Gene Symbol: trg
Description: methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein III, ribose and galactose sensor receptor
Alias: ECK1415, JW1417
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Kondoh H, Ball C, Adler J. Identification of a methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein for the ribose and galactose chemoreceptors of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979;76:260-4 pubmed
    ..This methyl-accepting protein is required for chemotaxis toward those attractants; mutants in the trg gene, which do not methylate this protein, are devoid of taxis toward D-ribose, D-galactose, and their analogues...
  2. Barak R, Eisenbach M. Correlation between phosphorylation of the chemotaxis protein CheY and its activity at the flagellar motor. Biochemistry. 1992;31:1821-6 pubmed
    ..This increase in activity requires additional cytoplasmic constituents, the identity of which is not yet known. ..
  3. Bitner R, Kuempel P. P1 transduction mapping of the trg locus in rac+ and rac strains of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1982;149:529-33 pubmed
    The trg locus, which had been located at min 31 in the cotransduction gap in the terminus region of the chromosome of Escherichia coli, has been mapped by transduction with bacteriophage P1...
  4. Sourjik V, Berg H. Localization of components of the chemotaxis machinery of Escherichia coli using fluorescent protein fusions. Mol Microbiol. 2000;37:740-51 pubmed
    ..Co-localization with flagellar structures was confirmed by immunofluorescence using an antihook primary antibody. Surprisingly, we did not observe co-localization of CheY with motors, even under conditions in which cells tumbled. ..
  5. Okumura H, Nishiyama S, Sasaki A, Homma M, Kawagishi I. Chemotactic adaptation is altered by changes in the carboxy-terminal sequence conserved among the major methyl-accepting chemoreceptors. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:1862-8 pubmed
    ..of these species, Tsr, Tar, and Tcp have a well-conserved carboxy-terminal motif (NWET/SF) that is absent in Trg and Tap...
  6. Hughson A, Hazelbauer G. Detecting the conformational change of transmembrane signaling in a bacterial chemoreceptor by measuring effects on disulfide cross-linking in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:11546-51 pubmed
    ..cross-linking between cysteines introduced into neighboring helices of the transmembrane domain of chemoreceptor Trg from Escherichia coli...
  7. Baumgartner J, Hazelbauer G. Mutational analysis of a transmembrane segment in a bacterial chemoreceptor. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:4651-60 pubmed
    b>Trg is a member of a family of receptors that mediates chemotaxis by Escherichia coli. Its transmembrane domain is a loose four-helix bundle consisting of two helices from each of the two identical subunits...
  8. Baumgartner J, Kim C, Brissette R, Inouye M, Park C, Hazelbauer G. Transmembrane signalling by a hybrid protein: communication from the domain of chemoreceptor Trg that recognizes sugar-binding proteins to the kinase/phosphatase domain of osmosensor EnvZ. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:1157-63 pubmed
    Chemoreceptor Trg and osmosensor EnvZ of Escherichia coli share a common transmembrane organization but have essentially unrelated primary structures...
  9. Hollands K, Lee D, Lloyd G, Busby S. Activation of sigma 28-dependent transcription in Escherichia coli by the cyclic AMP receptor protein requires an unusual promoter organization. Mol Microbiol. 2010;75:1098-111 pubmed publisher
    ..Among other E. coli promoters recognized by RNA polymerase containing sigma(28), only the trg promoter is activated directly by the cyclic AMP receptor protein...

More Information


  1. Borkovich K, Alex L, Simon M. Attenuation of sensory receptor signaling by covalent modification. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:6756-60 pubmed
    ..Reversible modification provides a mechanism that allows the cell to accumulate a population of receptor molecules capable of generating a wide range of signaling intensities. ..
  2. Lai W, Beel B, Hazelbauer G. Adaptational modification and ligand occupancy have opposite effects on positioning of the transmembrane signalling helix of a chemoreceptor. Mol Microbiol. 2006;61:1081-90 pubmed
    ..we characterized effects of adaptational modification on the position of the signalling helix in chemoreceptor Trg using rates of disulphide formation between introduced cysteines...
  3. Sourjik V. Receptor clustering and signal processing in E. coli chemotaxis. Trends Microbiol. 2004;12:569-76 pubmed
    ..Recent advances in computer modeling and in quantitative experimental analysis suggest that cooperative protein interactions in receptor clusters play a crucial role in the signal processing during bacterial chemotaxis. ..
  4. Li G, Weis R. Covalent modification regulates ligand binding to receptor complexes in the chemosensory system of Escherichia coli. Cell. 2000;100:357-65 pubmed
    ..Also, the finding that a subsaturating serine concentration accelerates active receptor-kinase complex assembly implies that the assembly/disassembly process may also contribute to kinase regulation. ..
  5. Toews M, Goy M, Springer M, Adler J. Attractants and repellents control demethylation of methylated chemotaxis proteins in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979;76:5544-8 pubmed
    ..It is therefore concluded that control of demethylation plays a crucial role in changing the level of methylation of MCP in response to attractants and repellents. ..
  6. Endres R, Wingreen N. Precise adaptation in bacterial chemotaxis through "assistance neighborhoods". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:13040-4 pubmed
    ..We predict two limits of precise adaptation at large attractant concentrations: Either receptors reach full methylation and turn off, or receptors become saturated and cease to respond to attractant but retain their adapted activity. ..
  7. Lee G, Burrows G, Lebert M, Dutton D, Hazelbauer G. Deducing the organization of a transmembrane domain by disulfide cross-linking. The bacterial chemoreceptor Trg. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:29920-7 pubmed
    The transmembrane domain of chemoreceptor Trg from Escherichia coli contains four segments, two from each subunit of the homodimer...
  8. Harayama S, Engstrom P, Wolf Watz H, Iino T, Hazelbauer G. Cloning of trg, a gene for a sensory transducer in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1982;152:372-83 pubmed
    Clones of trg, a gene which codes for a chemotactic transducer, were isolated linked to ColE1 and pBR322 vectors...
  9. Meek D, Hayward R. Nucleotide sequence of the rpoA-rplQ DNA of Escherichia coli: a second regulatory binding site for protein S4?. Nucleic Acids Res. 1984;12:5813-21 pubmed
    ..The rpoA-rplQ intercistronic region shows strong primary, and potential secondary structural homologies with the S4-binding sites on 16S rRNA and S13 mRNA. We suggest that S4 represses L17 translation directly. ..
  10. Park C, Dutton D, Hazelbauer G. Effects of glutamines and glutamates at sites of covalent modification of a methyl-accepting transducer. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:7179-87 pubmed
    ..We addressed the significance of this arrangement by creating two mutated trg genes: trg(5E), coding for a transducer in which all five modification sites were synthesized as glutamates, and ..
  11. Nowlin D, Bollinger J, Hazelbauer G. Sites of covalent modification in Trg, a sensory transducer of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:6039-45 pubmed
    The Trg protein mediates chemotactic response of Escherichia coli to the attractants ribose and galactose. Like other transducers, Trg is a transmembrane protein that undergoes post-translational covalent modification...
  12. Hazelbauer G, Park C, Nowlin D. Adaptational "crosstalk" and the crucial role of methylation in chemotactic migration by Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:1448-52 pubmed
    ..Mutant Trg protein recognized ligand and generated excitatory signals that affected flagella but was unable to mediate ..
  13. Ames P, Parkinson J. Phenotypic suppression methods for analyzing intra- and inter-molecular signaling interactions of chemoreceptors. Methods Enzymol. 2007;423:436-57 pubmed
    ..The suppression patterns exhibit allele-specificity with respect to the compensatory residue positions and amino acid side chains, a hallmark of stereospecific protein-protein interactions. ..
  14. Boldog T, Hazelbauer G. Accessibility of introduced cysteines in chemoreceptor transmembrane helices reveals boundaries interior to bracketing charged residues. Protein Sci. 2004;13:1466-75 pubmed
    Two hydrophobic sequences, 24 and 30 residues long, identify the membrane-spanning segments of chemoreceptor Trg from Escherichia coli...
  15. Benov L, Fridovich I. Escherichia coli exhibits negative chemotaxis in gradients of hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorite, and N-chlorotaurine: products of the respiratory burst of phagocytic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:4999-5002 pubmed
    ..Hypochlorite and N-chlorotaurine were also strongly repellent. Chemotaxis down gradients of H2O2, OCl-, and N-chlorotaurine may contribute to the survival of commensal or pathogenic microorganisms. ..
  16. Feng X, Lilly A, Hazelbauer G. Enhanced function conferred on low-abundance chemoreceptor Trg by a methyltransferase-docking site. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:3164-71 pubmed
    ..We found that the low-abundance receptor Trg acquired essential functional features of a high-abundance receptor by the addition of the final 19 residues of the ..
  17. Bollinger J, Park C, Harayama S, Hazelbauer G. Structure of the Trg protein: Homologies with and differences from other sensory transducers of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984;81:3287-91 pubmed
    ..Three transducer genes comprise a homologous gene family, while a fourth gene, trg, is more distantly related. We have determined the nucleotide sequence of trg...
  18. Lane M, Lloyd A, Markyvech T, Hagan E, Mobley H. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains generally lack functional Trg and Tap chemoreceptors found in the majority of E. coli strains strictly residing in the gut. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:5618-25 pubmed
    The prevalence and function of four chemoreceptors, Tsr, Tar, Trg, and Tap, were determined for a collection of uropathogenic, fecal-commensal, and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains...
  19. Li M, Hazelbauer G. Adaptational assistance in clusters of bacterial chemoreceptors. Mol Microbiol. 2005;56:1617-26 pubmed
    ..Using membrane vesicles containing both high-abundance receptor Tar and low-abundance receptor Trg, we observed effective assistance in vitro for all three adaptational modifications: methylation, demethylation and ..
  20. Nara T, Lee L, Imae Y. Thermosensing ability of Trg and Tap chemoreceptors in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:1120-4 pubmed
    The thermosensing ability of the Trg and Tap chemoreceptors in Escherichia coli was investigated after amplifying these receptors in a host strain lacking all four known chemoreceptors (Tar, Tsr, Trg, and Tap)...
  21. Lee G, Lebert M, Lilly A, Hazelbauer G. Transmembrane signaling characterized in bacterial chemoreceptors by using sulfhydryl cross-linking in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:3391-5 pubmed
    ..movement between pairs of helices in the four-helix structure of the transmembrane domain of chemoreceptor Trg. Using a family of cysteine-containing receptors, we identified oxidation treatments for intact cells that ..
  22. Falke J, Bass R, Butler S, Chervitz S, Danielson M. The two-component signaling pathway of bacterial chemotaxis: a molecular view of signal transduction by receptors, kinases, and adaptation enzymes. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 1997;13:457-512 pubmed
    ..Overall, the chemosensory pathway and the propulsion system it regulates provide an ideal system in which to probe molecular principles underlying complex cellular signaling and behavior. ..
  23. Shimizu T, Le Novère N, Levin M, Beavil A, Sutton B, Bray D. Molecular model of a lattice of signalling proteins involved in bacterial chemotaxis. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:792-6 pubmed
    ..This structure creates separate compartments for adaptation and downstream signalling, and indicates a possible basis for the spread of activity within the cluster. ..
  24. Welch M, Oosawa K, Aizawa S, Eisenbach M. Phosphorylation-dependent binding of a signal molecule to the flagellar switch of bacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:8787-91 pubmed
    ..This study provides a biochemical demonstration of binding of a signal molecule to the bacterial switch and demonstrates directly that phosphorylation regulates the activity of this molecule. ..
  25. Yamamoto K, Macnab R, Imae Y. Repellent response functions of the Trg and Tap chemoreceptors of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:383-8 pubmed
    ..In the absence of all four known methyl-accepting chemoreceptors (Tar, Tsr, Trg, and Tap), cells showed no response to phenol...
  26. Barnakov A, Barnakova L, Hazelbauer G. Comparison in vitro of a high- and a low-abundance chemoreceptor of Escherichia coli: similar kinase activation but different methyl-accepting activities. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:6713-8 pubmed
    ..We used in vitro assays to investigate this difference. The low-abundance receptor Trg mediated an approximately 100-fold activation of the kinase CheA, only twofold less than activation by the high-..
  27. Moir P, Spiegelberg R, Oliver I, Pringle J, Masters M. Proteins encoded by the Escherichia coli replication terminus region. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:2102-10 pubmed
    ..region consists of protein-coding sequences, we cloned 44 kb (1 min) of terminus region DNA (that surrounding trg at 31.4 min) and examined its ability to catalyze protein synthesis in vitro or in minicells...
  28. Lai W, Peach M, Lybrand T, Hazelbauer G. Diagnostic cross-linking of paired cysteine pairs demonstrates homologous structures for two chemoreceptor domains with low sequence identity. Protein Sci. 2006;15:94-101 pubmed
    ..periplasmic domains have related structures? We addressed this issue for the periplasmic domain of chemoreceptor Trg(E) from E...
  29. Hazelbauer G, Engstrom P, Harayama S. Methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein III and transducer gene trg. J Bacteriol. 1981;145:43-9 pubmed
    A comparison of the two-dimensional gel patterns of methyl-3H- and 35S-labeled membrane proteins from trg+ and trg null mutant strains of Escherichia coli indicated that the product of trg is probably methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein ..
  30. Manson M, Armitage J, Hoch J, Macnab R. Bacterial locomotion and signal transduction. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:1009-22 pubmed
  31. Gegner J, Graham D, Roth A, Dahlquist F. Assembly of an MCP receptor, CheW, and kinase CheA complex in the bacterial chemotaxis signal transduction pathway. Cell. 1992;70:975-82 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the receptor signal is transduced through conformational changes in the ternary complex rather than through changes in the association of the kinase CheA with receptor and/or CheW. ..
  32. Yeh J, Biemann H, Pandit J, Koshland D, Kim S. The three-dimensional structure of the ligand-binding domain of a wild-type bacterial chemotaxis receptor. Structural comparison to the cross-linked mutant forms and conformational changes upon ligand binding. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:9787-92 pubmed
    ..4) The nature and magnitude of the aspartate-induced conformational changes in the non-cross-linked wild-type structures are very similar to those of the cross-linked structures. ..
  33. Weerasuriya S, Schneider B, Manson M. Chimeric chemoreceptors in Escherichia coli: signaling properties of Tar-Tap and Tap-Tar hybrids. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:914-20 pubmed
    ..Tap does cross-react, however, with antibody directed against the low-abundance chemoreceptor Trg. The hybrid, truncated, and extended receptors exhibit various levels of methylation...
  34. Hess J, Oosawa K, Matsumura P, Simon M. Protein phosphorylation is involved in bacterial chemotaxis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:7609-13 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the phosphorylation of CheA by ATP plays a central role in signal transduction in chemotaxis. ..
  35. Bitner R, Kuempel P. P1 transduction map spanning the replication terminus of Escherichia coli K12. Mol Gen Genet. 1981;184:208-12 pubmed
    ..7). The relevant transposons that have been mapped in this region and which are described in this report are trg-1::Tn5 (min 31.1), zdc-235::Tn10 (min 32.3), zdd-230::Tn9 (min 33.3), and zde-234::Tn10 (min 34.2)...
  36. Beel B, Hazelbauer G. Substitutions in the periplasmic domain of low-abundance chemoreceptor trg that induce or reduce transmembrane signaling: kinase activation and context effects. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:671-9 pubmed
    We extended characterization of mutational substitutions in the ligand-binding region of Trg, a low-abundance chemoreceptor of Escherichia coli...
  37. Bren A, Eisenbach M. How signals are heard during bacterial chemotaxis: protein-protein interactions in sensory signal propagation. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:6865-73 pubmed
  38. Yaghmai R, Hazelbauer G. Strategies for differential sensory responses mediated through the same transmembrane receptor. EMBO J. 1993;12:1897-905 pubmed
    b>Trg mediates chemotaxis of Escherichia coli to galactose and ribose by recognition of respective, sugar-occupied binding proteins...