Gene Symbol: sbcC
Description: exonuclease, dsDNA, ATP-dependent
Alias: ECK0391, JW0387, rmuA
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Long J, Massoni S, Sandler S. RecA4142 causes SOS constitutive expression by loading onto reversed replication forks in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:2575-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In sbcCD mutants, RecA4142 can bind other DNA substrates by itself that are normally degraded by the SbcCD nuclease. ..
  2. Leach D, Okely E, Pinder D. Repair by recombination of DNA containing a palindromic sequence. Mol Microbiol. 1997;26:597-606 pubmed
    ..The dependence on homologous recombination for cell viability is overcome in sbcC mutants...
  3. Leach D, Lloyd R, Coulson A. The SbcCD protein of Escherichia coli is related to two putative nucleases in the UvrA superfamily of nucleotide-binding proteins. Genetica. 1992;87:95-100 pubmed
    The derived amino-acid sequences of the proteins encoded by E. coli genes sbcC and sbcD have been compared with other protein sequences using computer assisted methods...
  4. Reeder T, Schleif R. Mapping, sequence, and apparent lack of function of araJ, a gene of the Escherichia coli arabinose regulon. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:7765-71 pubmed
    ..sequence of this upstream open reading frame was found to be identical to the previously reported sequence of the sbcC gene (I. S. Naom, S. J. Morton, D. R. F. Leach, and R. G. Lloyd, Nucleic Acids Res. 17:8033-8044, 1989)...
  5. Naom I, Morton S, Leach D, Lloyd R. Molecular organization of sbcC, a gene that affects genetic recombination and the viability of DNA palindromes in Escherichia coli K-12. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989;17:8033-45 pubmed
    The sbcC gene product of Escherichia coli interferes with the growth of a lambda red gam phage carrying a long palindrome in its DNA...
  6. Darmon E, Lopez Vernaza M, Helness A, Borking A, Wilson E, Thacker Z, et al. SbcCD regulation and localization in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:6686-94 pubmed
    ..This work investigates the regulation of the sbcDC operon and the cellular localization of the SbcC and SbcD proteins. Transcription of the sbcDC operon is shown to be dependent on starvation and RpoS protein...
  7. Sukhodolets V, Botina S, Trenina M, Ukhabotina L. [Homologous recombination and chromosomal rearrangements in Escherichia coli strains carrying a heterozygous tandem duplication]. Genetika. 2001;37:591-601 pubmed
    ..It is assumed that unequal crossing over between direct DNA repeats in duplications may proceed through a particular pathway of "adaptive" recombination. ..
  8. Cromie G, Millar C, Schmidt K, Leach D. Palindromes as substrates for multiple pathways of recombination in Escherichia coli. Genetics. 2000;154:513-22 pubmed
    ..This was done in both wt and sbcC backgrounds...
  9. Thoms B, Wackernagel W. Interaction of RecBCD enzyme with DNA at double-strand breaks produced in UV-irradiated Escherichia coli: requirement for DNA end processing. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:5639-45 pubmed
    ..It is proposed that end blunting functions to direct DNA ends into the RecABCD pathway. This pathway specifically activates Chi-containing regions for recombination and recombinational repair. ..

More Information


  1. Thoms B, Borchers I, Wackernagel W. Effects of single-strand DNases ExoI, RecJ, ExoVII, and SbcCD on homologous recombination of recBCD+ strains of Escherichia coli and roles of SbcB15 and XonA2 ExoI mutant enzymes. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:179-92 pubmed
    ..DNA end binding by SbcB15 can also explain other specific phenotypes of strains with sbcB15. ..
  2. Kowalczykowski S, Dixon D, Eggleston A, Lauder S, Rehrauer W. Biochemistry of homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. Microbiol Rev. 1994;58:401-65 pubmed
    ..This review focuses on the biochemical mechanisms underlying these steps, with particular emphases on the activities of the proteins involved and on the integration of these activities into likely biochemical pathways for recombination. ..
  3. Sharples G, Leach D. Structural and functional similarities between the SbcCD proteins of Escherichia coli and the RAD50 and MRE11 (RAD32) recombination and repair proteins of yeast. Mol Microbiol. 1995;17:1215-7 pubmed
  4. Yamamoto K, Takahashi N, Fujitani Y, Yoshikura H, Kobayashi I. Orientation dependence in homologous recombination. Genetics. 1996;143:27-36 pubmed
  5. Gibson F, Leach D, Lloyd R. Identification of sbcD mutations as cosuppressors of recBC that allow propagation of DNA palindromes in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:1222-8 pubmed
    The function of an open reading frame (orf-45) located upstream of the sbcC gene of Escherichia coli was investigated...
  6. Ramírez Santos J, García Mata V, Poggio S, Camarena L, Gómez Eichelmann M. Role of single-strand DNA 3'-5' exonuclease ExoI and nuclease SbcCD in stationary-phase mutation in Escherichia coli K-12. Arch Microbiol. 2009;191:185-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The absence of ExoI (Deltaxon) in wild-type or sbcC cells did not change significantly the stationary-phase mutation...
  7. Slupska M, Chiang J, Luther W, Stewart J, Amii L, Conrad A, et al. Genes involved in the determination of the rate of inversions at short inverted repeats. Genes Cells. 2000;5:425-37 pubmed
    ..We have mapped, cloned and sequenced these mutator loci. In one case, inactivation of the sbcC gene leads to an increase in rearrangements, and in another, insertions near the recE gene lead to an even larger ..
  8. Lloyd R. Linkage distortion following conjugational transfer of sbcC+ to recBC sbcBC strains of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:5694-8 pubmed
    ..can proceed efficiently without RecBCD in recB or recC strains carrying additional mutations in both the sbcB and sbcC genes...
  9. Lloyd R, Buckman C. Identification and genetic analysis of sbcC mutations in commonly used recBC sbcB strains of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1985;164:836-44 pubmed
    ..previously regarded as having a recB recC sbcB genotype, carry an additional mutation in a new gene designated sbcC at minute 9 on the standard genetic map...
  10. Connelly J, de Leau E, Leach D. DNA cleavage and degradation by the SbcCD protein complex from Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 1999;27:1039-46 pubmed
    ..The implications of this mechanism for the processing of hairpins formed during DNA replication are discussed. ..
  11. Connelly J, Kirkham L, Leach D. The SbcCD nuclease of Escherichia coli is a structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) family protein that cleaves hairpin DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:7969-74 pubmed
    ..structure predicted for the SMC (structural maintenance of chromosomes) family of proteins, of which SbcC is a member...
  12. Connelly J, de Leau E, Okely E, Leach D. Overexpression, purification, and characterization of the SbcCD protein from Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:19819-26 pubmed
    The sbcC and sbcD genes mediate palindrome inviability in Escherichia coli...
  13. Pan X, Ding Y, Shi L. The roles of SbcCD and RNaseE in the transcription of GAA x TTC repeats in Escherichia coli. DNA Repair (Amst). 2009;8:1321-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These suggested that processing of DNA and RNA is essential to the transcription of the repeats-carrying gene in vivo. ..
  14. Bzymek M, Lovett S. Evidence for two mechanisms of palindrome-stimulated deletion in Escherichia coli: single-strand annealing and replication slipped mispairing. Genetics. 2001;158:527-40 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, even in the absence of palindromes, SbcD affected the location of deletion endpoints, suggesting that SbcCD-mediated strand processing may also accompany deletion unassociated with secondary structures. ..
  15. Lim C, Lai P, Leach D, Maki H, Furukohri A. A novel mode of nuclease action is revealed by the bacterial Mre11/Rad50 complex. Nucleic Acids Res. 2015;43:9804-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model for this mode of nuclease action, which provides new insight into SbcCD activity at a dsDNA end. ..
  16. de Jager M, Trujillo K, Sung P, Hopfner K, Carney J, Tainer J, et al. Differential arrangements of conserved building blocks among homologs of the Rad50/Mre11 DNA repair protein complex. J Mol Biol. 2004;339:937-49 pubmed
    ..The eukaryotic complexes were similar to each other and differed from their prokaryotic and archaeal homologs. These similarities and differences are discussed with respect to their diverse mechanistic roles in chromosome metabolism. ..
  17. Connelly J, de Leau E, Leach D. Nucleolytic processing of a protein-bound DNA end by the E. coli SbcCD (MR) complex. DNA Repair (Amst). 2003;2:795-807 pubmed
    ..These observations indicate a more complex biochemical action than has been assumed previously and argue that this class of protein has the potential to play a direct role in deprotecting protein-bound DNA ends in vivo. ..
  18. Connelly J, Leach D. The sbcC and sbcD genes of Escherichia coli encode a nuclease involved in palindrome inviability and genetic recombination. Genes Cells. 1996;1:285-91 pubmed
    ..In Escherichia coli, this palindrome-mediated inviability results from the activity of the sbcC and sbcD genes, and genetic observations have suggested that they may encode a nuclease...
  19. Soppa J. Prokaryotic structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) proteins: distribution, phylogeny, and comparison with MukBs and additional prokaryotic and eukaryotic coiled-coil proteins. Gene. 2001;278:253-64 pubmed
    ..SMCs, MukBs, which were found to be confined to gamma proteobacteria, and two subfamilies of COG 0419 including the SbcC nuclease from E. coli...
  20. Cromie G, Leach D. Recombinational repair of chromosomal DNA double-strand breaks generated by a restriction endonuclease. Mol Microbiol. 2001;41:873-83 pubmed
  21. Chalker A, Leach D, Lloyd R. Escherichia coli sbcC mutants permit stable propagation of DNA replicons containing a long palindrome. Gene. 1988;71:201-5 pubmed
    ..We report here that mutation of a single gene, namely sbcC, can overcome this inviability and allow for the stable propagation of a 571-bp nearly perfect palindrome in ..
  22. Eykelenboom J, Blackwood J, Okely E, Leach D. SbcCD causes a double-strand break at a DNA palindrome in the Escherichia coli chromosome. Mol Cell. 2008;29:644-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic analysis shows repair of the break requires the RecBCD recombination pathway and PriA, suggesting a mechanism of bacterial DNA DSB repair involving the establishment of replication forks...
  23. Sukhodolets V. [Homologous recombination between direct repeats of chromosomal segments comprising heterozygotic duplications in Escherichia coli]. Genetika. 2000;36:758-66 pubmed
    ..A comparison of segregation frequency of haploid and diploid DeoD+ clones in rec+ and recBC sbcB sbcC strains shows that duplications in the rec+ genome are more stable...
  24. Storvik K, Foster P. The SMC-like protein complex SbcCD enhances DNA polymerase IV-dependent spontaneous mutation in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:660-9 pubmed publisher
    ..By initiating or participating in double-strand break repair, SbcCD may provide DNA substrates for Pol IV polymerase activity. ..
  25. Leach D. Long DNA palindromes, cruciform structures, genetic instability and secondary structure repair. Bioessays. 1994;16:893-900 pubmed
    ..These observations lead to the proposal that cells may have evolved a post-replicative mechanism for the elimination and/or repair of large DNA secondary structures. ..
  26. Pan X, Leach D. The roles of mutS, sbcCD and recA in the propagation of TGG repeats in Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000;28:3178-84 pubmed
    ..These results argue for a dissociation of the factors affecting DNA fragility from those affecting trinucleotide repeat expansion-contraction instability. ..
  27. Chang S, McGary E, Chang S. Methionine aminopeptidase gene of Escherichia coli is essential for cell growth. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:4071-2 pubmed
    ..Genetically modified strains with the chromosomal map gene under lac promoter control grew only in the presence of the lac operon inducer isopropyl-beta-thiogalactoside. Thus, methionine aminopeptidase is essential for cell growth. ..
  28. Skunca N, Bo njak M, Kri ko A, Panov P, D eroski S, Smuc T, et al. Phyletic profiling with cliques of orthologs is enhanced by signatures of paralogy relationships. PLoS Comput Biol. 2013;9:e1002852 pubmed publisher
    ..g. "penicillin binding," "tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation," or "pathogenesis"-and are freely available at
  29. Bidnenko V, Seigneur M, Penel Colin M, Bouton M, Dusko Ehrlich S, Michel B. sbcB sbcC null mutations allow RecF-mediated repair of arrested replication forks in rep recBC mutants. Mol Microbiol. 1999;33:846-57 pubmed
    ..This confirms that RuvAB processing of arrested replication forks is independent of the presence of recombination intermediates. ..