Gene Symbol: soxR
Description: redox-sensitive transcriptional activator of soxS; autorepressor
Alias: ECK4055, JW4024, marC
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Zheng M, Storz G. Redox sensing by prokaryotic transcription factors. Biochem Pharmacol. 2000;59:1-6 pubmed
    ..In Escherichia coli, two such transcription factors, OxyR and SoxR, have been well characterized. The OxyR protein contains a thiol-disulfide redox switch to sense hydrogen peroxide...
  2. Gaudu P, Weiss B. SoxR, a [2Fe-2S] transcription factor, is active only in its oxidized form. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:10094-8 pubmed
    b>SoxR protein is known to function both as a sensor and as a transcriptional activator for a superoxide response regulon in Escherichia coli...
  3. Hidalgo E, Bollinger J, Bradley T, Walsh C, Demple B. Binuclear [2Fe-2S] clusters in the Escherichia coli SoxR protein and role of the metal centers in transcription. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:20908-14 pubmed
    b>SoxR protein of Escherichia coli is activated by superoxide-generating agents or nitric oxide as a powerful transcription activator of the soxS gene, whose product activates approximately 10 other promoters...
  4. Fujikawa M, Kobayashi K, Tsutsui Y, Tanaka T, Kozawa T. Rational Tuning of Superoxide Sensitivity in SoxR, the [2Fe-2S] Transcription Factor: Implications of Species-Specific Lysine Residues. Biochemistry. 2017;56:403-410 pubmed publisher
    In Escherichia coli, the [2Fe-2S] transcriptional factor, SoxR, functions as a sensor of oxidative stress. The transcriptional activity in SoxR is regulated by the reversible oxidation and reduction of [2Fe-2S] clusters...
  5. Lee P, Demple B, Barton J. DNA-mediated redox signaling for transcriptional activation of SoxR. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:13164-8 pubmed publisher
    ..bacteria, the cellular response to oxidative stress is activated by oxidation of the iron-sulfur clusters in SoxR, which then induces transcription of soxS, turning on a battery of defense genes...
  6. Kiley P, Beinert H. The role of Fe-S proteins in sensing and regulation in bacteria. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2003;6:181-5 pubmed
    Fe-S clusters are key to the sensing and transcription functions of three transcription factors, FNR, IscR and SoxR. All three proteins were discovered in Escherichia coli but experimental data and bioinformatic predictions suggest that ..
  7. Waldman H. Baby fat is cute, but chubby kids may be in danger. ASDC J Dent Child. 2000;67:15-7, 8 pubmed
    ..An increasing percent of children are overweight. A review of the prevalence of overweight children in different demographic groups is provided in an effort to alert dentists to the role they could play in preventing medical complications. ..
  8. Michán C, Manchado M, Pueyo C. SoxRS down-regulation of rob transcription. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:4733-8 pubmed
    ..No repression was observed in a soxR-null strain, indicating that the rob transcript level might be negatively modulated by the intracellular amounts of ..
  9. Liochev S, Benov L, Touati D, Fridovich I. Induction of the soxRS regulon of Escherichia coli by superoxide. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:9479-81 pubmed
    ..This establishes that O-2, directly or indirectly, can cause induction of this defensive regulon. ..

More Information


  1. Koo M, Lee J, Rah S, Yeo W, Lee J, Lee K, et al. A reducing system of the superoxide sensor SoxR in Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 2003;22:2614-22 pubmed publisher
    The soxRS regulon functions in protecting Escherichia coli cells against superoxide and nitric oxide. When SoxR is activated by oxidation of its [2Fe-2S] cluster, it increases the synthesis of SoxS, which then activates its target gene ..
  2. Vasil eva S, Stupakova M, Lobysheva I, Mikoyan V, Vanin A. Activation of the Escherichia coli SoxRS-regulon by nitric oxide and its physiological donors. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2001;66:984-8 pubmed
    ..To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of signal transduction via nitrosylation of Fe-S-centers in SoxR, the ability of pure NO and NO-producing agents to activate the SoxRS-regulon in E...
  3. Manchado M, Michan C, Pueyo C. Hydrogen peroxide activates the SoxRS regulon in vivo. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:6842-4 pubmed
    ..b>SoxR-dependent inductions of 7. 3-, 7.6-, 4.6-, 2.2-, and 2...
  4. Cuny C, Lesbats M, Dukan S. Induction of a global stress response during the first step of Escherichia coli plate growth. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:885-9 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that in order to grow on plates, bacteria must not only adapt to new conditions but also perceive a real stress. ..
  5. Semchyshyn H, Bagnyukova T, Lushchak V. Involvement of soxRS regulon in response of Escherichia coli to oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2005;70:1238-44 pubmed
    ..The increase in soxRS regulon enzyme activities was not found in the strain lacking the soxR gene. These results provide evidence for the involvement of the soxRS regulon in the adaptive response of E...
  6. Saint Ruf C, Taddei F, Matic I. Stress and survival of aging Escherichia coli rpoS colonies. Genetics. 2004;168:541-6 pubmed
    ..By measuring cell viability and by transcriptome analysis, here we show that rpoS cells as well as wild-type cells survive when they form colonies on solid media. ..
  7. Gomes A, Asad L, Felzenszwalb I, Leitao A, Silva A, Guillobel H, et al. Does UVB radiation induce SoxS gene expression in Escherichia coli cells?. Radiat Environ Biophys. 2004;43:219-22 pubmed
    ..Moreover, an unexpected increase of soxS gene expression independent of a functional soxR gene in UVB-irradiated cells has been verified...
  8. Park S, Chung H, Lee J. Rapid in vivo screening system for anti-oxidant activity using bacterial redox sensor strains. J Appl Microbiol. 2010;108:1217-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Bacterial redox sensor-based assay systems were applied. The activities of SoxR and OxyR, the bacterial redox sensors, were monitored to probe the intracellular redox status through two reporter ..
  9. Benov L, Fridovich I. Induction of the soxRS regulon of Escherichia coli by glycolaldehyde. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2002;407:45-8 pubmed
    ..All of these suggest that superoxide radicals produced by the oxidation of glycolaldehyde played a key role in the induction. ..
  10. Ding H, Demple B. Glutathione-mediated destabilization in vitro of [2Fe-2S] centers in the SoxR regulatory protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:9449-53 pubmed
    b>SoxR is a transcription factor that governs a global defense against the oxidative stress caused by nitric oxide or excess superoxide in Escherichia coli...
  11. Demple B, Hidalgo E, Ding H. Transcriptional regulation via redox-sensitive iron-sulphur centres in an oxidative stress response. Biochem Soc Symp. 1999;64:119-28 pubmed
    ..genes that are activated by the SoxS protein, the synthesis of which is controlled by the redox-sensing SoxR protein. SoxR is a homodimer of 17 kDa subunits, each of which contains a [2Fe-2S] cluster...
  12. Liochev S, Fridovich I. Fumarase C, the stable fumarase of Escherichia coli, is controlled by the soxRS regulon. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:5892-6 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that fumarase C is a member of the soxRS regulon and that this regulon does not respond to changes in O2- concentration but perhaps does respond to some consequence of a decrease in the ratio of NADPH to NADP+. ..
  13. Pullan S, Gidley M, Jones R, Barrett J, Stevanin T, Read R, et al. Nitric oxide in chemostat-cultured Escherichia coli is sensed by Fnr and other global regulators: unaltered methionine biosynthesis indicates lack of S nitrosation. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:1845-55 pubmed
    ..Other global regulators apparently affected by NO were IscR, Fur, SoxR, NsrR, and NorR...
  14. Koutsolioutsou A, Peña Llopis S, Demple B. Constitutive soxR mutations contribute to multiple-antibiotic resistance in clinical Escherichia coli isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:2746-52 pubmed
    ..We show that constitutive soxS expression in three out of six strains was caused by single point mutations in the soxR gene...
  15. Greenberg J, Monach P, Chou J, Josephy P, Demple B. Positive control of a global antioxidant defense regulon activated by superoxide-generating agents in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:6181-5 pubmed
    ..We have identified a genetic locus, soxR (superoxide response), that positively regulates 9 of these proteins during superoxide stress...
  16. Wu J, Weiss B. Two-stage induction of the soxRS (superoxide response) regulon of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:3915-20 pubmed
    b>soxR and soxS are adjacent genes that govern a superoxide response regulon. Previous studies revealed that induction of the regulon is accompanied by increased transcription of soxS, which can activate the target genes...
  17. Volkert M, Landini P. Transcriptional responses to DNA damage. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2001;4:178-85 pubmed
    ..Transcription of the responses to DNA damage are induced when the activated regulatory proteins stimulate transcription of the genes they control by a variety of complex and unique molecular mechanisms. ..
  18. Gunasekera T, Csonka L, Paliy O. Genome-wide transcriptional responses of Escherichia coli K-12 to continuous osmotic and heat stresses. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:3712-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding does not support the hypothesis that K(+) is the central osmoregulatory signal in Enterobacteriaceae. ..
  19. Fuentes A, Díaz Mejía J, Maldonado Rodríguez R, Amábile Cuevas C. Differential activities of the SoxR protein of Escherichia coli: SoxS is not required for gene activation under iron deprivation. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001;201:271-5 pubmed
    When Escherichia coli cells are under superoxide stress, proteins SoxR and SoxS, acting sequentially, control the expression of a set of repair and defense genes...
  20. Giró M, Carrillo N, Krapp A. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and ferredoxin-NADP(H) reductase contribute to damage repair during the soxRS response of Escherichia coli. Microbiology. 2006;152:1119-28 pubmed
  21. Lushchak O, Bahniukova T, Lushchak V. [Activation of enzymes of soxRS-regulon by hydrogen peroxide in Escherichia coli]. Mikrobiol Z. 2009;71:22-7 pubmed
    A mutant strain (delta soxR), a derivative of strain of Escherichia coli AB 57, was obtained by general transduction...
  22. Blanchard J, Wholey W, Conlon E, Pomposiello P. Rapid changes in gene expression dynamics in response to superoxide reveal SoxRS-dependent and independent transcriptional networks. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e1186 pubmed
    b>SoxR and SoxS constitute an intracellular signal response system that rapidly detects changes in superoxide levels and modulates gene expression in E. coli...
  23. Singh A, Shin J, Lee K, Imlay J, Roe J. Comparative study of SoxR activation by redox-active compounds. Mol Microbiol. 2013;90:983-96 pubmed publisher
    b>SoxR from Escherichia coli and related enterobacteria is activated by a broad range of redox-active compounds through oxidation or nitrosylation of its [2Fe-2S] cluster...
  24. Lu C, Bentley W, Rao G. Comparisons of oxidative stress response genes in aerobic Escherichia coli fermentations. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2003;83:864-70 pubmed
    ..These results also suggest that different molecular responses occur under different aeration schemes, all of which are intended to combat oxidative damage. ..
  25. Lee J, Lee K, Yeo W, Park S, Roe J. SoxRS-mediated lipopolysaccharide modification enhances resistance against multiple drugs in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:4441-50 pubmed publisher
    ..A DeltawaaYZ mutant became more sensitive to some superoxide generators, and the activation of SoxR by these drugs became more sensitized in the mutant...
  26. Amábile Cuevas C, Demple B. Molecular characterization of the soxRS genes of Escherichia coli: two genes control a superoxide stress regulon. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991;19:4479-84 pubmed
    The soxR locus of Escherichia coli K12 mediates transcriptional activation of a complex oxidative stress regulon in response to superoxide-generating (redox-cycling) agents...
  27. Gaudu P, Moon N, Weiss B. Regulation of the soxRS oxidative stress regulon. Reversible oxidation of the Fe-S centers of SoxR in vivo. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:5082-6 pubmed
    b>SoxR protein, a transcriptional activator of the soxRS (superoxide response) regulon of Escherichia coli, contains autooxidizable [2Fe-2S] centers that are presumed to serve as redox sensors...
  28. Liochev S, Hausladen A, Fridovich I. Nitroreductase A is regulated as a member of the soxRS regulon of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:3537-9 pubmed
    ..A is induced in Escherichia coli by exposure to paraquat in a manner that depends on the expression of soxR. Nitroreductase activity was only slightly induced by paraquat in a strain bearing a mutational defect in the gene ..
  29. Pomposiello P, Koutsolioutsou A, Carrasco D, Demple B. SoxRS-regulated expression and genetic analysis of the yggX gene of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:6624-32 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate the direct regulation of the yggX gene by the redox-sensing SoxRS system and provide further evidence for the involvement of yggX in protection of iron-sulfur proteins against oxidative damage. ..
  30. Sakamoto A, Terui Y, Yoshida T, Yamamoto T, Suzuki H, Yamamoto K, et al. Three members of polyamine modulon under oxidative stress conditions: two transcription factors (SoxR and EmrR) and a glutathione synthetic enzyme (GshA). PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0124883 pubmed publisher
    ..Under these conditions, synthesis of SoxR, a transcriptional factor for expression of the superoxide response regulon, EmrR, a negative transcriptional ..
  31. Hidalgo E, Demple B. Activation of SoxR-dependent transcription in vitro by noncatalytic or NifS-mediated assembly of [2Fe-2S] clusters into apo-SoxR. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:7269-72 pubmed
    b>SoxR is a transcriptional activator that senses superoxide and nitric oxide stress in Escherichia coli. The active protein isolated from E. coli contains a pair of [2Fe-2S] clusters per SoxR dimer...
  32. Gorodetsky A, Dietrich L, Lee P, Demple B, Newman D, Barton J. DNA binding shifts the redox potential of the transcription factor SoxR. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:3684-9 pubmed publisher
    ..measurements on DNA-modified electrodes are used to probe the effects of binding to DNA on the redox potential of SoxR, a transcription factor that contains a [2Fe-2S] cluster and is activated through oxidation...
  33. Hidalgo E, Demple B. An iron-sulfur center essential for transcriptional activation by the redox-sensing SoxR protein. EMBO J. 1994;13:138-46 pubmed
    ..generating agents or by nitric oxide through two consecutive steps of gene activation. SoxR protein has been proposed as the redox sensing gene activator that triggers this cascade of gene expression...
  34. Kogoma T, Farr S, Joyce K, Natvig D. Isolation of gene fusions (soi::lacZ) inducible by oxidative stress in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:4799-803 pubmed
    ..The third fusion strain showed no increased sensitivity to either agent. All three fusions were located in the 45- to 61-min region of the Escherichia coli chromosome. ..
  35. Lo F, Chen C, Lee C, Tsai M, Lu T, Liaw W, et al. A study of NO trafficking from dinitrosyl-iron complexes to the recombinant E. coli transcriptional factor SoxR. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2008;13:961-72 pubmed publisher
    b>SoxR is a transcriptional factor in Escherichia coli that induces the expression of SoxS to initiate the production of enzymes in response to oxidative stress...
  36. Lushchak V. [Redox-sensors of microorganisms]. Ukr Biokhim Zh (1999). 2008;80:25-34 pubmed
    ..It is partially focused on the activation by hyrdrogen peroxide OxyR protein and by superoxide anion SoxR protein in bacteria Escherichia coli and the activation by hyrdrogen peroxide and superoxide anion of Orp1-Yap1 ..
  37. Wu J, Weiss B. Two divergently transcribed genes, soxR and soxS, control a superoxide response regulon of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:2864-71 pubmed
    b>soxR governs a superoxide response regulon that contains the genes for endonuclease IV, Mn2(+)-superoxide dismutase, and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase...
  38. Krapp A, Rodriguez R, Poli H, Paladini D, Palatnik J, Carrillo N. The flavoenzyme ferredoxin (flavodoxin)-NADP(H) reductase modulates NADP(H) homeostasis during the soxRS response of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:1474-80 pubmed
  39. Krapp A, Humbert M, Carrillo N. The soxRS response of Escherichia coli can be induced in the absence of oxidative stress and oxygen by modulation of NADPH content. Microbiology. 2011;157:957-65 pubmed publisher
    The soxRS regulon protects Escherichia coli cells against superoxide and nitric oxide. Oxidation of the SoxR sensor, a [2Fe-2S]-containing transcriptional regulator, triggers the response, but the nature of the cellular signal sensed by ..
  40. Griffith K, Wolf R. Genetic evidence for pre-recruitment as the mechanism of transcription activation by SoxS of Escherichia coli: the dominance of DNA binding mutations of SoxS. J Mol Biol. 2004;344:1-10 pubmed
    ..Lastly, with the SoxRS system as an example, we discuss the physiological requirement for stringent regulation of transcriptional activators that function by pre-recruitment. ..
  41. Agnez Lima L, Di Mascio P, Demple B, Menck C. Singlet molecular oxygen triggers the soxRS regulon of Escherichia coli. Biol Chem. 2001;382:1071-5 pubmed
    ..The inductions were dependent on a functional soxR gene...
  42. Nunoshiba T, Hidalgo E, Amábile Cuevas C, Demple B. Two-stage control of an oxidative stress regulon: the Escherichia coli SoxR protein triggers redox-inducible expression of the soxS regulatory gene. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:6054-60 pubmed
    ..A two-stage control system was hypothesized for soxRS, in which an intracellular redox signal would trigger the SoxR protein as a transcriptional activator of the soxS gene and the resulting increased levels of SoxS protein would ..
  43. Tsaneva I, Weiss B. soxR, a locus governing a superoxide response regulon in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:4197-205 pubmed
    ..One set of mutations, in a new gene designated soxR, caused constitutive overexpression of nfo and the other genes...
  44. Liu C, Kim E, Demple B, Seeman N. A DNA-based nanomechanical device used to characterize the distortion of DNA by Apo-SoxR protein. Biochemistry. 2012;51:937-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In our case, the binding site on the shaft contains the sequence recognized by SoxR protein, the apo form of which is a transcriptional activator...
  45. Fujikawa M, Kobayashi K, Kozawa T. Mechanistic studies on formation of the dinitrosyl iron complex of the [2Fe-2S] cluster of SoxR protein. J Biochem. 2014;156:163-72 pubmed publisher
    The transcriptional activation of SoxR in Escherichia coli occurs through direct modification of the [2Fe-2S] by nitric oxide (NO) to form a dinitrosyl iron complex (DNIC)...
  46. Chander M, Raducha Grace L, Demple B. Transcription-defective soxR mutants of Escherichia coli: isolation and in vivo characterization. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:2441-50 pubmed
    The soxRS regulon protects Escherichia coli from superoxide and nitric oxide stress. SoxR protein, a transcription factor that senses oxidative stress via its [2Fe-2S] centers, transduces the signal to the soxS promoter to stimulate RNA ..
  47. Touati D. Sensing and protecting against superoxide stress in Escherichia coli--how many ways are there to trigger soxRS response?. Redox Rep. 2000;5:287-93 pubmed
    ..generating agents and nitric oxide (.NO), is triggered by activation of a sensor molecule, SoxR, containing two essential [2Fe-2S] clusters. The soxRS regulon is induced in a two-stage process...
  48. Demple B, Ding H, Jorgensen M. Escherichia coli SoxR protein: sensor/transducer of oxidative stress and nitric oxide. Methods Enzymol. 2002;348:355-64 pubmed
  49. Demple B. Genetic responses against nitric oxide toxicity. Braz J Med Biol Res. 1999;32:1417-27 pubmed
    ..This response is governed by the SoxR protein, a homodimeric transcription factor (17-kDa subunits) containing [2Fe-2S] clusters essential for its ..
  50. Semchyshyn H, Bagnyukova T, Storey K, Lushchak V. Hydrogen peroxide increases the activities of soxRS regulon enzymes and the levels of oxidized proteins and lipids in Escherichia coli. Cell Biol Int. 2005;29:898-902 pubmed
  51. Vasil eva S, Makhova E, Moshkovskaia E. [Connectivity between soxS gene expression and adaptive resistance to the SoxRS-regulon inducers in E. coli cells]. Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2004;44:18-22 pubmed
    ..superoxide anion was selectively regulated by the SoxRS DNA-repair pathway. OxyR-regulon that is selectively activated by the most redox-cycling agents and controls AR to these agents doesn't provide development of the AR to O2-.. ..
  52. Griffith K, Shah I, Wolf R. Proteolytic degradation of Escherichia coli transcription activators SoxS and MarA as the mechanism for reversing the induction of the superoxide (SoxRS) and multiple antibiotic resistance (Mar) regulons. Mol Microbiol. 2004;51:1801-16 pubmed
    ..Using hexahistidine tags placed at the respective ends of the activators, we found that access to the amino-terminus is essential for the proteolytic degradation. ..
  53. Kobayashi K, Fujikawa M, Kozawa T. Oxidative stress sensing by the iron-sulfur cluster in the transcription factor, SoxR. J Inorg Biochem. 2014;133:87-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The [2Fe-2S] transcription factor SoxR (superoxide response) functions as a bacterial sensor of oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO)...
  54. Dietrich L, Teal T, Price Whelan A, Newman D. Redox-active antibiotics control gene expression and community behavior in divergent bacteria. Science. 2008;321:1203-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the endogenous antibiotic pyocyanin activates SoxR, a transcription factor conserved in Proteo- and Actinobacteria...
  55. Pomposiello P, Demple B. Redox-operated genetic switches: the SoxR and OxyR transcription factors. Trends Biotechnol. 2001;19:109-14 pubmed
    ..b>SoxR contains iron-sulfur centers that activate the protein when they are one-electron oxidized, or nitrosylated by ..
  56. Hidalgo E, Ding H, Demple B. Redox signal transduction: mutations shifting [2Fe-2S] centers of the SoxR sensor-regulator to the oxidized form. Cell. 1997;88:121-9 pubmed
    b>SoxR is a [2Fe-2S] transcription factor triggered by oxidative stress and activated in vitro by one-electron oxidation or assembly of the iron-sulfur centers...
  57. Nunoshiba T, Hidalgo E, Li Z, Demple B. Negative autoregulation by the Escherichia coli SoxS protein: a dampening mechanism for the soxRS redox stress response. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:7492-4 pubmed
    The soxRS redox stress regulon of Escherichia coli is triggered in two stages, with the activated SoxR protein stimulating the soxS gene, whose product then triggers transcription of approximately 10 promoters...
  58. Jiménez Arribas G, Leautaud V, Amábile Cuevas C. Regulatory locus soxRS partially protects Escherichia coli against ozone. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001;195:175-7 pubmed
    ..Constitutive expression of the soxRS regulon did not increase the resistance to ozone. Ozone might be exerting a selective pressure upon oxidative-stress defense mechanisms in airborne bacteria. ..
  59. Demple B, Amábile Cuevas C. Redox redux: the control of oxidative stress responses. Cell. 1991;67:837-9 pubmed
  60. Kobayashi K, Mizuno M, Fujikawa M, Mizutani Y. Protein conformational changes of the oxidative stress sensor, SoxR, upon redox changes of the [2Fe-2S] cluster probed with ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy. Biochemistry. 2011;50:9468-74 pubmed publisher
    The [2Fe-2S] transcription factor, SoxR, a member of the MerR family, functions as a bacterial sensor of oxidative stress in Escherichia coli...