Gene Symbol: selD
Description: selenophosphate synthase
Alias: ECK1762, JW1753, fdhB
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
Products:     selD

Top Publications

  1. Noinaj N, Wattanasak R, Lee D, Wally J, Piszczek G, Chock P, et al. Structural insights into the catalytic mechanism of Escherichia coli selenophosphate synthetase. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:499-508 pubmed publisher
  2. Veres Z, Kim I, Scholz T, Stadtman T. Selenophosphate synthetase. Enzyme properties and catalytic reaction. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:10597-603 pubmed
    Selenophosphate synthetase, the product of the selD gene, produces the biologically active selenium donor compound, monoselenophosphate, from ATP and selenide...
  3. Leinfelder W, Stadtman T, Bock A. Occurrence in vivo of selenocysteyl-tRNA(SERUCA) in Escherichia coli. Effect of sel mutations. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:9720-3 pubmed
    ..The formation of selenocysteine depended on the presence of functional products of the selA and selD genes but not of the selB gene. The selB gene product, therefore, may have a function in the decoding step itself.
  4. Tormay P, Wilting R, Lottspeich F, Mehta P, Christen P, B ck A. Bacterial selenocysteine synthase--structural and functional properties. Eur J Biochem. 1998;254:655-61 pubmed
  5. Walker H, Ferretti J, Stadtman T. Isotope exchange studies on the Escherichia coli selenophosphate synthetase mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:2180-5 pubmed
    Selenophosphate synthetase, the Escherichia coli selD gene product, is a 37-kDa protein that catalyzes the synthesis of selenophosphate from ATP and selenide...
  6. Liu S, Stadtman T. Selenophosphate synthetase: enzyme labeling studies with [gamma-32P]ATP, [beta-32P]ATP, [8-14C]ATP, and [75Se]selenide. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1997;341:353-9 pubmed
  7. Kim I, Veres Z, Stadtman T. Escherichia coli mutant SELD enzymes. The cysteine 17 residue is essential for selenophosphate formation from ATP and selenide. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:19650-4 pubmed
    Synthesis of a labile selenium donor compound, selenophosphate, from selenide and ATP by the Escherichia coli SELD enzyme was reported previously from this laboratory...
  8. Leinfelder W, Forchhammer K, Zinoni F, Sawers G, Mandrand Berthelot M, Bock A. Escherichia coli genes whose products are involved in selenium metabolism. J Bacteriol. 1988;170:540-6 pubmed
    ..A new nomenclature (sel) is proposed for pleiotropic fdh mutations affecting selenium metabolism. Four genes have been identified so far: selA and selB (at the fdhA locus), selC (previously fdhC), and selD (previously fdhB).
  9. DiGate R, Marians K. Molecular cloning and DNA sequence analysis of Escherichia coli topB, the gene encoding topoisomerase III. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:17924-30 pubmed
    ..Soluble extracts prepared from cells overexpressing this gene product show a dramatic increase in topoisomerase activity when compared with control extracts. We propose that this gene be designated topB. ..

More Information


  1. Forchhammer K, Leinfelder W, Bock A. Identification of a novel translation factor necessary for the incorporation of selenocysteine into protein. Nature. 1989;342:453-6 pubmed
    ..serine residue attached to this tRNA is converted to selenocysteine in a reaction dependent on functional selA and selD gene products...
  2. Lacourciere G, Mihara H, Kurihara T, Esaki N, Stadtman T. Escherichia coli NifS-like proteins provide selenium in the pathway for the biosynthesis of selenophosphate. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:23769-73 pubmed
    Selenophosphate synthetase (SPS), the selD gene product from Escherichia coli, catalyzes the biosynthesis of monoselenophosphate, AMP, and orthophosphate in a 1:1:1 ratio from selenide and ATP...
  3. Wolfe M. Mechanistic insights revealed through characterization of a novel chromophore in selenophosphate synthetase from Escherichia coli. IUBMB Life. 2003;55:689-93 pubmed
  4. Stadtman T, Davis J, Zehelein E, Bock A. Biochemical and genetic analysis of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli mutants defective in specific incorporation of selenium into formate dehydrogenase and tRNAs. Biofactors. 1989;2:35-44 pubmed
    Mutation of a single gene, referred to as selA1 in Salmonella typhimurium and as selD in Escherichia coli, results in the inability of these organisms to insert selenium specifically into the selenopolypeptides of formate dehydrogenase ..
  5. Kozmin S, Schaaper R. Molybdenum cofactor-dependent resistance to N-hydroxylated base analogs in Escherichia coli is independent of MobA function. Mutat Res. 2007;619:9-15 pubmed
    ..Further, we establish that protection against the analogs does not require the common molybdopterin guanine-dinucleotide (MGD) form of the cofactor, but instead the guanosine monophosphate (GMP)-free version of MoCo (MPT) is sufficient. ..
  6. Wilting R, Vamvakidou K, Bock A. Functional expression in Escherichia coli of the Haemophilus influenzae gene coding for selenocysteine-containing selenophosphate synthetase. Arch Microbiol. 1998;169:71-5 pubmed
    ..We also show that the selenocysteine synthesis and the insertion systems of the two organisms are fully compatible despite conspicuous differences in the mRNA recognition motif. ..
  7. Lacourciere G. Biosynthesis of selenophosphate. Biofactors. 1999;10:237-44 pubmed
    Selenophosphate synthetase, the product of the selD gene, produces the highly active selenium donor, monoselenophosphate, from selenide and ATP...
  8. Haft D, Self W. Orphan SelD proteins and selenium-dependent molybdenum hydroxylases. Biol Direct. 2008;3:4 pubmed publisher
    ..The first two uses both require the selenophosphate synthetase gene, selD. Examining over 500 complete prokaryotic genomes finds selD in exactly two species lacking both the selenocysteine ..
  9. Kim I, Veres Z, Stadtman T. Biochemical analysis of Escherichia coli selenophosphate synthetase mutants. Lysine 20 is essential for catalytic activity and cysteine 17/19 for 8-azido-ATP derivatization. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:27020-5 pubmed
    ..Photoaffinity labeling of the proteins with [gamma-32P]8-azido-ATP showed that all mutant enzymes could be labeled with the ATP analog except those in which Cys-17 or Cys-19 were replaced with serine. ..
  10. Lacourciere G, Stadtman T. Catalytic properties of selenophosphate synthetases: comparison of the selenocysteine-containing enzyme from Haemophilus influenzae with the corresponding cysteine-containing enzyme from Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:44-8 pubmed
    The selD gene from Haemophilus influenzae has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed protein was purified to homogeneity in a four-step procedure and then carboxymethylated by reaction with chloroacetate...
  11. Liu S, Stadtman T. A non-radioactive and two radioactive assays for selenophosphate synthetase activity. Biofactors. 1997;6:305-9 pubmed
    ..The 32P-labeled selenophosphate is converted to [32P]orthophosphate by treatment with iodine and estimated after removal of residual [32P]ATP on charcoal. ..
  12. Leinfelder W, Forchhammer K, Veprek B, Zehelein E, Bock A. In vitro synthesis of selenocysteinyl-tRNA(UCA) from seryl-tRNA(UCA): involvement and characterization of the selD gene product. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:543-7 pubmed
    The selD gene from Escherichia coli, whose product is involved in selenium metabolism, has been cloned and sequenced. selD codes for a protein of 347 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 36,687...
  13. Forchhammer K, Bock A. Selenocysteine synthase from Escherichia coli. Analysis of the reaction sequence. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:6324-8 pubmed
    ..necessary for the conversion of aminoacrylyl-tRNA into selenocysteyl-tRNA(Sec UCA) which, in addition, requires the SELD protein and reduced selenium...
  14. Bock A, Forchhammer K, Heider J, Baron C. Selenoprotein synthesis: an expansion of the genetic code. Trends Biochem Sci. 1991;16:463-7 pubmed
    ..In E. coli, this requires a specific translation factor. Selenocysteine thus represents a unique expansion of the genetic code. ..
  15. Sawers G, Heider J, Zehelein E, Bock A. Expression and operon structure of the sel genes of Escherichia coli and identification of a third selenium-containing formate dehydrogenase isoenzyme. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:4983-93 pubmed
    ..The selA and selB genes formed one transcriptional unit (sel vector AB), while selD was shown to be the central gene in an operon including two other genes, the promoter distal of which (topB) ..
  16. Ehrenreich A, Forchhammer K, Tormay P, Veprek B, Bock A. Selenoprotein synthesis in E. coli. Purification and characterisation of the enzyme catalysing selenium activation. Eur J Biochem. 1992;206:767-73 pubmed
    The product of the selD gene from Escherichia coli catalyses the formation of an activated selenium compound which is required for the synthesis of Sec-tRNA (Sec, selenocysteine) from Ser-tRNA and for the formation of the unusual ..