Gene Symbol: secY
Description: preprotein translocase membrane subunit
Alias: ECK3287, JW3262, prlA
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Werner P, Saier M, Muller M. Membrane insertion of the mannitol permease of Escherichia coli occurs under conditions of impaired SecA function. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:24523-32 pubmed
    ..In vivo experiments monitoring the permease activity of MtlA in the secA and secY mutants supported the conclusions of the in vitro results...
  2. M n tret J, Schaletzky J, Clemons W, Osborne A, Sk nland S, Denison C, et al. Ribosome binding of a single copy of the SecY complex: implications for protein translocation. Mol Cell. 2007;28:1083-92 pubmed publisher
    The SecY complex associates with the ribosome to form a protein translocation channel in the bacterial plasma membrane. We have used cryo-electron microscopy and quantitative mass spectrometry to show that a nontranslating E...
  3. Matsumoto G, Homma T, Mori H, Ito K. A mutation in secY that causes enhanced SecA insertion and impaired late functions in protein translocation. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:3377-82 pubmed
    A cold-sensitive secY mutant (secY125) with an amino acid substitution in the first periplasmic domain causes in vivo retardation of protein export...
  4. Shimohata N, Chiba S, Saikawa N, Ito K, Akiyama Y. The Cpx stress response system of Escherichia coli senses plasma membrane proteins and controls HtpX, a membrane protease with a cytosolic active site. Genes Cells. 2002;7:653-62 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that the Cpx "extracytoplasmic" stress response system controls the quality of the plasma membrane, even on its cytoplasmic side. ..
  5. Scotti P, Urbanus M, Brunner J, de Gier J, von Heijne G, van der Does C, et al. YidC, the Escherichia coli homologue of mitochondrial Oxa1p, is a component of the Sec translocase. EMBO J. 2000;19:542-9 pubmed that hydrophilic portions of a co-translationally targeted inner membrane protein (FtsQ) are close to SecA and SecY, suggesting that insertion takes place at the SecA/Y interface...
  6. Raine A, Ullers R, Pavlov M, Luirink J, Wikberg J, Ehrenberg M. Targeting and insertion of heterologous membrane proteins in E. coli. Biochimie. 2003;85:659-68 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrate that nascent chains of Bop and MC(4)R first interact with SecY and then with YidC as they move through the translocon...
  7. Smith M, Clemons W, DeMars C, Flower A. Modeling the effects of prl mutations on the Escherichia coli SecY complex. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:6454-65 pubmed
    ..Our results support and expand a model of Prl suppressor activity that proposes that all of the prlA and prlG alleles either destabilize the closed state of the channel or stabilize the open form...
  8. van den Berg B, Clemons W, Collinson I, Modis Y, Hartmann E, Harrison S, et al. X-ray structure of a protein-conducting channel. Nature. 2004;427:36-44 pubmed publisher
    A conserved heterotrimeric membrane protein complex, the Sec61 or SecY complex, forms a protein-conducting channel, allowing polypeptides to be transferred across or integrated into membranes...
  9. Douville K, Price A, Eichler J, Economou A, Wickner W. SecYEG and SecA are the stoichiometric components of preprotein translocase. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:20106-11 pubmed
    ..comprised of the peripherally bound SecA subunit and an integrally bound heterotrimeric domain consisting of the SecY, SecE, and SecG subunits...

More Information


  1. de Gier J, Luirink J. Biogenesis of inner membrane proteins in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2001;40:314-22 pubmed
    ..Here, we review and discuss recent advances in our understanding of the biogenesis of inner membrane proteins in E. coli. ..
  2. Muller M, Koch H, Beck K, Schafer U. Protein traffic in bacteria: multiple routes from the ribosome to and across the membrane. Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol. 2001;66:107-57 pubmed
    ..The majority are exported through pores formed by SecY and SecE. Two different molecular machineries are used to target proteins to the SecYE translocon...
  3. Koch H, Muller M. Dissecting the translocase and integrase functions of the Escherichia coli SecYEG translocon. J Cell Biol. 2000;150:689-94 pubmed
    ..We now show that a secY mutation, which compromises a functional SecY-SecA interaction, does not impair the SRP-mediated integration of ..
  4. Akiyama Y, Kihara A, Tokuda H, Ito K. FtsH (HflB) is an ATP-dependent protease selectively acting on SecY and some other membrane proteins. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:31196-201 pubmed
    ..b>SecY, a subunit of protein translocase, is FtsH dependently degraded in vivo when it fails to associate with its partner ..
  5. de Keyzer J, van der Does C, Driessen A. The bacterial translocase: a dynamic protein channel complex. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2003;60:2034-52 pubmed
    ..Here, we will discuss the mechanistic and structural basis of the translocation of proteins across and the integration of membrane proteins into the cytoplasmic membrane. ..
  6. Akiyama Y, Ito K. SecY protein, a membrane-embedded secretion factor of E. coli, is cleaved by the ompT protease in vitro. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1990;167:711-5 pubmed
    b>SecY is an integral membrane protein, spanning the cytoplasmic membrane of E. coli probably 10 times and required for efficient translocation of other proteins across the membrane...
  7. Deitermann S, Sprie G, Koch H. A dual function for SecA in the assembly of single spanning membrane proteins in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:39077-85 pubmed
    ..of bacterial membrane proteins with large periplasmic loops is an intrinsically complex process because the SecY translocon has to coordinate the signal recognition particle-dependent targeting and integration of transmembrane ..
  8. Mitra K, Schaffitzel C, Shaikh T, Tama F, Jenni S, Brooks C, et al. Structure of the E. coli protein-conducting channel bound to a translating ribosome. Nature. 2005;438:318-24 pubmed
    ..arrangement of two SecYEG complexes in the PCC, and supports channel formation by the opening of two linked SecY halves during polypeptide translocation...
  9. Bieker K, Phillips G, Silhavy T. The sec and prl genes of Escherichia coli. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 1990;22:291-310 pubmed
    ..Subsequent characterization reveals that in at least three cases, prlA/secY, prlD/secA, and prlG/secE, both types of mutations are found within the same structural gene...
  10. Tam P, Maillard A, Chan K, Duong F. Investigating the SecY plug movement at the SecYEG translocation channel. EMBO J. 2005;24:3380-8 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrate that the SecY plug domain moves away from the center of the channel toward SecE during polypeptide translocation, and further ..
  11. Lycklama A Nijeholt J, Wu Z, Driessen A. Conformational dynamics of the plug domain of the SecYEG protein-conducting channel. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:43881-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In the presence of a stable preprotein translocation inter-mediate, the SecY plug showed an enhanced solvent exposure consistent with a displacement from the hydrophobic central pore region...
  12. Nouwen N, Driessen A. SecDFyajC forms a heterotetrameric complex with YidC. Mol Microbiol. 2002;44:1397-405 pubmed
    ..As SecF and YajC have previously been shown to interact with SecY, we propose that these two proteins link the heterotetrameric SecDFyajC-YidC complex to the SecYEG complex.
  13. Li W, Schulman S, Boyd D, Erlandson K, Beckwith J, Rapoport T. The plug domain of the SecY protein stabilizes the closed state of the translocation channel and maintains a membrane seal. Mol Cell. 2007;26:511-21 pubmed publisher
    Proteins are translocated across membranes through a channel that is formed by the prokaryotic SecY or eukaryotic Sec61 complex. The crystal structure of the SecY channel from M...
  14. Manting E, van der Does C, Remigy H, Engel A, Driessen A. SecYEG assembles into a tetramer to form the active protein translocation channel. EMBO J. 2000;19:852-61 pubmed
    ..The mass and structure of this SecYEG as well as the subunit stoichiometry of SecA and SecY in a soluble translocase-precursor complex reveal that translocase consists of the SecA homodimer and four SecYEG ..
  15. Saparov S, Erlandson K, Cannon K, Schaletzky J, Schulman S, Rapoport T, et al. Determining the conductance of the SecY protein translocation channel for small molecules. Mol Cell. 2007;26:501-9 pubmed
    The channel formed by the SecY complex must maintain the membrane barrier for ions and other small molecules during the translocation of membrane or secretory proteins...
  16. Taura T, Yoshihisa T, Ito K. Protein translocation functions of Escherichia coli SecY: in vitro characterization of cold-sensitive secY mutants. Biochimie. 1997;79:517-21 pubmed
    ..agreement that SecA is essential for protein translocation, some publications question the essentialness of SecY. We previously isolated a number of cold-sensitive mutants of secY and characterized their in vivo phenotypes...
  17. Mori H, Ito K. Biochemical characterization of a mutationally altered protein translocase: proton motive force stimulation of the initiation phase of translocation. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:405-12 pubmed
    ..A secY mutation (secY39) affects Arg357, an evolutionarily conserved and functionally important residue, and impairs the ..
  18. Cannon K, Or E, Clemons W, Shibata Y, Rapoport T. Disulfide bridge formation between SecY and a translocating polypeptide localizes the translocation pore to the center of SecY. J Cell Biol. 2005;169:219-25 pubmed
    ..biosynthesis, many proteins pass through the membrane via a hydrophilic channel formed by the heterotrimeric Sec61/SecY complex...
  19. Houben E, Urbanus M, van der Laan M, ten Hagen Jongman C, Driessen A, Brunner J, et al. YidC and SecY mediate membrane insertion of a Type I transmembrane domain. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:35880-6 pubmed
    ..Site-directed photocross-linking experiments demonstrate that both YidC and SecY contact nascent Lep very early during biogenesis, at only 50-amino acid nascent chain length...
  20. Breyton C, Haase W, Rapoport T, Kuhlbrandt W, Collinson I. Three-dimensional structure of the bacterial protein-translocation complex SecYEG. Nature. 2002;418:662-5 pubmed
    ..membrane, the channel is formed by oligomers of a heterotrimeric membrane protein complex consisting of subunits SecY, SecE and SecG. In the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, the channel is formed from the related Sec61 complex...
  21. Bostina M, Mohsin B, Kuhlbrandt W, Collinson I. Atomic model of the E. coli membrane-bound protein translocation complex SecYEG. J Mol Biol. 2005;352:1035-43 pubmed
    ..The contacts arising at the dimer interface in the environment of the lipid bilayer may have activated the assembly. ..
  22. Urbanus M, Scotti P, Froderberg L, Saaf A, de Gier J, Brunner J, et al. Sec-dependent membrane protein insertion: sequential interaction of nascent FtsQ with SecY and YidC. EMBO Rep. 2001;2:524-9 pubmed
    ..we demonstrate that the transmembrane (TM) domain of the nascent IMP FtsQ inserts into the membrane close to SecY and lipids, and moves to a combined YidC/lipid environment upon elongation...
  23. Swidersky U, Rienh fer Schweer A, Werner P, Ernst F, Benson S, Hoffschulte H, et al. Biochemical analysis of the biogenesis and function of the Escherichia coli export factor SecY. Eur J Biochem. 1992;207:803-11 pubmed
    b>SecY is an integral plasma-membrane protein of Escherichia coli which is essential for the export of periplasmic and outer-membrane proteins containing cleavable signal sequences. We have synthesized SecY in vitro using an E...
  24. Houben E, Scotti P, Valent Q, Brunner J, de Gier J, Oudega B, et al. Nascent Lep inserts into the Escherichia coli inner membrane in the vicinity of YidC, SecY and SecA. FEBS Lett. 2000;476:229-33 pubmed
    ..showed that the hydrophilic region P1 of nascent membrane-inserted Lep 100-mer was in the vicinity of SecA and SecY, whereas the first transmembrane domain H1 was in the vicinity of YidC...
  25. Brundage L, Hendrick J, Schiebel E, Driessen A, Wickner W. The purified E. coli integral membrane protein SecY/E is sufficient for reconstitution of SecA-dependent precursor protein translocation. Cell. 1990;62:649-57 pubmed
    ..We now report the isolation of the SecY/E protein, the integral membrane protein component of the E. coli preprotein translocase...
  26. Koch H, Hengelage T, Neumann Haefelin C, Macfarlane J, Hoffschulte H, Schimz K, et al. In vitro studies with purified components reveal signal recognition particle (SRP) and SecA/SecB as constituents of two independent protein-targeting pathways of Escherichia coli. Mol Biol Cell. 1999;10:2163-73 pubmed
    ..coli. Both targeting pathways intersect at the translocation pore because they are equally affected by a blocked translocation channel. ..
  27. Valent Q, Scotti P, High S, de Gier J, von Heijne G, Lentzen G, et al. The Escherichia coli SRP and SecB targeting pathways converge at the translocon. EMBO J. 1998;17:2504-12 pubmed
    ..of the SRP at the membrane, the targeted nascent proteins insert into a translocon that contains at least SecA, SecY and SecG...
  28. Shimohata N, Akiyama Y, Ito K. Peculiar properties of DsbA in its export across the Escherichia coli cytoplasmic membrane. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:3997-4004 pubmed
    ..The precursor, once accumulated, was not exported posttranslationally. DsbA export depended on the SecY translocon, the SecA ATPase, and Ffh (signal recognition particle), but not on SecB...
  29. Joly J, Wickner W. The SecA and SecY subunits of translocase are the nearest neighbors of a translocating preprotein, shielding it from phospholipids. EMBO J. 1993;12:255-63 pubmed
    ..between proOmpA-Dhfr and the cross-linker, radiolabeled cross-linker was selectively recovered with the SecA and SecY subunits of preprotein translocase...
  30. Duong F. Binding, activation and dissociation of the dimeric SecA ATPase at the dimeric SecYEG translocase. EMBO J. 2003;22:4375-84 pubmed
    ..The nucleotides and translocation-dependent changes of SecA-SecYEG associations and the SecA dimeric state may reflect important facets of the preprotein translocation reaction. ..
  31. Ito K, Cerretti D, Nashimoto H, Nomura M. Characterization of an amber mutation in the structural gene for ribosomal protein L15, which impairs the expression of the protein export gene, secY, in Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 1984;3:2319-24 pubmed
    ..studies indicated that the mutation was located at the distal part of the spc ribosomal protein operon and the gene secY is required for efficient protein secretion...
  32. van der Laan M, Houben E, Nouwen N, Luirink J, Driessen A. Reconstitution of Sec-dependent membrane protein insertion: nascent FtsQ interacts with YidC in a SecYEG-dependent manner. EMBO Rep. 2001;2:519-23 pubmed
    ..using a crosslinking approach, the transmembrane segment of nascent FtsQ was found to gain access to YidC via SecY. These data indicate the functional reconstitution of the initial stages of YidC-dependent membrane protein ..
  33. Mori H, Shimokawa N, Satoh Y, Ito K. Mutational analysis of transmembrane regions 3 and 4 of SecY, a central component of protein translocase. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:3960-9 pubmed
    ..b>SecY is the central subunit of the SecYEG complex and contains 10 transmembrane segments (TM1 to TM10)...
  34. Emr S, Hanley Way S, Silhavy T. Suppressor mutations that restore export of a protein with a defective signal sequence. Cell. 1981;23:79-88 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that ribosomes play an important role in the export of lambda receptor to the outer membrane. ..
  35. van der Laan M, Nouwen N, Driessen A. SecYEG proteoliposomes catalyze the Deltaphi-dependent membrane insertion of FtsQ. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:1659-64 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that membrane protein insertion can be reconstituted with a minimal set of purified Sec components. ..
  36. Baba T, Jacq A, Brickman E, Beckwith J, Taura T, Ueguchi C, et al. Characterization of cold-sensitive secY mutants of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:7005-10 pubmed
    ..cause poor growth at a low temperature, which affect aspects of protein secretion, and which map in or around secY (prlA) were characterized...
  37. Akiyama Y, Inada T, Nakamura Y, Ito K. SecY, a multispanning integral membrane protein, contains a potential leader peptidase cleavage site. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:2888-93 pubmed
    b>SecY is an Escherichia coli integral membrane protein required for efficient translocation of other proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane; it is embedded in this membrane by the 10 transmembrane segments...
  38. Osborne A, Rapoport T. Protein translocation is mediated by oligomers of the SecY complex with one SecY copy forming the channel. Cell. 2007;129:97-110 pubmed
    ..cytoplasmic ATPase SecA with a protein-conducting channel, formed from the evolutionarily conserved heterotrimeric SecY complex. Here, we have used purified E. coli components to address the mechanism of translocation...
  39. Sakoh M, Ito K, Akiyama Y. Proteolytic activity of HtpX, a membrane-bound and stress-controlled protease from Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:33305-10 pubmed
    ..In the presence of zinc, it also degraded casein and cleaved a solubilized membrane protein, SecY. We verified its ability to cleave SecY in vivo by overproducing both HtpX and SecY...
  40. Angelini S, Deitermann S, Koch H. FtsY, the bacterial signal-recognition particle receptor, interacts functionally and physically with the SecYEG translocon. EMBO Rep. 2005;6:476-81 pubmed
    ..We now provide evidence for the direct interaction between FtsY and the SecY translocon...
  41. Shultz J, Silhavy T, Berman M, Fiil N, Emr S. A previously unidentified gene in the spc operon of Escherichia coli K12 specifies a component of the protein export machinery. Cell. 1982;31:227-35 pubmed
    The gene prlA codes for a factor that appears to function in the export of proteins in Escherichia coli...
  42. Li Z, Boyd D, Reindl M, Goldberg M. Identification of YidC residues that define interactions with the Sec Apparatus. J Bacteriol. 2014;196:367-77 pubmed publisher
    ..translocon, transmembrane segments of nascent proteins are thought to exit the translocon via a lateral gate in SecY, where YidC facilitates their transfer into the lipid bilayer...
  43. Veenendaal A, van der Does C, Driessen A. The core of the bacterial translocase harbors a tilted transmembrane segment 3 of SecE. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:36640-5 pubmed
    ..The integral membrane proteins SecY and SecE are conserved core subunits of the translocase...
  44. Chiba S, Akiyama Y, Mori H, Matsuo E, Ito K. Length recognition at the N-terminal tail for the initiation of FtsH-mediated proteolysis. EMBO Rep. 2000;1:47-52 pubmed
    ..An artificially constructed TM9-PhoA protein, derived from SecY, as well as the SecE protein, were sensitized to FtsH by addition of extra amino acid sequences to their N-terminal ..
  45. Bieker K, Silhavy T. PrlA (SecY) and PrlG (SecE) interact directly and function sequentially during protein translocation in E. coli. Cell. 1990;61:833-42 pubmed
    Three strategies for genetic analysis show that two inner membrane components of the export machinery, PrlA (SecY) and PrlG (SecE), interact directly while catalyzing the translocation of secreted proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane ..
  46. Erlandson K, Or E, Osborne A, Rapoport T. Analysis of polypeptide movement in the SecY channel during SecA-mediated protein translocation. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:15709-15 pubmed publisher
    ..across the plasma membrane by the interplay of the ATPase SecA with the translocation channel formed by the SecY complex; SecA uses cycles of ATP hydrolysis to "push" consecutive segments of a polypeptide substrate ..
  47. Nakatogawa H, Mori H, Matsumoto G, Ito K. Characterization of a mutant form of SecA that alleviates a SecY defect at low temperature and shows a synthetic defect with SecY alteration at high temperature. J Biochem. 2000;127:1071-9 pubmed
    ..suppresses the secY205 defect at low temperature and exhibits an allele-specific synthetic defect with the same SecY alteration at 42 degrees C. The overproduced SecA81 aggregated in vivo at temperatures above 37 degrees C...
  48. Shimohata N, Nagamori S, Akiyama Y, Kaback H, Ito K. SecY alterations that impair membrane protein folding and generate a membrane stress. J Cell Biol. 2007;176:307-17 pubmed
    We report on a class of Escherichia coli SecY mutants that impair membrane protein folding. The mutants also up-regulate the Cpx/sigma(E) stress response pathways...
  49. Gatsos X, Perry A, Anwari K, Dolezal P, Wolynec P, Likic V, et al. Protein secretion and outer membrane assembly in Alphaproteobacteria. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2008;32:995-1009 pubmed publisher
  50. Ojemalm K, Botelho S, Stüdle C, von Heijne G. Quantitative analysis of SecYEG-mediated insertion of transmembrane ?-helices into the bacterial inner membrane. J Mol Biol. 2013;425:2813-22 pubmed publisher
    ..coli inner membrane, but the hydrophobicity threshold for SecYEG-mediated insertion is distinctly lower than that for Sec61-mediated insertion. ..
  51. Beha D, Deitermann S, Muller M, Koch H. Export of beta-lactamase is independent of the signal recognition particle. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:22161-7 pubmed
    In Escherichia coli, three different types of proteins engage the SecY translocon of the inner bacterial membrane for translocation or insertion: 1) polytopic membrane proteins that prior to their insertion into the membrane are targeted ..
  52. Flower A. The SecY translocation complex: convergence of genetics and structure. Trends Microbiol. 2007;15:203-10 pubmed
    ..The major mechanism for this process is the universally conserved SecY/Sec61 pathway...
  53. Laursen B, Siwanowicz I, Larigauderie G, Hedegaard J, Ito K, Nakamura Y, et al. Characterization of mutations in the GTP-binding domain of IF2 resulting in cold-sensitive growth of Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 2003;326:543-51 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that the amino acid residues, Asp409 and Gly422, are located in important regions of the IF2 G-domain and demonstrate the importance of GTP hydrolysis in translation initiation for optimal cell growth. ..
  54. Ito K. The major pathways of protein translocation across membranes. Genes Cells. 1996;1:337-46 pubmed
    ..The trimeric SecY/Sec61 core complex, which is conserved throughout evolution, provides a proteinaceous pathway for translocation...
  55. Flower A, Doebele R, Silhavy T. PrlA and PrlG suppressors reduce the requirement for signal sequence recognition. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:5607-14 pubmed
    ..These genes, secY/prlA and secE/prlG, encode integral membrane components of the protein translocation system of Escherichia coli...
  56. van der Sluis E, Driessen A. Stepwise evolution of the Sec machinery in Proteobacteria. Trends Microbiol. 2006;14:105-8 pubmed
    ..The Sec machinery of Escherichia coli and other Enterobacteriales represents the end product of this stepwise evolution. ..
  57. Ito K, Hirota Y, Akiyama Y. Temperature-sensitive sec mutants of Escherichia coli: inhibition of protein export at the permissive temperature. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:1742-3 pubmed
    Phenotypes of secY and secA temperature-sensitive mutants at permissive (low) temperature have been examined...
  58. Shiba K, Ito K, Yura T, Cerretti D. A defined mutation in the protein export gene within the spc ribosomal protein operon of Escherichia coli: isolation and characterization of a new temperature-sensitive secY mutant. EMBO J. 1984;3:631-5 pubmed
    ..The mutation is complemented by expression of the wild-type secY (or prlA) gene, which has been cloned into a plasmid vector from the promoter-distal part of the spc ribosomal protein ..
  59. Nishiyama K, Mizushima S, Tokuda H. Preferential interaction of Sec-G with Sec-E stabilizes an unstable Sec-E derivative in the Escherichia coli cytoplasmic membrane. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995;217:217-23 pubmed
    b>SecY, SecE and SecG form a membrane part of the protein translocation machinery. A SecG-overproducing plasmid was constructed by placing the secG gene under the control of the tac promoter...
  60. Osborne R, Silhavy T. PrlA suppressor mutations cluster in regions corresponding to three distinct topological domains. EMBO J. 1993;12:3391-8 pubmed
    The SecY protein of Escherichia coli and its homologues in other organisms, are integral components of the cellular protein translocation machinery...
  61. van der Laan M, Bechtluft P, Kol S, Nouwen N, Driessen A. F1F0 ATP synthase subunit c is a substrate of the novel YidC pathway for membrane protein biogenesis. J Cell Biol. 2004;165:213-22 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, a novel membrane protein insertion pathway in E. coli is described in which YidC plays an exclusive role. ..
  62. Maki J, Krishnan B, Gierasch L. Using a low denaturant model to explore the conformational features of translocation-active SecA. Biochemistry. 2012;51:1369-79 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed conformational changes thus position SecA for productive interaction with the SecYEG translocon and for transfer of segments of its passenger protein across the translocon. ..