Gene Symbol: tap
Description: methyl-accepting protein IV
Alias: ECK1886, JW1874
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Wang E, Mowry K, Clegg D, Koshland D. Tandem duplication and multiple functions of a receptor gene in bacterial chemotaxis. J Biol Chem. 1982;257:4673-6 pubmed
    ..Each gene, which we refer to as tar and tap, respectively, codes for a 60,000-dalton protein...
  2. Bren A, Eisenbach M. How signals are heard during bacterial chemotaxis: protein-protein interactions in sensory signal propagation. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:6865-73 pubmed
  3. Gegner J, Graham D, Roth A, Dahlquist F. Assembly of an MCP receptor, CheW, and kinase CheA complex in the bacterial chemotaxis signal transduction pathway. Cell. 1992;70:975-82 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the receptor signal is transduced through conformational changes in the ternary complex rather than through changes in the association of the kinase CheA with receptor and/or CheW. ..
  4. Nara T, Lee L, Imae Y. Thermosensing ability of Trg and Tap chemoreceptors in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:1120-4 pubmed
    The thermosensing ability of the Trg and Tap chemoreceptors in Escherichia coli was investigated after amplifying these receptors in a host strain lacking all four known chemoreceptors (Tar, Tsr, Trg, and Tap)...
  5. Yamamoto K, Macnab R, Imae Y. Repellent response functions of the Trg and Tap chemoreceptors of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:383-8 pubmed
    ..In the absence of all four known methyl-accepting chemoreceptors (Tar, Tsr, Trg, and Tap), cells showed no response to phenol...
  6. Manson M, Armitage J, Hoch J, Macnab R. Bacterial locomotion and signal transduction. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:1009-22 pubmed
  7. Falke J, Bass R, Butler S, Chervitz S, Danielson M. The two-component signaling pathway of bacterial chemotaxis: a molecular view of signal transduction by receptors, kinases, and adaptation enzymes. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 1997;13:457-512 pubmed
    ..Overall, the chemosensory pathway and the propulsion system it regulates provide an ideal system in which to probe molecular principles underlying complex cellular signaling and behavior. ..
  8. Arnosti D, Chamberlin M. Secondary sigma factor controls transcription of flagellar and chemotaxis genes in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:830-4 pubmed
    ..subtilis. Hence E. coli sigma F holoenzyme appears to be analogous to the B. subtilis sigma 28 RNA polymerase, both in its promoter specificity and in the nature of the regulon it controls. ..
  9. Lane M, Lloyd A, Markyvech T, Hagan E, Mobley H. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains generally lack functional Trg and Tap chemoreceptors found in the majority of E. coli strains strictly residing in the gut. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:5618-25 pubmed
    The prevalence and function of four chemoreceptors, Tsr, Tar, Trg, and Tap, were determined for a collection of uropathogenic, fecal-commensal, and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains...

More Information


  1. Li G, Weis R. Covalent modification regulates ligand binding to receptor complexes in the chemosensory system of Escherichia coli. Cell. 2000;100:357-65 pubmed
    ..Also, the finding that a subsaturating serine concentration accelerates active receptor-kinase complex assembly implies that the assembly/disassembly process may also contribute to kinase regulation. ..
  2. Lee J, Hiibel S, Reardon K, Wood T. Identification of stress-related proteins in Escherichia coli using the pollutant cis-dichloroethylene. J Appl Microbiol. 2010;108:2088-102 pubmed publisher
    ..the most hydrogen peroxide-sensitive mutants, ygiW and ychH, identified that FliS, GalS, HcaR, MglA, SufE, SufS, Tap, TnaB, YhcN and YjaA are also involved in the stress response of E...
  3. Endres R, Wingreen N. Precise adaptation in bacterial chemotaxis through "assistance neighborhoods". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:13040-4 pubmed
    ..We predict two limits of precise adaptation at large attractant concentrations: Either receptors reach full methylation and turn off, or receptors become saturated and cease to respond to attractant but retain their adapted activity. ..
  4. Manson M, Blank V, Brade G, Higgins C. Peptide chemotaxis in E. coli involves the Tap signal transducer and the dipeptide permease. Nature. 1986;321:253-6 pubmed
    ..However, the role of the fourth MCP, Tap, has remained obscure...
  5. Ames P, Parkinson J. Phenotypic suppression methods for analyzing intra- and inter-molecular signaling interactions of chemoreceptors. Methods Enzymol. 2007;423:436-57 pubmed
    ..The suppression patterns exhibit allele-specificity with respect to the compensatory residue positions and amino acid side chains, a hallmark of stereospecific protein-protein interactions. ..
  6. Liu X, Parales R. Bacterial chemotaxis to atrazine and related s-triazines. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:5481-8 pubmed publisher
    ..coli mutant lacking Tap (the pyrimidine chemoreceptor) was unable to respond to s-triazines...
  7. Krikos A, Mutoh N, Boyd A, Simon M. Sensory transducers of E. coli are composed of discrete structural and functional domains. Cell. 1983;33:615-22 pubmed
    ..The tap gene lies adjacent to tar, and is thought to encode another transducer protein...
  8. Okumura H, Nishiyama S, Sasaki A, Homma M, Kawagishi I. Chemotactic adaptation is altered by changes in the carboxy-terminal sequence conserved among the major methyl-accepting chemoreceptors. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:1862-8 pubmed
    ..these species, Tsr, Tar, and Tcp have a well-conserved carboxy-terminal motif (NWET/SF) that is absent in Trg and Tap. When they are expressed as sole chemoreceptors, Tsr, Tar, and Tcp support good adaptation, but Trg and Tap are ..
  9. Boyd A, Krikos A, Simon M. Sensory transducers of E. coli are encoded by homologous genes. Cell. 1981;26:333-43 pubmed
    ..that these genes are cotranscribed from a promoter upstream of tar and revealed the existence of a new gene, tap (taxis-associated protein), lying between tar and cheR...
  10. Mello B, Tu Y. An allosteric model for heterogeneous receptor complexes: understanding bacterial chemotaxis responses to multiple stimuli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:17354-9 pubmed
    ..It should also be useful for studying the functions of other heterogeneous receptor complexes. ..
  11. Sourjik V, Berg H. Localization of components of the chemotaxis machinery of Escherichia coli using fluorescent protein fusions. Mol Microbiol. 2000;37:740-51 pubmed
    ..Co-localization with flagellar structures was confirmed by immunofluorescence using an antihook primary antibody. Surprisingly, we did not observe co-localization of CheY with motors, even under conditions in which cells tumbled. ..
  12. Minoshima S, Hayashi H. Studies on bacterial chemotaxis. VI. Effect of cheX mutation on the methylation of methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein of Escherichia coli. J Biochem. 1980;87:1371-7 pubmed
    ..The presence of four species of MCP's whose extent of methylation was affected by cheX mutation as well as cheB mutation was also shown by this experiment. ..
  13. Weerasuriya S, Schneider B, Manson M. Chimeric chemoreceptors in Escherichia coli: signaling properties of Tar-Tap and Tap-Tar hybrids. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:914-20 pubmed
    The Tap (taxis toward peptides) receptor and the periplasmic dipeptide-binding protein (DBP) of Escherichia coli together mediate chemotactic responses to dipeptides. Tap is a low-abundance receptor...
  14. Parkinson J, Houts S. Isolation and behavior of Escherichia coli deletion mutants lacking chemotaxis functions. J Bacteriol. 1982;151:106-13 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that an important component of the signal transducing machinery may be altered in cheB mutants. ..
  15. Welch M, Oosawa K, Aizawa S, Eisenbach M. Phosphorylation-dependent binding of a signal molecule to the flagellar switch of bacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:8787-91 pubmed
    ..This study provides a biochemical demonstration of binding of a signal molecule to the bacterial switch and demonstrates directly that phosphorylation regulates the activity of this molecule. ..
  16. Shimizu T, Le Novère N, Levin M, Beavil A, Sutton B, Bray D. Molecular model of a lattice of signalling proteins involved in bacterial chemotaxis. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:792-6 pubmed
    ..This structure creates separate compartments for adaptation and downstream signalling, and indicates a possible basis for the spread of activity within the cluster. ..
  17. Parkinson J. Complementation analysis and deletion mapping of Escherichia coli mutants defective in chemotaxis. J Bacteriol. 1978;135:45-53 pubmed
    ..These functions are probably involved in initiating of controlling changes in flagellar rotation in response to chemotactic stimuli. ..
  18. Liu X, Parales R. Chemotaxis of Escherichia coli to pyrimidines: a new role for the signal transducer tap. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:972-9 pubmed
    ..All MCP mutants lacking the MCP Tap protein showed no response to pyrimidines, suggesting that Tap, which is known to mediate dipeptide chemotaxis, is ..
  19. Barak R, Eisenbach M. Correlation between phosphorylation of the chemotaxis protein CheY and its activity at the flagellar motor. Biochemistry. 1992;31:1821-6 pubmed
    ..This increase in activity requires additional cytoplasmic constituents, the identity of which is not yet known. ..
  20. Toews M, Goy M, Springer M, Adler J. Attractants and repellents control demethylation of methylated chemotaxis proteins in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979;76:5544-8 pubmed
    ..It is therefore concluded that control of demethylation plays a crucial role in changing the level of methylation of MCP in response to attractants and repellents. ..
  21. Slocum M, Parkinson J. Genetics of methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins in Escherichia coli: organization of the tar region. J Bacteriol. 1983;155:565-77 pubmed
    ..The fifth gene, tap, was mapped between the tar and cheR loci and specified the production of a 65-kilodalton methyl-accepting protein...
  22. Hess J, Oosawa K, Matsumura P, Simon M. Protein phosphorylation is involved in bacterial chemotaxis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:7609-13 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the phosphorylation of CheA by ATP plays a central role in signal transduction in chemotaxis. ..
  23. Kundu T, Kusano S, Ishihama A. Promoter selectivity of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase sigmaF holoenzyme involved in transcription of flagellar and chemotaxis genes. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:4264-9 pubmed
    ..Alteration of the promoter structure after binding of E sigmaF was suggested...
  24. Benov L, Fridovich I. Escherichia coli exhibits negative chemotaxis in gradients of hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorite, and N-chlorotaurine: products of the respiratory burst of phagocytic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:4999-5002 pubmed
    ..Hypochlorite and N-chlorotaurine were also strongly repellent. Chemotaxis down gradients of H2O2, OCl-, and N-chlorotaurine may contribute to the survival of commensal or pathogenic microorganisms. ..
  25. Slocum M, Parkinson J. Genetics of methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins in Escherichia coli: null phenotypes of the tar and tap genes. J Bacteriol. 1985;163:586-94 pubmed
    The tar and tap genes are located adjacent to one another in an operon of chemotaxis-related functions. They encode methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins implicated in tactic responses to aspartate and maltose stimuli...
  26. Borkovich K, Alex L, Simon M. Attenuation of sensory receptor signaling by covalent modification. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:6756-60 pubmed
    ..Reversible modification provides a mechanism that allows the cell to accumulate a population of receptor molecules capable of generating a wide range of signaling intensities. ..
  27. Yeh J, Biemann H, Pandit J, Koshland D, Kim S. The three-dimensional structure of the ligand-binding domain of a wild-type bacterial chemotaxis receptor. Structural comparison to the cross-linked mutant forms and conformational changes upon ligand binding. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:9787-92 pubmed
    ..4) The nature and magnitude of the aspartate-induced conformational changes in the non-cross-linked wild-type structures are very similar to those of the cross-linked structures. ..