Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: secG
Description: preprotein translocase membrane subunit
Alias: ECK3164, JW3142, prlH
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
- Nishiyama K, Tokuda H. Genes coding for SecG and Leu2-tRNA form an operon to give an unusual RNA comprising mRNA and a tRNA precursor. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1729:166-73 pubmedThe secG gene encoding the SecG subunit of the SecYEG translocon and the leuU gene encoding Leu2-tRNA are very closely located on the Escherichia coli chromosome...
- Bostina M, Mohsin B, Kuhlbrandt W, Collinson I. Atomic model of the E. coli membrane-bound protein translocation complex SecYEG. J Mol Biol. 2005;352:1035-43 pubmed..The contacts arising at the dimer interface in the environment of the lipid bilayer may have activated the assembly. ..
- Bol R, de Wit J, Driessen A. The active protein-conducting channel of Escherichia coli contains an apolar patch. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:29785-93 pubmed..Fluorescence measurements with defined proOmpA-DHFR translocation intermediates indicate mostly a water-exposed environment with a hydrophobic region in the center of the channel. ..
- Wang L, Miller A, Rusch S, Kendall D. Demonstration of a specific Escherichia coli SecY-signal peptide interaction. Biochemistry. 2004;43:13185-92 pubmed..The signal peptide-SecY interaction was affected by the presence of SecA and nucleotides in a manner consistent with the transfer of signal peptide to SecY upon nucleotide hydrolysis at SecA. ..
- Bost S, Belin D. prl mutations in the Escherichia coli secG gene. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:4087-93 pubmed..By analogy with secY/prlA, secA/prlD, and secE/prlG, secG could therefore be called secG/prlH. The prlH mutations affect 13 codons distributed along the secG sequence, and none map to the codons affected by ..
- Flower A, Hines L, Pfennig P. SecG is an auxiliary component of the protein export apparatus of Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 2000;263:131-6 pubmedSecY, SecE and SecG form the membrane-embedded core complex of the Escherichia coli protein export apparatus. These three proteins co-purify and can be co-immunoprecipitated, demonstrating that they are closely associated...
- Nishiyama K, Hanada M, Tokuda H. Disruption of the gene encoding p12 (SecG) reveals the direct involvement and important function of SecG in the protein translocation of Escherichia coli at low temperature. EMBO J. 1994;13:3272-7 pubmed..From these results, we concluded that p12 is directly involved in protein translocation in E. coli and plays a critical role in the cold. We propose the more systematic name, SecG, for p12.
- Sugai R, Shimizu H, Nishiyama K, Tokuda H. Overexpression of yccL (gnsA) and ydfY (gnsB) increases levels of unsaturated fatty acids and suppresses both the temperature-sensitive fabA6 mutation and cold-sensitive secG null mutation of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:5523-8 pubmedA multicopy suppressor of the cold-sensitive secG null mutation was isolated...
- Duong F. Binding, activation and dissociation of the dimeric SecA ATPase at the dimeric SecYEG translocase. EMBO J. 2003;22:4375-84 pubmed..The nucleotides and translocation-dependent changes of SecA-SecYEG associations and the SecA dimeric state may reflect important facets of the preprotein translocation reaction. ..
- du Plessis D, Berrelkamp G, Nouwen N, Driessen A. The lateral gate of SecYEG opens during protein translocation. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:15805-14 pubmed publisher..The cross-linking data further suggests that SecYEG lateral gate opening and activation of the SecA ATPase are coupled processes. It is concluded that lateral gate opening is a critical step during SecA-dependent protein translocation. ..
- Fitchen N, Williams P, Hardie K. Functional complementation of E. coli secD and secG mutants by Helicobacter pylori homologues. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2003;229:57-63 pubmed..pylori secD (HP1550) and secG (HP1255) homologues to facilitate inner membrane translocation of the maltose-binding protein MalE, by ..
- Suzuki H, Nishiyama K, Tokuda H. Increases in acidic phospholipid contents specifically restore protein translocation in a cold-sensitive secA or secG null mutant. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:31020-4 pubmed..This increase resulted in the stimulation of proOmpA translocation only when mutant SecA or SecG-depleted IMVs were used...
- Nishiyama K, Mizushima S, Tokuda H. A novel membrane protein involved in protein translocation across the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 1993;12:3409-15 pubmed..4 kDa. We propose that the factor is a general component of the protein translocation machinery of E. coli. ..
- van der Sluis E, Driessen A. Stepwise evolution of the Sec machinery in Proteobacteria. Trends Microbiol. 2006;14:105-8 pubmed..The Sec machinery of Escherichia coli and other Enterobacteriales represents the end product of this stepwise evolution. ..
- Veenendaal A, van der Does C, Driessen A. The protein-conducting channel SecYEG. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1694:81-95 pubmed..The ribosome and other membrane proteins can associate with the protein-conducting channel complex and affect its activity or functionality. ..
- van der Sluis E, Nouwen N, Driessen A. SecY-SecY and SecY-SecG contacts revealed by site-specific crosslinking. FEBS Lett. 2002;527:159-65 pubmed..Chemical crosslinking showed that the C2 and C3 domains are in close proximity of SecG and chemical modification of the cysteine residue in the C5 domain with N-ethyl-maleimide or fluorescein-5-..
- van der Does C, Manting E, Kaufmann A, Lutz M, Driessen A. Interaction between SecA and SecYEG in micellar solution and formation of the membrane-inserted state. Biochemistry. 1998;37:201-10 pubmed..translocation in Escherichia coli is mediated by the translocase with SecA as peripheral ATPase and SecY, SecE, and SecG as membrane domain...
- Shiomi D, Yoshimoto M, Homma M, Kawagishi I. Helical distribution of the bacterial chemoreceptor via colocalization with the Sec protein translocation machinery. Mol Microbiol. 2006;60:894-906 pubmed..of GFP-SecE and a translocation-defective MalE-GFP mutant, as well as indirect immunofluorescence microscopy on SecG, suggested that the general protein translocation machinery (Sec) itself is arranged into a helical array, with ..
- Nishiyama K, Tokuda H. Development of a functional in vitro integration system for an integral membrane protein, SecG. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;390:920-4 pubmed publisherA functional in vitro integration system for an integral membrane protein, SecG, comprising an efficient translation system supplemented with inverted membrane vesicles (IMV) was developed...
- Joly J, Wickner W. The SecA and SecY subunits of translocase are the nearest neighbors of a translocating preprotein, shielding it from phospholipids. EMBO J. 1993;12:255-63 pubmed..The fact that SecY and SecA are the only membrane proteins cross-linked to the translocating chains suggests that they may form an entirely proteinaceous pathway through which secreted proteins pass during membrane transit. ..
- Kato Y, Nishiyama K, Tokuda H. Depletion of SecDF-YajC causes a decrease in the level of SecG: implication for their functional interaction. FEBS Lett. 2003;550:114-8 pubmed..SecDF-YajC and SecG facilitate membrane insertion of SecA, which is the driving force for protein translocation...
- Douville K, Leonard M, Brundage L, Nishiyama K, Tokuda H, Mizushima S, et al. Band 1 subunit of Escherichia coli preportein translocase and integral membrane export factor P12 are the same protein. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:18705-7 pubmed..This finding completes the identification of the polypeptides that are essential for catalysis of preprotein translocation. ..
- Mori H, Shimokawa N, Satoh Y, Ito K. Mutational analysis of transmembrane regions 3 and 4 of SecY, a central component of protein translocase. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:3960-9 pubmed..A combination of this secY mutation and the secG deletion resulted in synthetic lethality, and the TM3 and TM4 SecY cysteine substitution mutations were examined ..
- Natale P, Den Blaauwen T, van der Does C, Driessen A. Conformational state of the SecYEG-bound SecA probed by single tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy. Biochemistry. 2005;44:6424-32 pubmed..In addition, SecYEG-bound SecA undergoes ATP-dependent conformational changes that are not observed for soluble SecA. These data support a model in which binding to the SecYEG channel has a major impact on the SecA conformation. ..
- Ito K, Wittekind M, Nomura M, Shiba K, Yura T, Miura A, et al. A temperature-sensitive mutant of E. coli exhibiting slow processing of exported proteins. Cell. 1983;32:789-97 pubmed..The gene secY is probably identical with prlA, previously identified as a suppressor of signal sequence mutations. ..
- Ramamurthy V, Dapic V, Oliver D. secG and temperature modulate expression of azide-resistant and signal sequence suppressor phenotypes of Escherichia coli secA mutants. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:6419-23 pubmed..b>secG function is required for expression of azide-resistant and signal sequence suppressor activities of azi and prlD ..
- Duong F, Wickner W. Distinct catalytic roles of the SecYE, SecG and SecDFyajC subunits of preprotein translocase holoenzyme. EMBO J. 1997;16:2756-68 pubmedEscherichia coli preprotein translocase contains a membrane-embedded trimeric complex of SecY, SecE and SecG (SecYEG) and the peripheral SecA protein. SecYE is the conserved functional 'core' of the SecYEG complex...
- Bost S, Silva F, Rudaz C, Belin D. Both transmembrane domains of SecG contribute to signal sequence recognition by the Escherichia coli protein export machinery. Mol Microbiol. 2000;38:575-87 pubmed..Suppressors of this toxicity include secG mutations that define the Thr-41-Leu-42-Phe-43 (TLF) domain of SecG...
- Bost S, Belin D. A new genetic selection identifies essential residues in SecG, a component of the Escherichia coli protein export machinery. EMBO J. 1995;14:4412-21 pubmed..We have characterized suppressors which map in secG, a newly defined gene of the export machinery. All single amino acid substitutions map to three adjacent codons...
- Kontinen V, Tokuda H. Overexpression of phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase restores protein translocation in a secG deletion mutant of Escherichia coli at low temperature. FEBS Lett. 1995;364:157-60 pubmedThe E. coli secG deletion mutant is unable to grow and is defective in protein translocation at low temperature...
- Fisher A, DeLisa M. A little help from my friends: quality control of presecretory proteins in bacteria. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:7467-73 pubmed
- Robichon C, Vidal Ingigliardi D, Pugsley A. Depletion of apolipoprotein N-acyltransferase causes mislocalization of outer membrane lipoproteins in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:974-83 pubmed..Schmid, M. B., and Wu, H. C. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 16551-16556) was found to carry a mutation causing a single glutamate to lysine substitution at a highly conserved position in the last predicted periplasmic loop of the protein. ..
- Pohlschroder M, Murphy C, Beckwith J. In vivo analyses of interactions between SecE and SecY, core components of the Escherichia coli protein translocation machinery. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:19908-14 pubmed..These results suggest that several regions contribute to the formation of a stable SecE-SecY complex but the elimination of a single contact point does not necessarily affect the functionality of the complex. ..
- Collinson I. The structure of the bacterial protein translocation complex SecYEG. Biochem Soc Trans. 2005;33:1225-30 pubmed
- Flower A. SecG function and phospholipid metabolism in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:2006-12 pubmedb>SecG is an auxiliary protein in the Sec-dependent protein export pathway of Escherichia coli...
- Manting E, Driessen A. Escherichia coli translocase: the unravelling of a molecular machine. Mol Microbiol. 2000;37:226-38 pubmed..Recent findings concerning the translocase structure and mechanism of protein translocation are discussed and shine new light on controversies in the field. ..
- Xie K, Hessa T, Seppälä S, Rapp M, von Heijne G, Dalbey R. Features of transmembrane segments that promote the lateral release from the translocase into the lipid phase. Biochemistry. 2007;46:15153-61 pubmed..coli system. These results are significant because they define the features of a membrane protein transmembrane segment that induce lateral release from the YidC and Sec translocases into the lipid bilayer in bacteria. ..
- Brundage L, Hendrick J, Schiebel E, Driessen A, Wickner W. The purified E. coli integral membrane protein SecY/E is sufficient for reconstitution of SecA-dependent precursor protein translocation. Cell. 1990;62:649-57 pubmed..The SecY/E protein consists of SecY, SecE, and an additional polypeptide. Antiserum against SecY immunoprecipitates all three components of the SecY/E protein. ..
- Douville K, Price A, Eichler J, Economou A, Wickner W. SecYEG and SecA are the stoichiometric components of preprotein translocase. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:20106-11 pubmed..the peripherally bound SecA subunit and an integrally bound heterotrimeric domain consisting of the SecY, SecE, and SecG subunits...
- Valent Q, Scotti P, High S, de Gier J, von Heijne G, Lentzen G, et al. The Escherichia coli SRP and SecB targeting pathways converge at the translocon. EMBO J. 1998;17:2504-12 pubmed..SRP at the membrane, the targeted nascent proteins insert into a translocon that contains at least SecA, SecY and SecG. Hence, as appears to be the case for several other translocation systems, multiple targeting mechanisms deliver a ..
- Mitra K, Schaffitzel C, Shaikh T, Tama F, Jenni S, Brooks C, et al. Structure of the E. coli protein-conducting channel bound to a translating ribosome. Nature. 2005;438:318-24 pubmed..On the basis of our observation in the translocating PCC of two segregated pores with different degrees of access to bulk lipid, we propose a model for co-translational protein translocation. ..
- Peterson J, Szabady R, Bernstein H. An unusual signal peptide extension inhibits the binding of bacterial presecretory proteins to the signal recognition particle, trigger factor, and the SecYEG complex. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:9038-48 pubmed..Based on data, we propose that the N-terminal extension mediates an interaction with an unidentified cytoplasmic factor or induces the formation of an unusual signal peptide conformation prior to the onset of protein translocation. ..
- van der Does C, Swaving J, van Klompenburg W, Driessen A. Non-bilayer lipids stimulate the activity of the reconstituted bacterial protein translocase. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:2472-8 pubmed..In the absence of SecG, activity was reduced, but the phospholipid requirement was unaltered...
- Brunel C, Romby P, Sacerdot C, de Smit M, Graffe M, Dondon J, et al. Stabilised secondary structure at a ribosomal binding site enhances translational repression in E. coli. J Mol Biol. 1995;253:277-90 pubmed..This molecular amplification device might be an essential component of translational control considering the low free repressor/ribosome ratio of the low affinity of translational repressors for their target operators. ..
- de Keyzer J, van der Does C, Driessen A. The bacterial translocase: a dynamic protein channel complex. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2003;60:2034-52 pubmed..Here, we will discuss the mechanistic and structural basis of the translocation of proteins across and the integration of membrane proteins into the cytoplasmic membrane. ..
- Yahr T, Wickner W. Evaluating the oligomeric state of SecYEG in preprotein translocase. EMBO J. 2000;19:4393-401 pubmed..i) Formaldehyde cross- linking of translocase reveals cross-links between SecY, SecE and SecG, but not higher order oligomers...
- Moser M, Nagamori S, Huber M, Tokuda H, Nishiyama K. Glycolipozyme MPIase is essential for topology inversion of SecG during preprotein translocation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:9734-9 pubmed publisher..SecA, a translocation ATPase, pushes preproteins out with dynamic structural changes through SecYEG. SecG, a subunit of the SecYEG channel possessing two transmembrane stretches (TMs), undergoes topology inversion coupled ..
- Belin D, Plaia G, Boulfekhar Y, Silva F. Escherichia coli SecG is required for residual export mediated by mutant signal sequences and for SecY-SecE complex stability. J Bacteriol. 2015;197:542-52 pubmed publisher..SecY and SecE are encoded by essential genes, while SecG is not essential for growth under standard laboratory conditions...
- Bessonneau P, Besson V, Collinson I, Duong F. The SecYEG preprotein translocation channel is a conformationally dynamic and dimeric structure. EMBO J. 2002;21:995-1003 pubmedEscherichia coli preprotein translocase comprises a membrane-embedded trimeric complex of SecY, SecE and SecG. Previous studies have shown that this complex forms ring-like assemblies, which are thought to represent the preprotein ..
- Hsieh Y, Zhang H, Lin B, Cui N, Na B, Yang H, et al. SecA alone can promote protein translocation and ion channel activity: SecYEG increases efficiency and signal peptide specificity. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:44702-9 pubmed publisher..The latter of the two interactions confers high efficiency and specificity. ..
- du Plessis D, Nouwen N, Driessen A. Subunit a of cytochrome o oxidase requires both YidC and SecYEG for membrane insertion. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:12248-52 pubmed..These data demonstrate that pre-CyoA is a substrate of a novel pathway that involves both SecYEG and YidC. ..
- van Dalen A, van der Laan M, Driessen A, Killian J, de Kruijff B. Components required for membrane assembly of newly synthesized K+ channel KcsA. FEBS Lett. 2002;511:51-8 pubmed..It is concluded that SecYEG and YidC are not required for the formation of tetrameric KcsA in vitro. ..
- Koch H, Muller M. Dissecting the translocase and integrase functions of the Escherichia coli SecYEG translocon. J Cell Biol. 2000;150:689-94 pubmed..Furthermore, under conditions in which the translocation of secretory proteins is strictly dependent on SecG for assisting SecA, the absence of SecG still allows polytopic membrane proteins to integrate at the wild-type ..
- Wickner W, Leonard M. Escherichia coli preprotein translocase. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:29514-6 pubmed
- Sugai R, Shimizu H, Nishiyama K, Tokuda H. Overexpression of gnsA, a multicopy suppressor of the secG null mutation, increases acidic phospholipid contents by inhibiting phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis at low temperatures. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:5968-71 pubmedGnsA overproduction was previously found to suppress both the secG null mutation and the fabA6 mutation in Escherichia coli by increasing the unsaturated fatty acid contents...
- Koch S, de Wit J, Vos I, Birkner J, Gordiichuk P, Herrmann A, et al. Lipids Activate SecA for High Affinity Binding to the SecYEG Complex. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:22534-22543 pubmed
- Knyazev D, Lents A, Krause E, Ollinger N, Siligan C, Papinski D, et al. The bacterial translocon SecYEG opens upon ribosome binding. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:17941-6 pubmed publisher..Thus, the open probability of the channel must be close to unity. To prevent the otherwise lethal proton leak, a closed post-translational conformation of the SecYEG complex bound to a ribosome must exist...
- Zhu L, Wasey A, White S, Dalbey R. Charge composition features of model single-span membrane proteins that determine selection of YidC and SecYEG translocase pathways in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:7704-16 pubmed publisher..These findings provide deeper insights into how pathways are selected for the insertion of proteins into the Escherichia coli inner membrane. ..
- Satoh Y, Matsumoto G, Mori H, Ito K. Nearest neighbor analysis of the SecYEG complex. 1. Identification of a SecY-SecG interface. Biochemistry. 2003;42:7434-41 pubmedIntegral membrane components SecY, SecE, and SecG of protein translocase form a complex in the Escherichia coli plasma membrane...
- Tziatzios C, Schubert D, Lotz M, Gundogan D, Betz H, Schagger H, et al. The bacterial protein-translocation complex: SecYEG dimers associate with one or two SecA molecules. J Mol Biol. 2004;340:513-24 pubmed..The observed variability in the stoichiometry of SecYEG and SecA association and its nucleotide modulation may be important and necessary for the protein translocation reaction. ..
- Antonoaea R, Fürst M, Nishiyama K, Muller M. The periplasmic chaperone PpiD interacts with secretory proteins exiting from the SecYEG translocon. Biochemistry. 2008;47:5649-56 pubmed publisher..Consistent with a coupling between translocation across the SecYEG translocon and folding by periplasmic chaperones, a lack of PpiD retards the release of a translocating outer membrane protein into the periplasm. ..
- Nagamori S, Nishiyama K, Tokuda H. Membrane topology inversion of SecG detected by labeling with a membrane-impermeable sulfhydryl reagent that causes a close association of SecG with SecA. J Biochem. 2002;132:629-34 pubmedb>SecG stimulates protein translocation in Escherichia coli by facilitating the membrane insertion-deinsertion cycle of SecA...
- Scheuring J, Braun N, Nothdurft L, Stumpf M, Veenendaal A, Kol S, et al. The oligomeric distribution of SecYEG is altered by SecA and translocation ligands. J Mol Biol. 2005;354:258-71 pubmed..membrane-associated ATPase SecA and the heterotrimeric channel-forming complex consisting of SecY, SecE and SecG. We have investigated the quaternary structure of the SecYEG complex in proteoliposomes...
- Mohanty B, Kushner S. Rho-independent transcription terminators inhibit RNase P processing of the secG leuU and metT tRNA polycistronic transcripts in Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:364-75 pubmed..Here we show that the processing of the secG leuU and metT leuW glnU glnW metU glnV glnX polycistronic transcripts takes place through a different type of ..
- Hanada M, Nishiyama K, Tokuda H. SecG plays a critical role in protein translocation in the absence of the proton motive force as well as at low temperature. FEBS Lett. 1996;381:25-8 pubmedb>SecG is an integral membrane component of E. coli protein translocase...
- Chiba K, Mori H, Ito K. Roles of the C-terminal end of SecY in protein translocation and viability of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:2243-50 pubmed..the C-terminal six to seven residues were partially compromised, especially at low temperature or in the absence of SecG. In vitro analyses indicated that the initial phase of the translocation reaction, in which the signal sequence ..
- Dallas W, Dev I, Ray P. The dihydropteroate synthase gene, folP, is near the leucine tRNA gene, leuU, on the Escherichia coli chromosome. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:7743-4 pubmed