


  1. Mattern I, Pittard J. Regulation of tyrosine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli K-12: isolation and characterization of operator mutants. J Bacteriol. 1971;107:8-15 pubmed
    ..The mutant allele aroK is not recessive to aroK(+) and aroK/aroK(+) strains exhibit the aroK phenotype of resistance to 4-aminophenylalanine. It is proposed that aroK is an operator locus for an aroF tyrA operon. ..
  2. Eberhard M, Kirschner K. Modification of a catalytically important residue of indoleglycerol-phosphate synthase from Escherichia coli. FEBS Lett. 1989;245:219-22 pubmed
    ..This finding shows that Lys 55 is important for both catalysis and substrate binding. ..
  3. Priestle J, Grutter M, White J, Vincent M, Kania M, Wilson E, et al. Three-dimensional structure of the bifunctional enzyme N-(5'-phosphoribosyl)anthranilate isomerase-indole-3-glycerol-phosphate synthase from Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:5690-4 pubmed
    ..Despite the structural similarity of the two domains, no significant sequence homology was found when topologically equivalent residues were compared. ..
  4. Gottesman S, Beckwith J. Directed transposition of the arabinose operon: a technique for the isolation of specialized transducing bacteriophages for any Escherichia coli gene. J Mol Biol. 1969;44:117-27 pubmed
  5. Horowitz H, Van Arsdell J, Platt T. Nucleotide sequence of the trpD and trpC genes of Salmonella typhimurium. J Mol Biol. 1983;169:775-97 pubmed
    We have completed the nucleotide sequence determination of trpD and trpC, the second and third genes of the trp operon of Salmonella typhimurium...
  6. Enger Valk B, Heyneker H, Oosterbaan R, Pouwels P. Construction of new cloning vehicles with genes of the tryptophan operon of Escherichia coli as genetic markers. Gene. 1980;9:69-85 pubmed
    ..Plasmids pHP39 (9.8 kb) and pEP392 (9.8 kb) carry an intact trp operon and have two and one EcoRI site, respectively. Plasmid pHP3 (18 kb) carries an intact trp operon and markers for tetracycline and ampicillin resistance. ..
  7. Yanofsky C, Platt T, Crawford I, Nichols B, Christie G, Horowitz H, et al. The complete nucleotide sequence of the tryptophan operon of Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 1981;9:6647-68 pubmed
    ..In this summary report we present the complete nucleotide sequence for the five structural genes of the trp operon of E. coli together with the internal and flanking regions of regulatory information. ..
  8. Imamoto F, Morikawa N, Sato K. On the transcription of the tryptophan operon in Escherichia coli. 3. Multicistronic messenger RNA and polarity for transcription. J Mol Biol. 1965;13:169-82 pubmed
  9. Milkman R, Bridges M. Molecular evolution of the Escherichia coli chromosome. IV. Sequence comparisons. Genetics. 1993;133:455-68 pubmed
    ..coli systems) or via an alternative mechanism. Length polymorphisms of several sorts are described. ..
  10. Darimont B, Stehlin C, Szadkowski H, Kirschner K. Mutational analysis of the active site of indoleglycerol phosphate synthase from Escherichia coli. Protein Sci. 1998;7:1221-32 pubmed
    ..selecting and classifying active mutants by functional complementation was constructed by precise deletion of the trpC gene from the genome...
  11. Akanuma S, Yamagishi A. Experimental evidence for the existence of a stable half-barrel subdomain in the (beta/alpha)8-barrel fold. J Mol Biol. 2008;382:458-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our results may provide information regarding the local structural units that encompass interactions important for the early folding events of this ubiquitous protein conformation. ..
  12. Kirschner K, Szadkowski H, Henschen A, Lottspeich F. Limited proteolysis of N-(5'-phosphoribosyl)anthranilate isomerase: indoleglycerol phosphate synthase from Escherichia coli yields two different enzymically active, functional domains. J Mol Biol. 1980;143:395-409 pubmed
  13. Akanuma S, Miyagawa H, Kitamura K, Yamagishi A. A detailed unfolding pathway of a (beta/alpha)8-barrel protein as studied by molecular dynamics simulations. Proteins. 2005;58:538-46 pubmed
    ..Our simulations also predicted the presence of a nucleation site, onto which several hydrophobic residues condensed forming the foundation for the central betaalphabetaalphabeta module. ..
  14. Venkatesh K, Bhartiya S, Ruhela A. Multiple feedback loops are key to a robust dynamic performance of tryptophan regulation in Escherichia coli. FEBS Lett. 2004;563:234-40 pubmed
    ..coli reveals that the network complexity arising due to the distributed feedback structure is responsible for the rapid and stable response observed even in the presence of system uncertainties. ..
  15. Smith O, Yanofsky C. 1-(o-Carboxyphenylamino)-1-deoxyribulose 5-phosphate, a new intermediate in the biosynthesis of tryptophan. J Biol Chem. 1960;235:2051-7 pubmed
  16. Bhartiya S, Rawool S, Venkatesh K. Dynamic model of Escherichia coli tryptophan operon shows an optimal structural design. Eur J Biochem. 2003;270:2644-51 pubmed
    ..We further demonstrate the significance of the biological structure of the operon on the overall performance. Our analysis suggests that the tryptophan operon has evolved to a truly optimal design. ..
  17. Hommel U, Eberhard M, Kirschner K. Phosphoribosyl anthranilate isomerase catalyzes a reversible amadori reaction. Biochemistry. 1995;34:5429-39 pubmed
  18. Creighton T, Yanofsky C. Indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthetase of Escherichia coli, an enzyme of the tryptophan operon. J Biol Chem. 1966;241:4616-24 pubmed
  19. Yang X, Kathuria S, Vadrevu R, Matthews C. Betaalpha-hairpin clamps brace betaalphabeta modules and can make substantive contributions to the stability of TIM barrel proteins. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7179 pubmed publisher
    ..The preferred sequences and locations of betaalpha-hairpin clamps will enhance structure prediction algorithms and provide a strategy for engineering stability in TIM barrel proteins. ..
  20. Eberhard M, Tsai Pflugfelder M, Bolewska K, Hommel U, Kirschner K. Indoleglycerol phosphate synthase-phosphoribosyl anthranilate isomerase: comparison of the bifunctional enzyme from Escherichia coli with engineered monofunctional domains. Biochemistry. 1995;34:5419-28 pubmed
  21. Yanofsky C, Ito J. Nonsense codons and polarity in the tryptophan operon. J Mol Biol. 1966;21:313-34 pubmed
  22. Hiraga S. Operator mutants of the tryptophan operon in Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 1969;39:159-79 pubmed
  23. Creighton T. N-(5'-phosphoribosyl)anthranilate isomerase-indol-3-ylglycerol phosphate synthetase of tryptophan biosynthesis. Relationship between the two activities of the enzyme from Escherichia coli. Biochem J. 1970;120:699-707 pubmed
    ..This system thus exhibits intracistronic complementation with a non-oligomeric protein gene product. ..
  24. Imamoto F, Ito J, Yanofsky C. Polarity in the tryptophan operon of E. coli. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1966;31:235-49 pubmed