Gene Symbol: soxS
Description: superoxide response regulon transcriptional activator; autoregulator
Alias: ECK4054, JW4023
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
Products:     soxS

Top Publications

  1. Martin R, Rosner J. Genomics of the marA/soxS/rob regulon of Escherichia coli: identification of directly activated promoters by application of molecular genetics and informatics to microarray data. Mol Microbiol. 2002;44:1611-24 pubmed
    ..Here, we identify directly activated promoters of the overlapping marA, soxS and rob regulon(s) of Escherichia coli by applying informatics, genomics and molecular genetics to microarray data ..
  2. Wood T, Griffith K, Fawcett W, Jair K, Schneider T, Wolf R. Interdependence of the position and orientation of SoxS binding sites in the transcriptional activation of the class I subset of Escherichia coli superoxide-inducible promoters. Mol Microbiol. 1999;34:414-30 pubmed
    b>SoxS is the direct transcriptional activator of the member genes of the Escherichia coli superoxide regulon. At class I SoxS-dependent promoters, e.g...
  3. Martin R, Gillette W, Rosner J. Promoter discrimination by the related transcriptional activators MarA and SoxS: differential regulation by differential binding. Mol Microbiol. 2000;35:623-34 pubmed
    MarA and SoxS are closely related proteins ( approximately 45% identical) that transcriptionally activate a common set of unlinked genes, resulting in multiple antibiotic and superoxide resistance in Escherichia coli...
  4. Martin R, Gillette W, Martin N, Rosner J. Complex formation between activator and RNA polymerase as the basis for transcriptional activation by MarA and SoxS in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2002;43:355-70 pubmed
    ..We show here that the closely related activators, MarA, SoxS and Rob, which activate the same family of genes, are capable of forming complexes with RNP core or holoenzyme in ..
  5. Shah I, Wolf R. Sequence requirements for Lon-dependent degradation of the Escherichia coli transcription activator SoxS: identification of the SoxS residues critical to proteolysis and specific inhibition of in vitro degradation by a peptide comprised of the N-term. J Mol Biol. 2006;357:718-31 pubmed
    ..that endogenously generate superoxide, the cell's defense response is initiated by the de novo synthesis of SoxS, which then activates transcription of the genes of the SoxRS regulon...
  6. Griffith K, Shah I, Myers T, O Neill M, Wolf R. Evidence for "pre-recruitment" as a new mechanism of transcription activation in Escherichia coli: the large excess of SoxS binding sites per cell relative to the number of SoxS molecules per cell. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;291:979-86 pubmed the oxidative stress imposed by redox-cycling compounds like paraquat, Escherichia coli induces the synthesis of SoxS, which then activates the transcription of approximately 100 genes...
  7. Fawcett W, Wolf R. Genetic definition of the Escherichia coli zwf "soxbox," the DNA binding site for SoxS-mediated induction of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase in response to superoxide. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:1742-50 pubmed
    ..the gene for glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, is subject to growth rate-dependent regulation and is activated by SoxS in response to superoxide stress...
  8. Shah I, Wolf R. Novel protein--protein interaction between Escherichia coli SoxS and the DNA binding determinant of the RNA polymerase alpha subunit: SoxS functions as a co-sigma factor and redeploys RNA polymerase from UP-element-containing promoters to SoxS-depend. J Mol Biol. 2004;343:513-32 pubmed
    b>SoxS is the transcription activator of the SoxRS regulon...
  9. Shah I, Wolf R. Inhibition of Lon-dependent degradation of the Escherichia coli transcription activator SoxS by interaction with 'soxbox' DNA or RNA polymerase. Mol Microbiol. 2006;60:199-208 pubmed
    Escherichia coli SoxS, the direct transcription activator of the SoxRS (superoxide) regulon, is intrinsically unstable with an in vivo half-life of approximately 2 min...

More Information


  1. Gaudu P, Weiss B. SoxR, a [2Fe-2S] transcription factor, is active only in its oxidized form. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:10094-8 pubmed
    ..The activity of SoxR was tested by its ability to enable the transcription of its target gene, soxS, in vitro...
  2. Pomposiello P, Bennik M, Demple B. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of the Escherichia coli responses to superoxide stress and sodium salicylate. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:3890-902 pubmed
    ..biochemical approaches, the soxRS system mediates the induction of 18 of these redox-inducible genes (including the soxS gene itself)...
  3. Fuentes A, Díaz Mejía J, Maldonado Rodríguez R, Amábile Cuevas C. Differential activities of the SoxR protein of Escherichia coli: SoxS is not required for gene activation under iron deprivation. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001;201:271-5 pubmed
    When Escherichia coli cells are under superoxide stress, proteins SoxR and SoxS, acting sequentially, control the expression of a set of repair and defense genes...
  4. Liochev S, Benov L, Touati D, Fridovich I. Induction of the soxRS regulon of Escherichia coli by superoxide. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:9479-81 pubmed
    ..This establishes that O-2, directly or indirectly, can cause induction of this defensive regulon. ..
  5. Cohen S, H chler H, Levy S. Genetic and functional analysis of the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) locus in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:1484-92 pubmed
    ..The function of ORF72, designated marB, encoding the third putative protein in the operon, and that of other ORFs detected within the 7.8-kb fragment have not yet been determined...
  6. Warner D, Levy S. Different effects of transcriptional regulators MarA, SoxS and Rob on susceptibility of Escherichia coli to cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs): Rob-dependent CAMP induction of the marRAB operon. Microbiology. 2010;156:570-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The roles of the Escherichia coli transcriptional regulators MarA, SoxS and Rob in susceptibility to these peptides were examined...
  7. Rhee S, Martin R, Rosner J, Davies D. A novel DNA-binding motif in MarA: the first structure for an AraC family transcriptional activator. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:10413-8 pubmed
    ..Extensive interactions between the recognition helices and the DNA major groove provide the sequence specificity...
  8. Fabrega A, Rosner J, Martin R, Solé M, Vila J. SoxS-dependent coregulation of ompN and ydbK in a multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strain. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2012;332:61-7 pubmed publisher
    b>SoxS, MarA, and Rob are homologous transcriptional activators of numerous superoxide- and antibiotic resistance genes but many of the regulated genes are yet to be characterized...
  9. Wu J, Weiss B. Two-stage induction of the soxRS (superoxide response) regulon of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:3915-20 pubmed
    soxR and soxS are adjacent genes that govern a superoxide response regulon. Previous studies revealed that induction of the regulon is accompanied by increased transcription of soxS, which can activate the target genes...
  10. Rosenberg E, Bertenthal D, Nilles M, Bertrand K, Nikaido H. Bile salts and fatty acids induce the expression of Escherichia coli AcrAB multidrug efflux pump through their interaction with Rob regulatory protein. Mol Microbiol. 2003;48:1609-19 pubmed
    ..Its expression is regulated by three XylS/AraC family regulators, MarA, SoxS and Rob...
  11. Paterson E, Boucher S, Lambert I. Regulation of the nfsA Gene in Escherichia coli by SoxS. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:51-8 pubmed
    ..Footprinting and band shift analysis showed that purified His-tagged SoxS protein binds to a 20-base sequence 10 bases upstream of the -35 promoter sequence in the forward orientation, ..
  12. Lu C, Bentley W, Rao G. Comparisons of oxidative stress response genes in aerobic Escherichia coli fermentations. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2003;83:864-70 pubmed
    ..regions of five SoxRS regulon genes (sodA, fumC, zwf, acnA, and acrAB) and one SoxRS regulatory protein gene (soxS) were inserted upstream of the gene of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in pGlow-TOPO...
  13. Schneiders T, Levy S. MarA-mediated transcriptional repression of the rob promoter. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:10049-55 pubmed
    ..Protein-DNA interactions show that SoxS and Rob, like MarA, bind the same marbox in the rob promoter...
  14. Smirnova G, Torkhova O, Oktiabr skiĭ O. [The role of antioxidant systems in the response of Escherichia coli to acetamidophenol and some antibiotics]. Mikrobiologiia. 2005;74:149-56 pubmed
    ..glutathione ratio in the cells by 50%, while it enhanced the expression of the antioxidant genes soxS and sodA by 2.7 and 1.8 times, respectively...
  15. Bore E, Hebraud M, Chafsey I, Chambon C, Skjaeret C, Moen B, et al. Adapted tolerance to benzalkonium chloride in Escherichia coli K-12 studied by transcriptome and proteome analyses. Microbiology. 2007;153:935-46 pubmed
    ..The results revealed that BC treatment might result in superoxide stress in E. coli. ..
  16. Gallegos M, Schleif R, Bairoch A, Hofmann K, Ramos J. Arac/XylS family of transcriptional regulators. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 1997;61:393-410 pubmed
  17. Mito S, Zhang Q, Yonei S. Isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli strains containing new gene fusions (soi::lacZ) inducible by superoxide radicals. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:2645-51 pubmed
    ..The induction of beta-galactosidase was significantly reduced by introducing a soxS::Tn10 locus into the fusion strains, indicating that the soi genes are members of the soxRS regulon...
  18. Volkert M, Landini P. Transcriptional responses to DNA damage. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2001;4:178-85 pubmed
    ..Transcription of the responses to DNA damage are induced when the activated regulatory proteins stimulate transcription of the genes they control by a variety of complex and unique molecular mechanisms. ..
  19. Semchyshyn H, Bagnyukova T, Lushchak V. Involvement of soxRS regulon in response of Escherichia coli to oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2005;70:1238-44 pubmed
    ..These results provide evidence for the involvement of the soxRS regulon in the adaptive response of E. coli to oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide. ..
  20. Tkachenko A. Mechanisms of protective functions of Escherichia coli polyamines against toxic effect of paraquat, which causes superoxide stress. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2004;69:188-94 pubmed
    ..stimulation was observed for the stress induction of nfo (endonuclease IV), sodA (superoxide dismutase), and the soxS gene of the transcriptional regulator, respectively. Addition of paraquat to exponentially growing E...
  21. Nobre L, Al Shahrour F, Dopazo J, Saraiva L. Exploring the antimicrobial action of a carbon monoxide-releasing compound through whole-genome transcription profiling of Escherichia coli. Microbiology. 2009;155:813-24 pubmed publisher
    ..coli mutants. The results show that the deletion of redox-sensing regulators SoxS and OxyR increased the sensitivity to CORM-2 and suggest that while SoxS plays an important role in protection ..
  22. Griffith K, Shah I, Wolf R. Proteolytic degradation of Escherichia coli transcription activators SoxS and MarA as the mechanism for reversing the induction of the superoxide (SoxRS) and multiple antibiotic resistance (Mar) regulons. Mol Microbiol. 2004;51:1801-16 pubmed
    ..The response regulators, SoxS and MarA, are synthesized de novo in response to their inducing signals and directly activate transcription of a ..
  23. Griffith K, Wolf R. Systematic mutagenesis of the DNA binding sites for SoxS in the Escherichia coli zwf and fpr promoters: identifying nucleotides required for DNA binding and transcription activation. Mol Microbiol. 2001;40:1141-54 pubmed
    b>SoxS is the direct transcriptional activator of at least 15 genes of the Escherichia coli superoxide regulon. SoxS is small (107 amino acids), binds DNA as a monomer and recognizes a highly degenerate DNA binding site, termed 'soxbox'...
  24. Semchyshyn H, Bagnyukova T, Storey K, Lushchak V. Hydrogen peroxide increases the activities of soxRS regulon enzymes and the levels of oxidized proteins and lipids in Escherichia coli. Cell Biol Int. 2005;29:898-902 pubmed
  25. Martin R, Bartlett E, Rosner J, Wall M. Activation of the Escherichia coli marA/soxS/rob regulon in response to transcriptional activator concentration. J Mol Biol. 2008;380:278-84 pubmed publisher
    The paralogous transcriptional activators MarA, SoxS, and Rob activate a common set of promoters, the marA/soxS/rob regulon of Escherichia coli, by binding a cognate site (marbox) upstream of each promoter...
  26. Grkovic S, Brown M, Skurray R. Regulation of bacterial drug export systems. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2002;66:671-701, table of contents pubmed
    ..Hence, in a number of important pathogens, regulatory mutations that result in drug transporter overexpression and concomitant elevated antimicrobial resistance are often observed. ..
  27. Rosner J, Dangi B, Gronenborn A, Martin R. Posttranscriptional activation of the transcriptional activator Rob by dipyridyl in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:1407-16 pubmed
    ..Thus, it appears that Rob can be converted from a low activity state to a high-activity state by a CTD-mediated mechanism in vivo or by purification in vitro. ..
  28. Vasil eva S, Makhova E, Moshkovskaia E. [Connectivity between soxS gene expression and adaptive resistance to the SoxRS-regulon inducers in E. coli cells]. Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2004;44:18-22 pubmed
    ..coli. Two AR parameters were used: an increasing in viability and decreasing in the soxS gene (SoxRS-regulon) expression in adapted cells...
  29. Bailey A, Webber M, Piddock L. Medium plays a role in determining expression of acrB, marA, and soxS in Escherichia coli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50:1071-4 pubmed
    Analysis of expression of acrB, marA, and soxS in rich and minimal media, at early and late logarithmic growth phases, showed that acrB had increased expression in minimal medium compared to rich medium, but expression decreased dose ..
  30. Griffith K, Fitzpatrick M, Keen E, Wolf R. Two functions of the C-terminal domain of Escherichia coli Rob: mediating "sequestration-dispersal" as a novel off-on switch for regulating Rob's activity as a transcription activator and preventing degradation of Rob by Lon protease. J Mol Biol. 2009;388:415-30 pubmed publisher a new mechanism for regulating the activity of transcriptional activators, we fused Rob's CTD to SoxS and used indirect immunofluorescence microscopy to determine the effect of inducers on SoxS-Rob's cellular ..
  31. Rosner J, Martin R. An excretory function for the Escherichia coli outer membrane pore TolC: upregulation of marA and soxS transcription and Rob activity due to metabolites accumulated in tolC mutants. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:5283-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Because tolC transcription is activated by three paralogous activators, MarA, SoxS, and Rob, we examined the regulation of these activators in tolC mutants...
  32. Lee J, Cho K, Kim O. Overproduction of AcrR increases organic solvent tolerance mediated by modulation of SoxS regulon in Escherichia coli. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2014;98:8763-73 pubmed publisher
    ..In the acrR (+) strain, soxS expression was significantly upregulated compared with the wild-type...
  33. Demple B. Redox signaling and gene control in the Escherichia coli soxRS oxidative stress regulon--a review. Gene. 1996;179:53-7 pubmed
    ..The SoxS protein represents a growing family of transcription activators that stimulate genes for resistance to oxidative ..
  34. Cabiscol E, Tamarit J, Ros J. Oxidative stress in bacteria and protein damage by reactive oxygen species. Int Microbiol. 2000;3:3-8 pubmed
    ..This paper reviews major key points in the generation of reactive oxygen species in bacteria, defense mechanisms and genetic responses to oxidative stress. Special attention is paid to the oxidative damage to proteins. ..
  35. Hidalgo E, Ding H, Demple B. Redox signal transduction via iron-sulfur clusters in the SoxR transcription activator. Trends Biochem Sci. 1997;22:207-10 pubmed
    ..Thus, FeS centers allosterically link cellular oxidative stress to the expression of defense genes. ..
  36. Fozo E, Kawano M, Fontaine F, Kaya Y, Mendieta K, Jones K, et al. Repression of small toxic protein synthesis by the Sib and OhsC small RNAs. Mol Microbiol. 2008;70:1076-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Whole genome expression analysis showed that overexpression of IbsC and ShoB, as well as the small hydrophobic LdrD and TisB proteins, has both overlapping and unique consequences for the cell. ..
  37. Li Z, Demple B. SoxS, an activator of superoxide stress genes in Escherichia coli. Purification and interaction with DNA. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:18371-7 pubmed
    ..generated by these agents are sensed by the SoxR protein which, when activated, functions as a potent activator of soxS transcription...
  38. Demple B, Amábile Cuevas C. Redox redux: the control of oxidative stress responses. Cell. 1991;67:837-9 pubmed
  39. Poole R. Nitric oxide and nitrosative stress tolerance in bacteria. Biochem Soc Trans. 2005;33:176-80 pubmed
  40. Krapp A, Rodriguez R, Poli H, Paladini D, Palatnik J, Carrillo N. The flavoenzyme ferredoxin (flavodoxin)-NADP(H) reductase modulates NADP(H) homeostasis during the soxRS response of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:1474-80 pubmed
  41. Nunoshiba T, Hidalgo E, Li Z, Demple B. Negative autoregulation by the Escherichia coli SoxS protein: a dampening mechanism for the soxRS redox stress response. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:7492-4 pubmed
    ..stress regulon of Escherichia coli is triggered in two stages, with the activated SoxR protein stimulating the soxS gene, whose product then triggers transcription of approximately 10 promoters...
  42. Martin R, Gillette W, Rhee S, Rosner J. Structural requirements for marbox function in transcriptional activation of mar/sox/rob regulon promoters in Escherichia coli: sequence, orientation and spatial relationship to the core promoter. Mol Microbiol. 1999;34:431-41 pubmed
    ..regulon of Escherichia coli contain a binding site (marbox) for the homologous transcriptional activators MarA, SoxS and Rob...
  43. Kogoma T, Farr S, Joyce K, Natvig D. Isolation of gene fusions (soi::lacZ) inducible by oxidative stress in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:4799-803 pubmed
    ..The third fusion strain showed no increased sensitivity to either agent. All three fusions were located in the 45- to 61-min region of the Escherichia coli chromosome. ..
  44. Jiménez Arribas G, Leautaud V, Amábile Cuevas C. Regulatory locus soxRS partially protects Escherichia coli against ozone. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001;195:175-7 pubmed
    ..A sub-lethal exposure to ozone was unable to activate the expression of soxS'::lacZ transcriptional fusions...
  45. Zheng M, Wang X, Templeton L, Smulski D, LaRossa R, Storz G. DNA microarray-mediated transcriptional profiling of the Escherichia coli response to hydrogen peroxide. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:4562-70 pubmed
    ..These results expand our understanding of the oxidative stress response and raise interesting questions regarding the nature of other regulators that modulate gene expression in response to hydrogen peroxide. ..
  46. Mosel M, Li L, Drlica K, Zhao X. Superoxide-mediated protection of Escherichia coli from antimicrobials. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:5755-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These pretreatments also reduced an oxolinic acid-mediated ROS surge. Defects in SoxS MarA or AcrB eliminated plumbagin- and paraquat-mediated MIC increases but maintained protection from killing...
  47. Jung I, Kim I. Polyamines reduce paraquat-induced soxS and its regulon expression in Escherichia coli. Cell Biol Toxicol. 2003;19:29-41 pubmed
    ..Putrescine and spermidine downregulate the expression of soxS induced by paraquat in a concentration-dependent manner...
  48. Vasilieva S, Moshkovskaya E, Sanina N, Aldoshin S, Vanin A. Genetic signal transduction by nitrosyl-iron complexes in Escherichia coli. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2004;69:883-9 pubmed
    ..1 mM activated expression of the soxS and sfiA genes in Escherichia coli...
  49. Wu J, Weiss B. Two divergently transcribed genes, soxR and soxS, control a superoxide response regulon of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:2864-71 pubmed
    ..Induction by paraquat (methyl viologen) requires both soxR and a new gene, soxS. soxS is adjacent to soxR, it encodes a 13-kDa protein, and it is required for paraquat resistance...
  50. Shibuya A, Tsukagoshi N, Ohtsu I, Dokyu N, Aono R. Convenient and sensitive evaluation of a superoxide anion-generating reagent methyl viologen by Escherichia coli harboring a soxS'::gfp reporter plasmid. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2004;68:2637-9 pubmed
    ..The fluorescence intensity observed in the stationary phase culture of the transformant increased in response to the methyl viologen concentration in a range of 0.01 microM to 10 microM. ..
  51. Martin R, Rosner J. The AraC transcriptional activators. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2001;4:132-7 pubmed
    ..Activation by MarA, SoxS or Rob requires a particular orientation of the asymmetric binding sequence (and hence the activator), depending on ..
  52. Zafar M, Sanchez Alberola N, Wolf R. Genetic evidence for a novel interaction between transcriptional activator SoxS and region 4 of the ?(70) subunit of RNA polymerase at class II SoxS-dependent promoters in Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 2011;407:333-53 pubmed publisher
    Escherichia coli SoxS activates transcription of the genes of the soxRS regulon, which provide the cell's defense against oxidative stress. In response to this stress, SoxS is synthesized de novo...
  53. Warner D, Levy S. SoxS increases the expression of the zinc uptake system ZnuACB in an Escherichia coli murine pyelonephritis model. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:1177-85 pubmed publisher
    Paralogous transcriptional regulators MarA, Rob, and SoxS act individually and together to control expression of more than 80 Escherichia coli genes. Deletion of marA, rob, and soxS from an E...
  54. Lee J, Lee K, Yeo W, Park S, Roe J. SoxRS-mediated lipopolysaccharide modification enhances resistance against multiple drugs in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:4441-50 pubmed publisher
    ..dependent on SoxRS, a superoxide and nitric oxide sensing system, through a soxbox in the waaY promoter that binds SoxS. A DeltawaaYZ mutant became more sensitive to some superoxide generators, and the activation of SoxR by these drugs ..
  55. Zafar M, Shah I, Wolf R. Protein-protein interactions between sigma(70) region 4 of RNA polymerase and Escherichia coli SoxS, a transcription activator that functions by the prerecruitment mechanism: evidence for "off-DNA" and "on-DNA" interactions. J Mol Biol. 2010;401:13-32 pubmed publisher
    According to the prerecruitment hypothesis, Escherichia coli SoxS activates the transcription of the genes of the SoxRS regulon by forming binary complexes with RNA polymerase (RNAP) that scan the chromosome for class I and class II SoxS-..
  56. Graham A, Sanguinetti G, Bramall N, McLeod C, Poole R. Dynamics of a starvation-to-surfeit shift: a transcriptomic and modelling analysis of the bacterial response to zinc reveals transient behaviour of the Fur and SoxS regulators. Microbiology. 2012;158:284-92 pubmed publisher generated from the Zn shift focused on the role of ten key regulators; ArsR, BaeR, CpxR, CusR, Fur, OxyR, SoxS, ZntR, ZraR and Zur...
  57. Aono R. Improvement of organic solvent tolerance level of Escherichia coli by overexpression of stress-responsive genes. Extremophiles. 1998;2:239-48 pubmed
    ..High expression of stress-responsive genes, soxS, marA, and robA, elevated organic solvent tolerance levels of several strains of E. coli...
  58. Koh Y, Chung W, Lee J, Roe J. The reversed SoxS-binding site upstream of the ribA promoter in Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1999;261:374-80 pubmed
    ..Purified SoxS protein bound to this region and protected nucleotides between positions -80 and -58 from degradation by DNase I...
  59. Touati D. Sensing and protecting against superoxide stress in Escherichia coli--how many ways are there to trigger soxRS response?. Redox Rep. 2000;5:287-93 pubmed
    ..The soxRS regulon is induced in a two-stage process. Upon activation, SoxR induces soxS expression and SoxS, in turn, activates transcription of genes of the regulon...
  60. Barbosa T, Levy S. Differential expression of over 60 chromosomal genes in Escherichia coli by constitutive expression of MarA. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:3467-74 pubmed
    ..Northern blot analysis of selected genes confirmed the results obtained with the macroarrays. The findings reveal that the mar locus mediates a global stress response involving one of the largest networks of genes described. ..
  61. Griffith K, Wolf R. Genetic evidence for pre-recruitment as the mechanism of transcription activation by SoxS of Escherichia coli: the dominance of DNA binding mutations of SoxS. J Mol Biol. 2004;344:1-10 pubmed
    b>SoxS, the direct transcriptional activator of the Escherichia coli superoxide (SoxRS) regulon, displays several unusual characteristics which suggest that it is unlikely to activate transcription by the ususal recruitment mechanism...
  62. Dangi B, Pelupessey P, Martin R, Rosner J, Louis J, Gronenborn A. Structure and dynamics of MarA-DNA complexes: an NMR investigation. J Mol Biol. 2001;314:113-27 pubmed
  63. Casaz P, Garrity Ryan L, McKenney D, Jackson C, Levy S, Tanaka S, et al. MarA, SoxS and Rob function as virulence factors in an Escherichia coli murine model of ascending pyelonephritis. Microbiology. 2006;152:3643-50 pubmed
    MarA, SoxS and Rob are transcription factors belonging to the AraC family...
  64. Jair K, Fawcett W, Fujita N, Ishihama A, Wolf R. Ambidextrous transcriptional activation by SoxS: requirement for the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase alpha subunit in a subset of Escherichia coli superoxide-inducible genes. Mol Microbiol. 1996;19:307-17 pubmed
    Purified MalE-SoxS fusion protein specifically stimulated in vitro transcription of the Escherichia coli zwf, fpr, fumC, micF, nfo, and sodA genes, indicating that activation of the superoxide regulon requires only SoxS...
  65. Nakajima H, Kobayashi K, Kobayashi M, Asako H, Aono R. Overexpression of the robA gene increases organic solvent tolerance and multiple antibiotic and heavy metal ion resistance in Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1995;61:2302-7 pubmed
    ..carrying the multicopy robA plasmid also showed an increase in resistance to a number of unrelated antibiotics and heavy metal ions, and the spectrum of resistance was significantly similar to that of the soxS-overexpressing strain.
  66. Martin R, Rosner J. Analysis of microarray data for the marA, soxS, and rob regulons of Escherichia coli. Methods Enzymol. 2003;370:278-80 pubmed
  67. Krapp A, Humbert M, Carrillo N. The soxRS response of Escherichia coli can be induced in the absence of oxidative stress and oxygen by modulation of NADPH content. Microbiology. 2011;157:957-65 pubmed publisher
    ..b>SoxS expression can be induced by Fd expression or by MV in anaerobiosis, under conditions in which NADPH is oxidized ..
  68. Nunoshiba T, Hidalgo E, Amábile Cuevas C, Demple B. Two-stage control of an oxidative stress regulon: the Escherichia coli SoxR protein triggers redox-inducible expression of the soxS regulatory gene. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:6054-60 pubmed
    ..soxRS, in which an intracellular redox signal would trigger the SoxR protein as a transcriptional activator of the soxS gene and the resulting increased levels of SoxS protein would activate transcription of the various soxRS regulon ..
  69. Martin R, Jair K, Wolf R, Rosner J. Autoactivation of the marRAB multiple antibiotic resistance operon by the MarA transcriptional activator in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:2216-23 pubmed
    ..activation of the promoters of the mar/soxRS regulons by the sequence-related but independently inducible MarA and SoxS proteins renders Escherichia coli resistant to a broad spectrum of antibiotics and superoxide generators...
  70. Griffith K, Becker S, Wolf R. Characterization of TetD as a transcriptional activator of a subset of genes of the Escherichia coli SoxS/MarA/Rob regulon. Mol Microbiol. 2005;56:1103-17 pubmed
    In Escherichia coli, SoxS, MarA and Rob form a closely related subset of the AraC/XylS family of positive regulators, sharing approximately 42% amino acid sequence identity over the length of SoxS and the ability to activate transcription ..
  71. Agnez Lima L, Di Mascio P, Demple B, Menck C. Singlet molecular oxygen triggers the soxRS regulon of Escherichia coli. Biol Chem. 2001;382:1071-5 pubmed
    ..activates transcription of genes of the soxRS regulon, and that this induction is paralleled by induction of a soxS'::lacZ operon fusion. The inductions were dependent on a functional soxR gene...
  72. Griffith K, Wolf R. A comprehensive alanine scanning mutagenesis of the Escherichia coli transcriptional activator SoxS: identifying amino acids important for DNA binding and transcription activation. J Mol Biol. 2002;322:237-57 pubmed
    b>SoxS is the direct transcriptional activator of the superoxide regulon. SoxS recognizes a highly degenerate "soxbox" DNA sequence, and activates transcription from class I and class II promoters...