Gene Symbol: ruvC
Description: component of RuvABC resolvasome, endonuclease
Alias: ECK1864, JW1852
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
Products:     ruvC

Top Publications

  1. Sharples G. The X philes: structure-specific endonucleases that resolve Holliday junctions. Mol Microbiol. 2001;39:823-34 pubmed
    ..distinct properties have been characterized from bacteriophages (T4 endo VII, T7 endo I, RusA and Rap), Bacteria (RuvC), Archaea (Hjc and Hje), yeast (CCE1) and poxviruses (A22R)...
  2. Kowalczykowski S, Dixon D, Eggleston A, Lauder S, Rehrauer W. Biochemistry of homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. Microbiol Rev. 1994;58:401-65 pubmed
    ..the RecA, RecBCD (exonuclease V), RecE (exonuclease VIII), RecF, RecG, RecJ, RecN, RecOR, RecQ, RecT, RuvAB, RuvC, SbcCD, and SSB proteins, as well as DNA polymerase I, DNA gyrase, DNA topoisomerase I, DNA ligase, and DNA ..
  3. Seigneur M, Bidnenko V, Ehrlich S, Michel B. RuvAB acts at arrested replication forks. Cell. 1998;95:419-30 pubmed
    ..In cells proficient for RecBC, RuvAB is uncoupled from RuvC and DSBs may be prevented...
  4. Sha R, Iwasaki H, Liu F, Shinagawa H, Seeman N. Cleavage of symmetric immobile DNA junctions by Escherichia coli RuvC. Biochemistry. 2000;39:11982-8 pubmed
    ..b>RuvC is a Holliday junction resolvase that cleaves the helical strands at a symmetric sequence, leading to the ..
  5. Poteete A, Fenton A, Wang H. Recombination-promoting activity of the bacteriophage lambda Rap protein in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:4626-9 pubmed
    ..The results of these experiments indicated that the lambda rap gene could functionally substitute for the E. coli ruvC gene in Red-mediated recombination.
  6. Handa N, Kobayashi I. Accumulation of large non-circular forms of the chromosome in recombination-defective mutants of Escherichia coli. BMC Mol Biol. 2003;4:5 pubmed
    ..iv) No accumulation was detected in mutants affecting resolution of Holliday intermediates, recG, ruvAB and ruvC, in any of these backgrounds...
  7. Magner D, Blankschien M, Lee J, Pennington J, Lupski J, Rosenberg S. RecQ promotes toxic recombination in cells lacking recombination intermediate-removal proteins. Mol Cell. 2007;26:273-86 pubmed
    ..The data imply that RecQ promotes the net accumulation of BRIs in vivo, indicating a second paradigm for the in vivo effect of RecQ-like proteins. The E. coli RecQ paradigm may provide a useful model for some human RecQ homologs. ..
  8. Kusano K, Sunohara Y, Takahashi N, Yoshikura H, Kobayashi I. DNA double-strand break repair: genetic determinants of flanking crossing-over. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:1173-7 pubmed
    ..This gap repair is often accompanied by crossing-over of the flanking sequences. Mutations in ruvC and recG, whose products interact with Holliday structures in vitro, do not block double-strand gap repair or its ..
  9. Nowosielska A, Calmann M, Zdraveski Z, Essigmann J, Marinus M. Spontaneous and cisplatin-induced recombination in Escherichia coli. DNA Repair (Amst). 2004;3:719-28 pubmed
    ..for both spontaneous and cisplatin-induced recombination requires the products of the recA, recBC, ruvA, ruvB, ruvC, priA and polA genes...

More Information


  1. Cromie G, Leach D. Control of crossing over. Mol Cell. 2000;6:815-26 pubmed
    ..Our observations suggest that the positioning of the resolvasome may provide a general biochemical mechanism by which cells can control crossing over in recombination. ..
  2. Seigneur M, Ehrlich S, Michel B. RuvABC-dependent double-strand breaks in dnaBts mutants require recA. Mol Microbiol. 2000;38:565-74 pubmed
    ..Consequently, our observations suggest a new function for RecA at blocked replication forks, and we propose that RecA acts by promoting homologous recombination without the assistance of known presynaptic proteins. ..
  3. Flores M, Bidnenko V, Michel B. The DNA repair helicase UvrD is essential for replication fork reversal in replication mutants. EMBO Rep. 2004;5:983-8 pubmed
    ..coli polymerase III mutants, whereas its partners in DNA repair (UvrA/B and MutL/S) are not. We conclude that UvrD participates in replication fork reversal in E. coli. ..
  4. Lloyd R. Conjugational recombination in resolvase-deficient ruvC mutants of Escherichia coli K-12 depends on recG. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:5414-8 pubmed
    b>ruvC mutants of Escherichia coli appear to lack an activity that resolves Holliday intermediates into recombinant products. Yet, these strains produce close to normal numbers of recombinants in genetic crosses...
  5. Trautinger B, Lloyd R. Modulation of DNA repair by mutations flanking the DNA channel through RNA polymerase. EMBO J. 2002;21:6944-53 pubmed
    ..The results shed light on the interplay between DNA replication and transcription and suggest ways in which conflicts between these two vital cellular processes are avoided or resolved. ..
  6. Shah R, Bennett R, West S. Genetic recombination in E. coli: RuvC protein cleaves Holliday junctions at resolution hotspots in vitro. Cell. 1994;79:853-64 pubmed
    The E. coli RuvC protein resolves Holliday junctions during genetic recombination and postreplication repair. Using recombination intermediates made by RecA protein, we have identified specific "hotspots" for RuvC resolution...
  7. Dunderdale H, Sharples G, Lloyd R, West S. Cloning, overexpression, purification, and characterization of the Escherichia coli RuvC Holliday junction resolvase. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:5187-94 pubmed
    The ruvC gene has been cloned into the plasmid pT7-7 under the control of the T7 phi 10 promoter...
  8. Kuzminov A. Recombinational repair of DNA damage in Escherichia coli and bacteriophage lambda. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 1999;63:751-813, table of contents pubmed
    ..Putting our knowledge about recombinational repair in the broader context of DNA replication will guide future experimentation. ..
  9. Mashimo K, Nagata Y, Kawata M, Iwasaki H, Yamamoto K. Role of the RuvAB protein in avoiding spontaneous formation of deletion mutations in the Escherichia coli K-12 endogenous tonB gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;323:197-203 pubmed
    ..coli was used as a target for spontaneous deletion mutations which were isolated from ruvAB-, recG-, and ruvC- cells. The rates of tonB mutation were essentially the same in ruv+, ruvAB-, recG-, and ruvC- cells...
  10. Kepple K, Boldt J, Segall A. Holliday junction-binding peptides inhibit distinct junction-processing enzymes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:6867-72 pubmed
    ..These inhibitors should be extremely useful for dissecting homologous recombination and recombination-dependent repair in vitro and in vivo. ..
  11. Parsons C, Tsaneva I, Lloyd R, West S. Interaction of Escherichia coli RuvA and RuvB proteins with synthetic Holliday junctions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:5452-6 pubmed
    The RuvA, RuvB, and RuvC proteins of Escherichia coli are required for the recombinational repair of ultraviolet light- or chemical-induced DNA damage...
  12. Sharples G, Benson F, Illing G, Lloyd R. Molecular and functional analysis of the ruv region of Escherichia coli K-12 reveals three genes involved in DNA repair and recombination. Mol Gen Genet. 1990;221:219-26 pubmed
    ..results revealed that efficient survival of UV-irradiated cells depends on both ruvA and ruvB, and on a third gene, ruvC, located upstream of the ruvAB operon...
  13. Gupta S, Yeeles J, Marians K. Regression of replication forks stalled by leading-strand template damage: I. Both RecG and RuvAB catalyze regression, but RuvC cleaves the holliday junctions formed by RecG preferentially. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:28376-87 pubmed publisher
    ..RuvAB generates a completely unwound product consisting of the paired nascent leading and lagging strands, whereas RuvC cleaves the Holliday junction generated by RecG-catalyzed fork regression...
  14. Guarino E, Jimenez Sanchez A, Guzmán E. Defective ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase impairs replication fork progression in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:3496-501 pubmed
  15. Donaldson J, Courcelle C, Courcelle J. RuvABC is required to resolve holliday junctions that accumulate following replication on damaged templates in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:28811-21 pubmed
    ..we used a combination of two-dimensional gel analysis and electron microscopy to reveal that although ruvAB and ruvC mutants are able to resume replication following arrest at UV-induced lesions, molecules that replicate in the ..
  16. Privezentzev C, Keeley A, Sigala B, Tsaneva I. The role of RuvA octamerization for RuvAB function in vitro and in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:3365-75 pubmed
    ..and surface plasmon resonance evidence for functional and physical interactions of the mutant RuvA with RuvB and RuvC on synthetic junctions...
  17. Courcelle J, Hanawalt P. RecA-dependent recovery of arrested DNA replication forks. Annu Rev Genet. 2003;37:611-46 pubmed
    ..In this review, we examine the significant experimental approaches that have led to our current understanding of the RecA-mediated processes that restore replication following encounters with DNA damage. ..
  18. Zerbib D, Colloms S, Sherratt D, West S. Effect of DNA topology on Holliday junction resolution by Escherichia coli RuvC and bacteriophage T7 endonuclease I. J Mol Biol. 1997;270:663-73 pubmed
    ..Using two Holliday junction resolvases, Escherichia coli RuvC protein and T7 endonuclease I, we observed that supercoiled figure-8 DNA molecules containing Holliday junctions ..
  19. Sharples G, Lloyd R. An E. coli RuvC mutant defective in cleavage of synthetic Holliday junctions. Nucleic Acids Res. 1993;21:3359-64 pubmed
    Escherichia coli RuvC protein is a specific endonuclease that resolves recombination intermediates into viable products...
  20. Connolly B, Parsons C, Benson F, Dunderdale H, Sharples G, Lloyd R, et al. Resolution of Holliday junctions in vitro requires the Escherichia coli ruvC gene product. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:6063-7 pubmed
    ..Cells with mutations in ruvC lack the nuclease activity that cleaves synthetic Holliday junctions in vitro...
  21. Bull H, Lombardo M, Rosenberg S. Stationary-phase mutation in the bacterial chromosome: recombination protein and DNA polymerase IV dependence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:8334-41 pubmed
    ..The data indicate that, at least in these male cells, recombination protein-dependent stationary-phase mutation is a mechanism of general inducible genetic change capable of affecting genes in the bacterial chromosome. ..
  22. Shah R, Bennett R, West S. Activation of RuvC Holliday junction resolvase in vitro. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994;22:2490-7 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli RuvC protein is an endonuclease that resolves Holliday junctions. In vitro, the protein shows efficient structure-specific binding of Holliday junctions, yet the rate of junction resolution is remarkably low...
  23. West S. The processing of recombination intermediates: mechanistic insights from studies of bacterial proteins. Cell. 1994;76:9-15 pubmed
  24. Eggleston A, Mitchell A, West S. In vitro reconstitution of the late steps of genetic recombination in E. coli. Cell. 1997;89:607-17 pubmed
    ..system, RecA protein formed recombination intermediates that were processed by the actions of the RuvA, RuvB, and RuvC proteins...
  25. Poteete A. Expansion of a chromosomal repeat in Escherichia coli: roles of replication, repair, and recombination functions. BMC Mol Biol. 2009;10:14 pubmed publisher
    ..Expansion was not seen in a recA strain; null mutations in recBCD and ruvC reduced the rate 100- and 10-fold, respectively; a ruvC recG double mutant reduced the rate 1000-fold...
  26. Kosa J, Zdraveski Z, Currier S, Marinus M, Essigmann J. RecN and RecG are required for Escherichia coli survival of Bleomycin-induced damage. Mutat Res. 2004;554:149-57 pubmed
    ..The Holliday junction processing enzymes RecG and RuvC were both required for BLM survival...
  27. Takahagi M, Iwasaki H, Shinagawa H. Structural requirements of substrate DNA for binding to and cleavage by RuvC, a Holliday junction resolvase. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:15132-9 pubmed
    To elucidate the molecular mechanism of the resolution of Holliday junctions by Escherichia coli RuvC protein, we studied biochemical properties of the protein using various synthetic DNA junctions as model substrates...
  28. Bennett R, West S. Resolution of Holliday junctions in genetic recombination: RuvC protein nicks DNA at the point of strand exchange. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:12217-22 pubmed
    The RuvC protein of Escherichia coli catalyzes the resolution of recombination intermediates during genetic recombination and the recombinational repair of damaged DNA...
  29. Yamada K, Ariyoshi M, Morikawa K. Three-dimensional structural views of branch migration and resolution in DNA homologous recombination. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2004;14:130-7 pubmed
    ..The proteins RuvA, RuvB and RuvC play central roles in the late stage of recombination in prokaryotes...
  30. Wardrope L, Okely E, Leach D. Resolution of joint molecules by RuvABC and RecG following cleavage of the Escherichia coli chromosome by EcoKI. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6542 pubmed publisher
  31. McCulloch R, Coggins L, Colloms S, Sherratt D. Xer-mediated site-specific recombination at cer generates Holliday junctions in vivo. EMBO J. 1994;13:1844-55 pubmed
    ..Generation of Holliday junctions and recombinant products is equally efficient in RuvC- and RuvC+ cells, and in cells containing a multicopy RuvC+ plasmid...
  32. Taylor A. Movement and resolution of Holliday junctions by enzymes from E. coli. Cell. 1992;69:1063-5 pubmed
    RuvA and RuvB act together to move Holliday junctions. RuvC cleaves Holliday junctions and apparently acts in concert with RuvA and RuvB. RecG can substitute for RuvABC in the RecBCD pathway of recombination but not in the RecF pathway.
  33. Bennett R, Dunderdale H, West S. Resolution of Holliday junctions by RuvC resolvase: cleavage specificity and DNA distortion. Cell. 1993;74:1021-31 pubmed
    E. coli RuvC protein resolves Holliday junctions during genetic recombination and postreplication repair...
  34. Ting H, Kouzminova E, Kuzminov A. Synthetic lethality with the dut defect in Escherichia coli reveals layers of DNA damage of increasing complexity due to uracil incorporation. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:5841-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that genetic interactions with dut can be explained by redundancy, by defect-damage-repair cycles, or as compensation. ..
  35. Ariyoshi M, Vassylyev D, Iwasaki H, Fujishima A, Shinagawa H, Morikawa K. Preliminary crystallographic study of Escherichia coli RuvC protein. An endonuclease specific for Holliday junctions. J Mol Biol. 1994;241:281-2 pubmed
    Single crystals of the RuvC protein, an Escherichia coli endonuclease specific for Holliday junctions, were grown by the microdialysis method. The crystals belong to the space group P2(1), with unit cell dimensions a = 72.8 A, b = 139...
  36. Mahdi A, Briggs G, Lloyd R. Modulation of DNA damage tolerance in Escherichia coli recG and ruv strains by mutations affecting PriB, the ribosome and RNA polymerase. Mol Microbiol. 2012;86:675-91 pubmed publisher
  37. Lopez C, Yang S, Deibler R, Ray S, Pennington J, Digate R, et al. A role for topoisomerase III in a recombination pathway alternative to RuvABC. Mol Microbiol. 2005;58:80-101 pubmed
    ..The topoisomerase III RuvC double mutants that can be constructed are five- to 10-fold more sensitive to UV irradiation and mitomycin C ..
  38. West S. Processing of recombination intermediates by the RuvABC proteins. Annu Rev Genet. 1997;31:213-44 pubmed
    The RuvA, RuvB, and RuvC proteins in Escherichia coli play important roles in the late stages of homologous genetic recombination and the recombinational repair of damaged DNA...
  39. Prabhu V, Simons A, Iwasaki H, Gai D, Simmons D, Chen J. p53 blocks RuvAB promoted branch migration and modulates resolution of Holliday junctions by RuvC. J Mol Biol. 2002;316:1023-32 pubmed
    ..p53 on both spontaneous and RuvAB promoted branch migration as well as the effect on resolution of the junction by RuvC. We demonstrate that p53 blocks branch migration, and that cleavage of the Holliday junction by RuvC is modulated ..
  40. Sharples G, Lloyd R. Resolution of Holliday junctions in Escherichia coli: identification of the ruvC gene product as a 19-kilodalton protein. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:7711-5 pubmed
    The ruvC gene of Escherichia coli specifies a nuclease that resolves Holliday junction intermediates in genetic recombination (B. Connolly, C.A. Parsons, F.E. Benson, H.J. Dunderdale, G.J. Sharples, R.G. Lloyd, and S.C. West, Proc. Natl...
  41. Nowosielska A, Smith S, Engelward B, Marinus M. Homologous recombination prevents methylation-induced toxicity in Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:2258-68 pubmed
    ..We find that recombination-deficient cell lines, such as recBCD recF, and ruvC recG, are as sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of MMS and MNNG as the most base excision repair (BER)-deficient (..
  42. Shurvinton C, Lloyd R. Damage to DNA induces expression of the ruv gene of Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1982;185:352-5 pubmed
    ..A possible function of ruv in promoting cell recovery following damage to DNA is discussed. ..
  43. Grigorian A, Lustig R, Guzmán E, Mahaffy J, Zyskind J. Escherichia coli cells with increased levels of DnaA and deficient in recombinational repair have decreased viability. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:630-44 pubmed
  44. Aravind L, Makarova K, Koonin E. SURVEY AND SUMMARY: holliday junction resolvases and related nucleases: identification of new families, phyletic distribution and evolutionary trajectories. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000;28:3417-32 pubmed
    ..predicted HJRs, which is nearly ubiquitous in bacteria, was discovered, in addition to the previously characterized RuvC family...
  45. Zahradka D, Zahradka K, Petranovic M, Dermic D, Brcic Kostic K. The RuvABC resolvase is indispensable for recombinational repair in sbcB15 mutants of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:4141-7 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the mutant SbcB protein stabilizes these junctions and makes their processing highly dependent on RuvABC resolvase. ..
  46. Bianco P, Tracy R, Kowalczykowski S. DNA strand exchange proteins: a biochemical and physical comparison. Front Biosci. 1998;3:D570-603 pubmed
    ..coli, UvsX protein from Bacteriophage T4, and RAD51 protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ..
  47. Zahradka K, Zahradka D, Petranovic M. Loss of lambda prophage recombinogenicity in UV-irradiated Escherichia coli: the role of host genes ruvA, ruvB, ruvC, and recG. Res Microbiol. 2001;152:873-81 pubmed
    ..Irradiated prophage retained its ability to recombine in ruvA, ruvB, ruvC, and recG mutants...
  48. Khan S, Kuzminov A. Replication forks stalled at ultraviolet lesions are rescued via RecA and RuvABC protein-catalyzed disintegration in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:6250-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, chromosomes fragment when replication forks stall at UV lesions and regress, generating Holliday junctions. Remarkably, cells specifically utilize fork breakage to rescue stalled replication and avoid lethality. ..
  49. Shida T, Iwasaki H, Saito A, Kyogoku Y, Shinagawa H. Analysis of substrate specificity of the RuvC holliday junction resolvase with synthetic Holliday junctions. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:26105-9 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli RuvC protein endonucleolytically resolves Holliday junctions, which are formed as intermediates during genetic recombination and recombination repair...
  50. Yoshikawa M, Iwasaki H, Shinagawa H. Evidence that phenylalanine 69 in Escherichia coli RuvC resolvase forms a stacking interaction during binding and destabilization of a Holliday junction DNA substrate. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:10432-6 pubmed
    Escherichia coli RuvC resolvase is a specific endonuclease that recognizes and cleaves Holliday junctions formed during homologous recombination and recombinational repair...
  51. Benson F, West S. Substrate specificity of the Escherichia coli RuvC protein. Resolution of three- and four-stranded recombination intermediates. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:5195-201 pubmed
    The specificity of the Escherichia coli RuvC Holliday junction resolvase has been investigated in vitro...
  52. Ariyoshi M, Vassylyev D, Iwasaki H, Nakamura H, Shinagawa H, Morikawa K. Atomic structure of the RuvC resolvase: a holliday junction-specific endonuclease from E. coli. Cell. 1994;78:1063-72 pubmed
    The crystal structure of the RuvC protein, a Holliday junction resolvase from E. coli, has been determined at 2.5 A resolution. The enzyme forms a dimer of 19 kDa subunits related by a dyad axis...
  53. West S, Connolly B. Biological roles of the Escherichia coli RuvA, RuvB and RuvC proteins revealed. Mol Microbiol. 1992;6:2755-9 pubmed
    In Escherichia coli, the ruvA, ruvB and ruvC gene products are required for genetic recombination and the recombinational repair of DNA damage...
  54. Spek E, Wright T, Stitt M, Taghizadeh N, Tannenbaum S, Marinus M, et al. Recombinational repair is critical for survival of Escherichia coli exposed to nitric oxide. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:131-8 pubmed
    ..induced killing. Both SOS-deficient (lexA3) and Holliday junction resolvase-deficient (ruvC) cells were very sensitive to NO(...
  55. Lloyd R, Benson F, Shurvinton C. Effect of ruv mutations on recombination and DNA repair in Escherichia coli K12. Mol Gen Genet. 1984;194:303-9 pubmed
    ..1974). ..
  56. West S, Tsaneva I, Hiom K, Benson F. Late steps in genetic recombination: branch migration and Holliday junction resolution by RuvA, RuvB, and RuvC proteins. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1993;58:525-31 pubmed
  57. Pan P, Curtis F, Carroll C, Medina I, Liotta L, Sharples G, et al. Novel antibiotics: C-2 symmetrical macrocycles inhibiting Holliday junction DNA binding by E. coli RuvC. Bioorg Med Chem. 2006;14:4731-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the active compounds identified provide valuable tools for probing different pathways of recombinational exchange. ..
  58. Grompone G, Ehrlich D, Michel B. Cells defective for replication restart undergo replication fork reversal. EMBO Rep. 2004;5:607-12 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that types of replication blockage that cause replication fork reversal occur spontaneously. ..
  59. West S. The RuvABC proteins and Holliday junction processing in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:1237-41 pubmed
  60. Takahagi M, Iwasaki H, Nakata A, Shinagawa H. Molecular analysis of the Escherichia coli ruvC gene, which encodes a Holliday junction-specific endonuclease. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:5747-53 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli ruvC gene is involved in DNA repair and recombination and encodes an endonuclease that resolves Holliday structure in vitro. The 2...
  61. Beam C, Saveson C, Lovett S. Role for radA/sms in recombination intermediate processing in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:6836-44 pubmed
    ..a radA mutation with other mutations in recombination genes, including recA, recB, recG, recJ, recQ, ruvA, and ruvC. A radA mutation was strongly synergistic with the recG Holliday junction helicase mutation, producing profound ..
  62. Bidnenko V, Seigneur M, Penel Colin M, Bouton M, Dusko Ehrlich S, Michel B. sbcB sbcC null mutations allow RecF-mediated repair of arrested replication forks in rep recBC mutants. Mol Microbiol. 1999;33:846-57 pubmed
    ..The junction is migrated away from the DNA end by RuvAB and can be cleaved by RuvC, while RecBCD is required for the repair of the double-stranded tail...
  63. Iwasaki H, Takahagi M, Shiba T, Nakata A, Shinagawa H. Escherichia coli RuvC protein is an endonuclease that resolves the Holliday structure. EMBO J. 1991;10:4381-9 pubmed
    Genetic evidence suggests that the Escherichia coli ruvC gene is involved in DNA repair and in the late step of RecE and RecF pathway recombination...
  64. McGlynn P, Lloyd R, Marians K. Formation of Holliday junctions by regression of nascent DNA in intermediates containing stalled replication forks: RecG stimulates regression even when the DNA is negatively supercoiled. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:8235-40 pubmed the accumulation of excess positive supercoils could be cleaved by the Holliday junction resolvases RusA and RuvC. Cleavage by RusA was inhibited by the presence of RuvA and was stimulated by RecG, confirming the presence of ..
  65. Grove J, Harris L, Buckman C, Lloyd R. DNA double strand break repair and crossing over mediated by RuvABC resolvase and RecG translocase. DNA Repair (Amst). 2008;7:1517-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, if similar resolvases function during meiosis, additional factors must act to bias recombination in favour of crossover progeny. ..
  66. Asai T, Sommer S, Bailone A, Kogoma T. Homologous recombination-dependent initiation of DNA replication from DNA damage-inducible origins in Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 1993;12:3287-95 pubmed
    ..A mutation in the ruvC gene that blocks the resolution of recombination intermediates (i.e. Holliday structures) also enhanced iSDR...