Gene Symbol: secD
Description: SecYEG protein translocase auxillary subunit
Alias: ECK0402, JW0398
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Sugai M, Wu H. Export of the outer membrane lipoprotein is defective in secD, secE, and secF mutants of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:2511-6 pubmed
    The export of major outer membrane lipoprotein has been found to be affected in secD, secE, and secF mutants of Escherichia coli, which are defective in protein export in general...
  2. Matsuyama S, Fujita Y, Sagara K, Mizushima S. Overproduction, purification and characterization of SecD and SecF, integral membrane components of the protein translocation machinery of Escherichia coli. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1992;1122:77-84 pubmed
    b>SecD and SecF proteins were overproduced by means of recombinant DNA technology. Immunoblot and amino-acid sequencing analysis revealed that the overproduced proteins are SecD and SecF...
  3. Ureta A, Endres R, Wingreen N, Silhavy T. Kinetic analysis of the assembly of the outer membrane protein LamB in Escherichia coli mutants each lacking a secretion or targeting factor in a different cellular compartment. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:446-54 pubmed
    ..This kinetic analysis revealed that secB and secD mutants exhibit nearly identical defects in precursor translocation from the cytoplasm...
  4. Nouwen N, Driessen A. SecDFyajC forms a heterotetrameric complex with YidC. Mol Microbiol. 2002;44:1397-405 pubmed
    ..b>SecD, SecF, and YajC form another heterotrimeric complex that can associate with the SecYEG complex...
  5. Samuelson J, Chen M, Jiang F, Moller I, Wiedmann M, Kuhn A, et al. YidC mediates membrane protein insertion in bacteria. Nature. 2000;406:637-41 pubmed
    ..These results provide evidence for an additional component of the translocation machinery that is specialized for the integration of membrane proteins...
  6. Echtenkamp P, Wilson D, Shuler M. Cell cycle progression in Escherichia coli B/r affects transcription of certain genes: Implications for synthetic genome design. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2009;102:902-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, gene position, with regard to the C period, and gene function are important factors to incorporate into design criteria for synthetic bacterial genomes. ..
  7. Kosic N, Sugai M, Fan C, Wu H. Processing of lipid-modified prolipoprotein requires energy and sec gene products in vivo. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:6113-7 pubmed
    ..e., secA, secE, secY, secD, and secF, and by metabolic poisons which affect proton motive force (PMF)...
  8. Danese P, Murphy C, Silhavy T. Multicopy suppression of cold-sensitive sec mutations in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:4969-73 pubmed
    ..In all cases, the mechanism of suppression is unrelated to the process of protein export. We suggest that the multicopy plasmids also suppress the sec mutations by compromising protein synthesis. ..
  9. Pogliano J, Beckwith J. SecD and SecF facilitate protein export in Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 1994;13:554-61 pubmed
    We show here that the rate of protein translocation in the bacterium Escherichia coli depends on the levels of the SecD and SecF proteins in the cell...

More Information


  1. Economou A, Pogliano J, Beckwith J, Oliver D, Wickner W. SecA membrane cycling at SecYEG is driven by distinct ATP binding and hydrolysis events and is regulated by SecD and SecF. Cell. 1995;83:1171-81 pubmed
    ..This process is regulated both by nucleotide binding and hydrolysis and by the SecD and SecF proteins...
  2. Duong F, Wickner W. Distinct catalytic roles of the SecYE, SecG and SecDFyajC subunits of preprotein translocase holoenzyme. EMBO J. 1997;16:2756-68 pubmed
    ..The proteins encoded by the secD operon--SecD, SecF and YajC--also form an integral membrane heterotrimeric complex (SecDFyajC)...
  3. Duong F, Wickner W. The SecDFyajC domain of preprotein translocase controls preprotein movement by regulating SecA membrane cycling. EMBO J. 1997;16:4871-9 pubmed
    Escherichia coli preprotein translocase comprises a membrane-embedded hexameric complex of SecY, SecE, SecG, SecD, SecF and YajC (SecYEGDFyajC) and the peripheral ATPase SecA...
  4. Bieker K, Silhavy T. The genetics of protein secretion in E. coli. Trends Genet. 1990;6:329-34 pubmed
    ..The picture emerging provides a useful paradigm for similar pathways in other organisms. ..
  5. Luirink J, von Heijne G, Houben E, de Gier J. Biogenesis of inner membrane proteins in Escherichia coli. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2005;59:329-55 pubmed
    ..This review deals mainly with recent structural and biochemical data from various experimental systems that offer new insight into the different stages of biogenesis of E. coli IMPs. ..
  6. Fitchen N, Williams P, Hardie K. Functional complementation of E. coli secD and secG mutants by Helicobacter pylori homologues. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2003;229:57-63 pubmed
    ..pylori secD (HP1550) and secG (HP1255) homologues to facilitate inner membrane translocation of the maltose-binding protein ..
  7. Gardel C, Johnson K, Jacq A, Beckwith J. The secD locus of E. coli codes for two membrane proteins required for protein export. EMBO J. 1990;9:4205-6 pubmed
  8. Lucht J, Boos W, Bremer E. Alignment of genes from the 9-minute region (araJ to tsx) of the Escherichia coli K-12 linkage map to the physical map. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:1709-10 pubmed
  9. Gardel C, Johnson K, Jacq A, Beckwith J. The secD locus of E.coli codes for two membrane proteins required for protein export. EMBO J. 1990;9:3209-16 pubmed
    Cold-sensitive mutations in the secD locus of Escherichia coli result in severe defects in protein export at the non-permissive temperature of 23 degrees C...
  10. van der Sluis E, Driessen A. Stepwise evolution of the Sec machinery in Proteobacteria. Trends Microbiol. 2006;14:105-8 pubmed
    ..The Sec machinery of Escherichia coli and other Enterobacteriales represents the end product of this stepwise evolution. ..
  11. Nouwen N, Driessen A. Inactivation of protein translocation by cold-sensitive mutations in the yajC-secDF operon. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:6852-5 pubmed
    ..Here we report that two of these mutations confer this cold-sensitive phenotype by inactivating the SecDF-YajC complex in protein translocation. ..
  12. Kato Y, Nishiyama K, Tokuda H. Depletion of SecDF-YajC causes a decrease in the level of SecG: implication for their functional interaction. FEBS Lett. 2003;550:114-8 pubmed
    ..SecDF-YajC inhibited disulfide bond formation between two SecG molecules possessing a single cysteine residue. These results suggest functional interaction between SecDF-YajC and SecG...
  13. Nouwen N, van der Laan M, Driessen A. SecDFyajC is not required for the maintenance of the proton motive force. FEBS Lett. 2001;508:103-6 pubmed
    ..The expression of this enzyme complex is repressed by growth on glucose media, the condition used to deplete SecDFyajC. These results demonstrate that SecDFyajC is not required for proton motive force-driven protein translocation...
  14. Hare R, Walker S, Dorman T, Greene J, Guzman L, Kenney T, et al. Genetic footprinting in bacteria. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:1694-706 pubmed
    ..In addition, the ability of recombinant proteins to complement mutagenized hosts has been evaluated by genetic footprinting using a bacteriophage lambda transposon delivery system. ..
  15. Muller M, Koch H, Beck K, Schafer U. Protein traffic in bacteria: multiple routes from the ribosome to and across the membrane. Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol. 2001;66:107-57 pubmed
    ..SecA itself into the SecYE translocon, a process that is strongly assisted by a couple of membrane proteins, SecG, SecD, SecF, YajC, and the proton gradient across the membrane...
  16. Gardel C, Benson S, Hunt J, Michaelis S, Beckwith J. secD, a new gene involved in protein export in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:1286-90 pubmed
    ..Several mutations mapped in a new gene, secD. These mutants were, in general, cold sensitive for growth, and the mutations led to an accumulation of precursor ..
  17. Danese P, Silhavy T. Targeting and assembly of periplasmic and outer-membrane proteins in Escherichia coli. Annu Rev Genet. 1998;32:59-94 pubmed
    ..We also discuss the various signal transduction systems that monitor extracytoplasmic protein folding and targeting, and we consider how these signal transduction systems may ultimately control these processes. ..
  18. Pogliano K, Beckwith J. Genetic and molecular characterization of the Escherichia coli secD operon and its products. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:804-14 pubmed
    The secD operon of Escherichia coli is required for the efficient export of proteins...