Gene Symbol: ruvB
Description: ATP-dependent DNA helicase, component of RuvABC resolvasome
Alias: ECK1861, JW1849
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
Products:     ruvB

Top Publications

  1. Seigneur M, Ehrlich S, Michel B. RuvABC-dependent double-strand breaks in dnaBts mutants require recA. Mol Microbiol. 2000;38:565-74 pubmed
    ..Consequently, our observations suggest a new function for RecA at blocked replication forks, and we propose that RecA acts by promoting homologous recombination without the assistance of known presynaptic proteins. ..
  2. Iwasaki H, Han Y, Okamoto T, Ohnishi T, Yoshikawa M, Yamada K, et al. Mutational analysis of the functional motifs of RuvB, an AAA+ class helicase and motor protein for holliday junction branch migration. Mol Microbiol. 2000;36:528-38 pubmed
    Escherichia coli RuvB protein, together with RuvA, promotes branch migration of Holliday junctions during homologous recombination and recombination repair...
  3. Shurvinton C, Lloyd R. Damage to DNA induces expression of the ruv gene of Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1982;185:352-5 pubmed
    ..A possible function of ruv in promoting cell recovery following damage to DNA is discussed. ..
  4. West S. Processing of recombination intermediates by the RuvABC proteins. Annu Rev Genet. 1997;31:213-44 pubmed
    The RuvA, RuvB, and RuvC proteins in Escherichia coli play important roles in the late stages of homologous genetic recombination and the recombinational repair of damaged DNA...
  5. Baharoglu Z, Petranovic M, Flores M, Michel B. RuvAB is essential for replication forks reversal in certain replication mutants. EMBO J. 2006;25:596-604 pubmed
    ..In contrast, RFR occurs in the absence of RuvAB in the dnaNts mutant, affected for the processivity clamp of Pol III, and in the priA mutant, defective for replication restart. This suggests alternative pathways of RFR. ..
  6. Shah R, Bennett R, West S. Genetic recombination in E. coli: RuvC protein cleaves Holliday junctions at resolution hotspots in vitro. Cell. 1994;79:853-64 pubmed
    ..We propose that efficient RuvC resolution requires the translocation of Holliday junctions to specific cleavage sites, thus providing a biochemical basis for the similar genetic defects observed in ruvA, ruvB, and ruvC mutants.
  7. Trautinger B, Lloyd R. Modulation of DNA repair by mutations flanking the DNA channel through RNA polymerase. EMBO J. 2002;21:6944-53 pubmed
    ..The results shed light on the interplay between DNA replication and transcription and suggest ways in which conflicts between these two vital cellular processes are avoided or resolved. ..
  8. Donaldson J, Courcelle C, Courcelle J. RuvABC is required to resolve holliday junctions that accumulate following replication on damaged templates in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:28811-21 pubmed
    ..A model is proposed in which RuvABC is required to resolve junctions that arise during the repair of a subset of nonarresting lesions after replication has passed through the template. ..
  9. Privezentzev C, Keeley A, Sigala B, Tsaneva I. The role of RuvA octamerization for RuvAB function in vitro and in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:3365-75 pubmed
    ..The mutant RuvA was tetrameric and interacted with both RuvB and junction DNA but, as predicted, formed complex I only at protein concentrations up to 500 nm...

More Information


  1. Handa N, Kobayashi I. Accumulation of large non-circular forms of the chromosome in recombination-defective mutants of Escherichia coli. BMC Mol Biol. 2003;4:5 pubmed
    ..These results are discussed in terms of stepwise processing of chromosomal double-strand breaks. ..
  2. Michel B, Boubakri H, Baharoglu Z, LeMasson M, Lestini R. Recombination proteins and rescue of arrested replication forks. DNA Repair (Amst). 2007;6:967-80 pubmed
  3. Kowalczykowski S, Dixon D, Eggleston A, Lauder S, Rehrauer W. Biochemistry of homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. Microbiol Rev. 1994;58:401-65 pubmed
    ..This review focuses on the biochemical mechanisms underlying these steps, with particular emphases on the activities of the proteins involved and on the integration of these activities into likely biochemical pathways for recombination. ..
  4. Merlin C, McAteer S, Masters M. Tools for characterization of Escherichia coli genes of unknown function. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:4573-81 pubmed
    ..Replacements of yacF, yacG, yacH, yacK (cueO), yacL, ruvA, ruvB, yabB, and yabC made with the cassette were used to verify its properties.
  5. Cromie G, Leach D. Control of crossing over. Mol Cell. 2000;6:815-26 pubmed
    ..Our observations suggest that the positioning of the resolvasome may provide a general biochemical mechanism by which cells can control crossing over in recombination. ..
  6. Yamada K, Ariyoshi M, Morikawa K. Three-dimensional structural views of branch migration and resolution in DNA homologous recombination. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2004;14:130-7 pubmed
    ..The proteins RuvA, RuvB and RuvC play central roles in the late stage of recombination in prokaryotes...
  7. Magner D, Blankschien M, Lee J, Pennington J, Lupski J, Rosenberg S. RecQ promotes toxic recombination in cells lacking recombination intermediate-removal proteins. Mol Cell. 2007;26:273-86 pubmed
    ..The data imply that RecQ promotes the net accumulation of BRIs in vivo, indicating a second paradigm for the in vivo effect of RecQ-like proteins. The E. coli RecQ paradigm may provide a useful model for some human RecQ homologs. ..
  8. Babu M, Beloglazova N, Flick R, Graham C, Skarina T, Nocek B, et al. A dual function of the CRISPR-Cas system in bacterial antivirus immunity and DNA repair. Mol Microbiol. 2011;79:484-502 pubmed publisher
    ..that YgbT physically and genetically interacts with key components of DNA repair systems, including recB, recC and ruvB. Consistent with these findings, the ygbT deletion strain showed increased sensitivity to DNA damage and impaired ..
  9. Kim S, Pytlos M, Sinden R. Replication restart: a pathway for (CTG).(CAG) repeat deletion in Escherichia coli. Mutat Res. 2006;595:5-22 pubmed
    ..The results presented are consistent with an interpretation that the high rates of trinucleotide repeat instability observed in E. coli result from the attempted restart of replication forks stalled at (CAG)n.(CTG)n repeats. ..
  10. Tsaneva I, Muller B, West S. RuvA and RuvB proteins of Escherichia coli exhibit DNA helicase activity in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:1315-9 pubmed
    The SOS-inducible ruvA and ruvB gene products of Escherichia coli are required for normal levels of genetic recombination and DNA repair...
  11. Prabhu V, Simons A, Iwasaki H, Gai D, Simmons D, Chen J. p53 blocks RuvAB promoted branch migration and modulates resolution of Holliday junctions by RuvC. J Mol Biol. 2002;316:1023-32 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that p53 could have similar effects on eukaryotic homologues of RuvABC and thus have a direct role in recombinational DNA repair. ..
  12. Zahradka D, Zahradka K, Petranovic M, Dermic D, Brcic Kostic K. The RuvABC resolvase is indispensable for recombinational repair in sbcB15 mutants of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:4141-7 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the mutant SbcB protein stabilizes these junctions and makes their processing highly dependent on RuvABC resolvase. ..
  13. Iype L, Wood E, Inman R, Cox M. RuvA and RuvB proteins facilitate the bypass of heterologous DNA insertions during RecA protein-mediated DNA strand exchange. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:24967-78 pubmed
    ..The RuvA and RuvB proteins dramatically facilitate the bypass of larger heterologous inserts...
  14. Foster P, Trimarchi J, Maurer R. Two enzymes, both of which process recombination intermediates, have opposite effects on adaptive mutation in Escherichia coli. Genetics. 1996;142:25-37 pubmed
    ..RuvAB and RecG, E. coli's two enzymes for translocating Holliday junctions, have opposite effects: RuvAB is required for RecA-dependent adaptive mutations, whereas RecG inhibits them. ..
  15. Parsons C, Stasiak A, West S. The E.coli RuvAB proteins branch migrate Holliday junctions through heterologous DNA sequences in a reaction facilitated by SSB. EMBO J. 1995;14:5736-44 pubmed
    ..Two Escherichia coli proteins, RuvA and RuvB, promote the formation of heteroduplex DNA by catalysing the branch migration of crossovers, or Holliday junctions, ..
  16. Grigorian A, Lustig R, Guzmán E, Mahaffy J, Zyskind J. Escherichia coli cells with increased levels of DnaA and deficient in recombinational repair have decreased viability. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:630-44 pubmed
  17. Grove J, Harris L, Buckman C, Lloyd R. DNA double strand break repair and crossing over mediated by RuvABC resolvase and RecG translocase. DNA Repair (Amst). 2008;7:1517-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, if similar resolvases function during meiosis, additional factors must act to bias recombination in favour of crossover progeny. ..
  18. Nowosielska A, Calmann M, Zdraveski Z, Essigmann J, Marinus M. Spontaneous and cisplatin-induced recombination in Escherichia coli. DNA Repair (Amst). 2004;3:719-28 pubmed
    ..formation for both spontaneous and cisplatin-induced recombination requires the products of the recA, recBC, ruvA, ruvB, ruvC, priA and polA genes...
  19. Khan S, Kuzminov A. Replication forks stalled at ultraviolet lesions are rescued via RecA and RuvABC protein-catalyzed disintegration in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:6250-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, chromosomes fragment when replication forks stall at UV lesions and regress, generating Holliday junctions. Remarkably, cells specifically utilize fork breakage to rescue stalled replication and avoid lethality. ..
  20. Bolt E, Lloyd R. Substrate specificity of RusA resolvase reveals the DNA structures targeted by RuvAB and RecG in vivo. Mol Cell. 2002;10:187-98 pubmed
    ..We present evidence that replication restart in UV-irradiated cells relies on the processing of stalled replication forks by RecG helicase and of Holliday junctions by the RuvABC resolvasome, and that RuvAB alone may not promote repair. ..
  21. Flores M, Bidnenko V, Michel B. The DNA repair helicase UvrD is essential for replication fork reversal in replication mutants. EMBO Rep. 2004;5:983-8 pubmed
    ..coli polymerase III mutants, whereas its partners in DNA repair (UvrA/B and MutL/S) are not. We conclude that UvrD participates in replication fork reversal in E. coli. ..
  22. Bidnenko V, Seigneur M, Penel Colin M, Bouton M, Dusko Ehrlich S, Michel B. sbcB sbcC null mutations allow RecF-mediated repair of arrested replication forks in rep recBC mutants. Mol Microbiol. 1999;33:846-57 pubmed
    ..This confirms that RuvAB processing of arrested replication forks is independent of the presence of recombination intermediates. ..
  23. Lovett S. Replication arrest-stimulated recombination: Dependence on the RecA paralog, RadA/Sms and translesion polymerase, DinB. DNA Repair (Amst). 2006;5:1421-7 pubmed
    ..The role of DinB in bacteria may be analogous to translesion DNA polymerase eta in eukaryotes, recently shown to aid recombination. ..
  24. West S. The RuvABC proteins and Holliday junction processing in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:1237-41 pubmed
  25. Iype L, Inman R, Cox M. Blocked RecA protein-mediated DNA strand exchange reactions are reversed by the RuvA and RuvB proteins. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:19473-80 pubmed
    ..Addition of the RuvA and RuvB proteins to these stalled intermediates leads to the rapid conversion of intermediates back to the original ..
  26. Le Masson M, Baharoglu Z, Michel B. ruvA and ruvB mutants specifically impaired for replication fork reversal. Mol Microbiol. 2008;70:537-48 pubmed
    ..We present here the isolation and characterization of ruvA and ruvB single mutants that are impaired for RFR at forks arrested by the inactivation of polymerase III, while they remain ..
  27. Yao J, Zhong J, Lambowitz A. Gene targeting using randomly inserted group II introns (targetrons) recovered from an Escherichia coli gene disruption library. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:3351-62 pubmed
    ..All such introns tested individually gave the desired specific disruption, some by switching to an alternate retrohoming mechanism targeting single-stranded DNA and using a nascent lagging DNA strand to prime reverse transcription. ..
  28. Grompone G, Ehrlich D, Michel B. Cells defective for replication restart undergo replication fork reversal. EMBO Rep. 2004;5:607-12 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that types of replication blockage that cause replication fork reversal occur spontaneously. ..
  29. Lloyd R, Benson F, Shurvinton C. Effect of ruv mutations on recombination and DNA repair in Escherichia coli K12. Mol Gen Genet. 1984;194:303-9 pubmed
    ..1974). ..
  30. Mashimo K, Nagata Y, Kawata M, Iwasaki H, Yamamoto K. Role of the RuvAB protein in avoiding spontaneous formation of deletion mutations in the Escherichia coli K-12 endogenous tonB gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;323:197-203 pubmed
    ..Thus, the ruvAB- strain is a deletion mutator. We discuss the role of RuvAB in avoiding deletions. ..
  31. Amit R, Gileadi O, Stavans J. Direct observation of RuvAB-catalyzed branch migration of single Holliday junctions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:11605-10 pubmed
    ..migration proceeds with a small, discrete number of rates, supporting the view that the monomers comprising the RuvB hexameric rings are not functionally homogeneous and that dimers or trimers constitute the active subunits...
  32. Pruteanu M, Baker T. Proteolysis in the SOS response and metal homeostasis in Escherichia coli. Res Microbiol. 2009;160:677-83 pubmed publisher
  33. Benson F, Illing G, Sharples G, Lloyd R. Nucleotide sequencing of the ruv region of Escherichia coli K-12 reveals a LexA regulated operon encoding two genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988;16:1541-9 pubmed
    ..Each of the two open reading frames, designated ruvA and ruvB, is preceded by a reasonable Shine-Dalgarno sequence...
  34. Kepple K, Boldt J, Segall A. Holliday junction-binding peptides inhibit distinct junction-processing enzymes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:6867-72 pubmed
    ..These inhibitors should be extremely useful for dissecting homologous recombination and recombination-dependent repair in vitro and in vivo. ..
  35. Michel B, Recchia G, Penel Colin M, Ehrlich S, Sherratt D. Resolution of holliday junctions by RuvABC prevents dimer formation in rep mutants and UV-irradiated cells. Mol Microbiol. 2000;37:180-91 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the inviability arising from a high frequency of dimer formation in rep or UV-irradiated cells is only observed in the absence of known enzymes that resolve Holliday junctions. ..
  36. Hishida T, Iwasaki H, Han Y, Ohnishi T, Shinagawa H. Uncoupling of the ATPase activity from the branch migration activity of RuvAB protein complexes containing both wild-type and ATPase-defective RuvB proteins. Genes Cells. 2003;8:721-30 pubmed
    ..b>RuvB forms a hexameric ring through which duplex DNA passes and is translocated in an ATP-dependent manner...
  37. Sukhodolets V. [Effect of mutations for the ruvABC genes on recombination between direct DNA repairs in Escherichia coli strains carrying extended tandem duplication]. Genetika. 2002;38:1215-22 pubmed
    ..The recombinogenic effect of thymine starvation seems to occur at late stages of recombination, which are controlled by ruvABC genes. ..
  38. Hishida T, Han Y, Fujimoto S, Iwasaki H, Shinagawa H. Direct evidence that a conserved arginine in RuvB AAA+ ATPase acts as an allosteric effector for the ATPase activity of the adjacent subunit in a hexamer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:9573-7 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli RuvA and RuvB protein complex promotes branch migration of Holliday junctions during recombinational repair and homologous recombination and at stalled replication forks...
  39. Gupta S, Yeeles J, Marians K. Regression of replication forks stalled by leading-strand template damage: I. Both RecG and RuvAB catalyze regression, but RuvC cleaves the holliday junctions formed by RecG preferentially. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:28376-87 pubmed publisher
    ..We also find that RecG stimulates RuvAB-catalyzed regression, presumably because it is more efficient at generating the initial Holliday junction from the stalled fork. ..
  40. Tsaneva I, Muller B, West S. ATP-dependent branch migration of Holliday junctions promoted by the RuvA and RuvB proteins of E. coli. Cell. 1992;69:1171-80 pubmed
    The RuvA and RuvB proteins of E. coli, which are induced as part of the cellular response to DNA damage, act together to promote the branch migration of Holliday junctions...
  41. Guarino E, Jimenez Sanchez A, Guzmán E. Defective ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase impairs replication fork progression in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:3496-501 pubmed
  42. Shinagawa H, Makino K, Amemura M, Kimura S, Iwasaki H, Nakata A. Structure and regulation of the Escherichia coli ruv operon involved in DNA repair and recombination. J Bacteriol. 1988;170:4322-9 pubmed
    ..The amino acid sequence of Ruv protein deduced from the DNA sequence shows a high degree of homology to the consensus sequence shared by ATP-binding proteins. ..
  43. Courcelle J, Hanawalt P. RecA-dependent recovery of arrested DNA replication forks. Annu Rev Genet. 2003;37:611-46 pubmed
    ..In this review, we examine the significant experimental approaches that have led to our current understanding of the RecA-mediated processes that restore replication following encounters with DNA damage. ..
  44. McGlynn P, Lloyd R. Action of RuvAB at replication fork structures. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:41938-44 pubmed
    ..We find that fork DNA is unwound in the direction required for Holliday junction formation only if the loading of RuvB is restricted to the parental duplex DNA arm...
  45. Benson F, Collier S, Lloyd R. Evidence of abortive recombination in ruv mutants of Escherichia coli K12. Mol Gen Genet. 1991;225:266-72 pubmed
  46. Mahdi A, Briggs G, Lloyd R. Modulation of DNA damage tolerance in Escherichia coli recG and ruv strains by mutations affecting PriB, the ribosome and RNA polymerase. Mol Microbiol. 2012;86:675-91 pubmed publisher
  47. Lopez C, Yang S, Deibler R, Ray S, Pennington J, Digate R, et al. A role for topoisomerase III in a recombination pathway alternative to RuvABC. Mol Microbiol. 2005;58:80-101 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with a role for topoisomerase III in disentangling recombination intermediates as an alternative to RuvABC to maintain the stability of the genome. ..
  48. Yu X, West S, Egelman E. Structure and subunit composition of the RuvAB-Holliday junction complex. J Mol Biol. 1997;266:217-22 pubmed
    The E. coli RuvA and RuvB proteins, which are involved in the late stages of recombination and the recombinational repair of damaged DNA, bind to Holliday junctions and promote branch migration...
  49. Ting H, Kouzminova E, Kuzminov A. Synthetic lethality with the dut defect in Escherichia coli reveals layers of DNA damage of increasing complexity due to uracil incorporation. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:5841-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that genetic interactions with dut can be explained by redundancy, by defect-damage-repair cycles, or as compensation. ..
  50. Taylor A. Movement and resolution of Holliday junctions by enzymes from E. coli. Cell. 1992;69:1063-5 pubmed
    RuvA and RuvB act together to move Holliday junctions. RuvC cleaves Holliday junctions and apparently acts in concert with RuvA and RuvB. RecG can substitute for RuvABC in the RecBCD pathway of recombination but not in the RecF pathway.
  51. Wardrope L, Okely E, Leach D. Resolution of joint molecules by RuvABC and RecG following cleavage of the Escherichia coli chromosome by EcoKI. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6542 pubmed publisher
  52. Han Y, Tani T, Hayashi M, Hishida T, Iwasaki H, Shinagawa H, et al. Direct observation of DNA rotation during branch migration of Holliday junction DNA by Escherichia coli RuvA-RuvB protein complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:11544-8 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli RuvA-RuvB complex promotes branch migration of Holliday junction DNA, which is the central intermediate of homologous recombination...
  53. Tsaneva I, Illing G, Lloyd R, West S. Purification and properties of the RuvA and RuvB proteins of Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1992;235:1-10 pubmed
    The RuvA and RuvB proteins of Escherichia coli play important roles in the post-replicational repair of damaged DNA, genetic recombination and cell division...
  54. Rafferty J, Sedelnikova S, Hargreaves D, Artymiuk P, Baker P, Sharples G, et al. Crystal structure of DNA recombination protein RuvA and a model for its binding to the Holliday junction. Science. 1996;274:415-21 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli DNA binding protein RuvA acts in concert with the helicase RuvB to drive branch migration of Holliday intermediates during recombination and DNA repair. The atomic structure of RuvA was determined at a resolution of 1...
  55. Dawid A, Croquette V, Grigoriev M, Heslot F. Single-molecule study of RuvAB-mediated Holliday-junction migration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:11611-6 pubmed
    ..The average migration rate at zero load was found to be approximately 43 bp/sec. Furthermore, the load dependence of the migration rate is small, within the force range of -3.4 pN (hindering force) to +3.4 pN (assisting force). ..
  56. Iwasaki H, Shiba T, Makino K, Nakata A, Shinagawa H. Overproduction, purification, and ATPase activity of the Escherichia coli RuvB protein involved in DNA repair. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:5276-80 pubmed
    The ruvA and ruvB genes of Escherichia coli constitute an operon which belongs to the SOS regulon. Genetic evidence suggests that the products of the ruv operon are involved in DNA repair and recombination...
  57. Kosa J, Zdraveski Z, Currier S, Marinus M, Essigmann J. RecN and RecG are required for Escherichia coli survival of Bleomycin-induced damage. Mutat Res. 2004;554:149-57 pubmed
    ..The most straightforward explanation of these results is that DSB repair involves a structure that serves as a good substrate for RecG, and not RuvAB. ..
  58. Eggleston A, Mitchell A, West S. In vitro reconstitution of the late steps of genetic recombination in E. coli. Cell. 1997;89:607-17 pubmed
    ..In this system, RecA protein formed recombination intermediates that were processed by the actions of the RuvA, RuvB, and RuvC proteins...
  59. Chen Y, Yu X, Egelman E. The hexameric ring structure of the Escherichia coli RuvB branch migration protein. J Mol Biol. 2002;319:587-91 pubmed
    The RuvB protein is part of the homologous recombination machinery in prokaryotic cells...
  60. Iwasaki H, Shiba T, Nakata A, Shinagawa H. Involvement in DNA repair of the ruvA gene of Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1989;219:328-31 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that orf1 as well as ruv is involved in DNA repair. Therefore, orf1 and ruv should be renamed ruvA and ruvB, respectively.
  61. Marrione P, Cox M. RuvB protein-mediated ATP hydrolysis: functional asymmetry in the RuvB hexamer. Biochemistry. 1995;34:9809-18 pubmed
    A survey of RuvB protein-mediated ATP hydrolysis yields the following observations...
  62. Marrione P, Cox M. Allosteric effects of RuvA protein, ATP, and DNA on RuvB protein-mediated ATP hydrolysis. Biochemistry. 1996;35:11228-38 pubmed
    A detailed characterization of RuvB protein-mediated ATP hydrolysis in the presence of RuvA protein has provided (a) the steady-state kinetic parameters of ATP hydrolysis within a RuvAB complex and (b) several insights into the mechanism ..
  63. Shah R, Bennett R, West S. Activation of RuvC Holliday junction resolvase in vitro. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994;22:2490-7 pubmed
    ..These observations may indicate that other proteins are required for efficient RuvC-mediated resolution. ..
  64. Sharples G, Benson F, Illing G, Lloyd R. Molecular and functional analysis of the ruv region of Escherichia coli K-12 reveals three genes involved in DNA repair and recombination. Mol Gen Genet. 1990;221:219-26 pubmed
    Recombinant plasmids carrying ruvA, ruvB, or both were constructed and used to investigate the genetic defects in a collection of UV-sensitive ruv mutants...
  65. Osman F, Gaskell L, Whitby M. Efficient second strand cleavage during Holliday junction resolution by RuvC requires both increased junction flexibility and an exposed 5' phosphate. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5347 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a 5' phosphate is not a universal requirement since efficient cleavage by Mus81-Eme1 appears to depend solely on the increased junction flexibility that is developed by the first incision. ..
  66. Adams D, West S. Bypass of DNA heterologies during RuvAB-mediated three- and four-strand branch migration. J Mol Biol. 1996;263:582-96 pubmed
    ..The RuvA and RuvB proteins of Escherichia coli form an important part of this machinery...
  67. Parsons C, Tsaneva I, Lloyd R, West S. Interaction of Escherichia coli RuvA and RuvB proteins with synthetic Holliday junctions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:5452-6 pubmed
    The RuvA, RuvB, and RuvC proteins of Escherichia coli are required for the recombinational repair of ultraviolet light- or chemical-induced DNA damage...