Gene Symbol: ruvA
Description: component of RuvABC resolvasome, regulatory subunit
Alias: ECK1862, JW1850
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
Products:     ruvA

Top Publications

  1. Benson F, Illing G, Sharples G, Lloyd R. Nucleotide sequencing of the ruv region of Escherichia coli K-12 reveals a LexA regulated operon encoding two genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988;16:1541-9 pubmed
    ..Each of the two open reading frames, designated ruvA and ruvB, is preceded by a reasonable Shine-Dalgarno sequence...
  2. Donaldson J, Courcelle C, Courcelle J. RuvAB and RecG are not essential for the recovery of DNA synthesis following UV-induced DNA damage in Escherichia coli. Genetics. 2004;166:1631-40 pubmed
    ..The data presented here indicate that RecG- or RuvAB-catalyzed fork regression is not essential for DNA synthesis to resume following arrest by UV-induced DNA damage in vivo. ..
  3. Magner D, Blankschien M, Lee J, Pennington J, Lupski J, Rosenberg S. RecQ promotes toxic recombination in cells lacking recombination intermediate-removal proteins. Mol Cell. 2007;26:273-86 pubmed
    ..The data imply that RecQ promotes the net accumulation of BRIs in vivo, indicating a second paradigm for the in vivo effect of RecQ-like proteins. The E. coli RecQ paradigm may provide a useful model for some human RecQ homologs. ..
  4. Privezentzev C, Keeley A, Sigala B, Tsaneva I. The role of RuvA octamerization for RuvAB function in vitro and in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:3365-75 pubmed
    b>RuvA plays an essential role in branch migration of the Holliday junction by RuvAB as part of the RuvABC pathway for processing Holliday junctions in Escherichia coli...
  5. Handa N, Kobayashi I. Accumulation of large non-circular forms of the chromosome in recombination-defective mutants of Escherichia coli. BMC Mol Biol. 2003;4:5 pubmed
    ..These results are discussed in terms of stepwise processing of chromosomal double-strand breaks. ..
  6. Donaldson J, Courcelle C, Courcelle J. RuvABC is required to resolve holliday junctions that accumulate following replication on damaged templates in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:28811-21 pubmed
    ..A model is proposed in which RuvABC is required to resolve junctions that arise during the repair of a subset of nonarresting lesions after replication has passed through the template. ..
  7. Courcelle J, Hanawalt P. RecA-dependent recovery of arrested DNA replication forks. Annu Rev Genet. 2003;37:611-46 pubmed
    ..In this review, we examine the significant experimental approaches that have led to our current understanding of the RecA-mediated processes that restore replication following encounters with DNA damage. ..
  8. Kowalczykowski S, Dixon D, Eggleston A, Lauder S, Rehrauer W. Biochemistry of homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. Microbiol Rev. 1994;58:401-65 pubmed
    ..This review focuses on the biochemical mechanisms underlying these steps, with particular emphases on the activities of the proteins involved and on the integration of these activities into likely biochemical pathways for recombination. ..
  9. Michel B, Boubakri H, Baharoglu Z, LeMasson M, Lestini R. Recombination proteins and rescue of arrested replication forks. DNA Repair (Amst). 2007;6:967-80 pubmed

More Information


  1. Shinagawa H, Makino K, Amemura M, Kimura S, Iwasaki H, Nakata A. Structure and regulation of the Escherichia coli ruv operon involved in DNA repair and recombination. J Bacteriol. 1988;170:4322-9 pubmed
    ..The amino acid sequence of Ruv protein deduced from the DNA sequence shows a high degree of homology to the consensus sequence shared by ATP-binding proteins. ..
  2. Ariyoshi M, Nishino T, Iwasaki H, Shinagawa H, Morikawa K. Crystal structure of the holliday junction DNA in complex with a single RuvA tetramer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:8257-62 pubmed
    ..recombination in prokaryotic cells, the Holliday junction intermediate is processed through its association with RuvA, RuvB, and RuvC proteins...
  3. Yamada K, Ariyoshi M, Morikawa K. Three-dimensional structural views of branch migration and resolution in DNA homologous recombination. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2004;14:130-7 pubmed
    ..The proteins RuvA, RuvB and RuvC play central roles in the late stage of recombination in prokaryotes...
  4. Merlin C, McAteer S, Masters M. Tools for characterization of Escherichia coli genes of unknown function. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:4573-81 pubmed
    ..Replacements of yacF, yacG, yacH, yacK (cueO), yacL, ruvA, ruvB, yabB, and yabC made with the cassette were used to verify its properties.
  5. Cromie G, Leach D. Control of crossing over. Mol Cell. 2000;6:815-26 pubmed
    ..Our observations suggest that the positioning of the resolvasome may provide a general biochemical mechanism by which cells can control crossing over in recombination. ..
  6. McGlynn P, Lloyd R. Action of RuvAB at replication fork structures. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:41938-44 pubmed
    ..These data argue against RuvAB acting directly at damaged replication forks and imply that other mechanisms must operate in vivo to catalyze Holliday junction formation. ..
  7. Parsons C, Tsaneva I, Lloyd R, West S. Interaction of Escherichia coli RuvA and RuvB proteins with synthetic Holliday junctions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:5452-6 pubmed
    The RuvA, RuvB, and RuvC proteins of Escherichia coli are required for the recombinational repair of ultraviolet light- or chemical-induced DNA damage...
  8. Tsaneva I, Illing G, Lloyd R, West S. Purification and properties of the RuvA and RuvB proteins of Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1992;235:1-10 pubmed
    The RuvA and RuvB proteins of Escherichia coli play important roles in the post-replicational repair of damaged DNA, genetic recombination and cell division...
  9. Seigneur M, Ehrlich S, Michel B. RuvABC-dependent double-strand breaks in dnaBts mutants require recA. Mol Microbiol. 2000;38:565-74 pubmed
    ..Consequently, our observations suggest a new function for RecA at blocked replication forks, and we propose that RecA acts by promoting homologous recombination without the assistance of known presynaptic proteins. ..
  10. Nishino T, Ariyoshi M, Iwasaki H, Shinagawa H, Morikawa K. Functional analyses of the domain structure in the Holliday junction binding protein RuvA. Structure. 1998;6:11-21 pubmed
    ..In Escherichia coli cells, the RuvA, RuvB and RuvC proteins participate in the processing of an important intermediate, the Holliday junction...
  11. Kim S, Pytlos M, Sinden R. Replication restart: a pathway for (CTG).(CAG) repeat deletion in Escherichia coli. Mutat Res. 2006;595:5-22 pubmed
    ..The results presented are consistent with an interpretation that the high rates of trinucleotide repeat instability observed in E. coli result from the attempted restart of replication forks stalled at (CAG)n.(CTG)n repeats. ..
  12. Hargreaves D, Rice D, Sedelnikova S, Artymiuk P, Lloyd R, Rafferty J. Crystal structure of E.coli RuvA with bound DNA Holliday junction at 6 A resolution. Nat Struct Biol. 1998;5:441-6 pubmed
    Here we present the crystal structure of the Escherichia coli protein RuvA bound to a key DNA intermediate in recombination, the Holliday junction...
  13. Baharoglu Z, Bradley A, Le Masson M, Tsaneva I, Michel B. ruvA Mutants that resolve Holliday junctions but do not reverse replication forks. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000012 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here the isolation and characterization of two separation-of-function ruvA mutants that resolve HJs, based on their capacity to promote conjugational recombination and recombinational repair ..
  14. Tsaneva I, Muller B, West S. RuvA and RuvB proteins of Escherichia coli exhibit DNA helicase activity in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:1315-9 pubmed
    The SOS-inducible ruvA and ruvB gene products of Escherichia coli are required for normal levels of genetic recombination and DNA repair...
  15. West S. Processing of recombination intermediates by the RuvABC proteins. Annu Rev Genet. 1997;31:213-44 pubmed
    The RuvA, RuvB, and RuvC proteins in Escherichia coli play important roles in the late stages of homologous genetic recombination and the recombinational repair of damaged DNA...
  16. Trautinger B, Lloyd R. Modulation of DNA repair by mutations flanking the DNA channel through RNA polymerase. EMBO J. 2002;21:6944-53 pubmed
    ..The results shed light on the interplay between DNA replication and transcription and suggest ways in which conflicts between these two vital cellular processes are avoided or resolved. ..
  17. Shurvinton C, Lloyd R, Benson F, Attfield P. Genetic analysis and molecular cloning of the Escherichia coli ruv gene. Mol Gen Genet. 1984;194:322-9 pubmed
    ..The ruv + plasmid was able to correct the extreme radiation sensitivity and recombination deficiency of ruv recBC sbcB strains. ..
  18. Shurvinton C, Lloyd R. Damage to DNA induces expression of the ruv gene of Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1982;185:352-5 pubmed
    ..A possible function of ruv in promoting cell recovery following damage to DNA is discussed. ..
  19. Kuzminov A. Recombinational repair of DNA damage in Escherichia coli and bacteriophage lambda. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 1999;63:751-813, table of contents pubmed
    ..Putting our knowledge about recombinational repair in the broader context of DNA replication will guide future experimentation. ..
  20. Grove J, Harris L, Buckman C, Lloyd R. DNA double strand break repair and crossing over mediated by RuvABC resolvase and RecG translocase. DNA Repair (Amst). 2008;7:1517-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, if similar resolvases function during meiosis, additional factors must act to bias recombination in favour of crossover progeny. ..
  21. Shah R, Bennett R, West S. Genetic recombination in E. coli: RuvC protein cleaves Holliday junctions at resolution hotspots in vitro. Cell. 1994;79:853-64 pubmed
    ..We propose that efficient RuvC resolution requires the translocation of Holliday junctions to specific cleavage sites, thus providing a biochemical basis for the similar genetic defects observed in ruvA, ruvB, and ruvC mutants.
  22. Baharoglu Z, Petranovic M, Flores M, Michel B. RuvAB is essential for replication forks reversal in certain replication mutants. EMBO J. 2006;25:596-604 pubmed
    ..In contrast, RFR occurs in the absence of RuvAB in the dnaNts mutant, affected for the processivity clamp of Pol III, and in the priA mutant, defective for replication restart. This suggests alternative pathways of RFR. ..
  23. Marrione P, Cox M. Allosteric effects of RuvA protein, ATP, and DNA on RuvB protein-mediated ATP hydrolysis. Biochemistry. 1996;35:11228-38 pubmed
    A detailed characterization of RuvB protein-mediated ATP hydrolysis in the presence of RuvA protein has provided (a) the steady-state kinetic parameters of ATP hydrolysis within a RuvAB complex and (b) several insights into the mechanism ..
  24. Hishida T, Iwasaki H, Han Y, Ohnishi T, Shinagawa H. Uncoupling of the ATPase activity from the branch migration activity of RuvAB protein complexes containing both wild-type and ATPase-defective RuvB proteins. Genes Cells. 2003;8:721-30 pubmed
    ..In the presence of RuvA, RuvB heterohexamers had Holliday junction-dependent ATPase activity, but did not promote branch migration...
  25. Ting H, Kouzminova E, Kuzminov A. Synthetic lethality with the dut defect in Escherichia coli reveals layers of DNA damage of increasing complexity due to uracil incorporation. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:5841-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that genetic interactions with dut can be explained by redundancy, by defect-damage-repair cycles, or as compensation. ..
  26. Michel B, Recchia G, Penel Colin M, Ehrlich S, Sherratt D. Resolution of holliday junctions by RuvABC prevents dimer formation in rep mutants and UV-irradiated cells. Mol Microbiol. 2000;37:180-91 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the inviability arising from a high frequency of dimer formation in rep or UV-irradiated cells is only observed in the absence of known enzymes that resolve Holliday junctions. ..
  27. Glover W, Yang Y, Zhang Y. Insights into the molecular basis of L-form formation and survival in Escherichia coli. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7316 pubmed publisher
    ..Four (Group 1) mutants, rcsB, a positive response regulator of colanic acid capsule synthesis, ruvA, a recombinational junction binding protein, fur, a ferric uptake regulator and smpA a small membrane lipoprotein ..
  28. Pouget N, Dennis C, Turlan C, Grigoriev M, Chandler M, Salomé L. Single-particle tracking for DNA tether length monitoring. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:e73 pubmed
    ..obtained for conformational changes introduced into a Holliday junction by the binding of the Escherichia coli RuvA protein...
  29. Tsaneva I, Muller B, West S. ATP-dependent branch migration of Holliday junctions promoted by the RuvA and RuvB proteins of E. coli. Cell. 1992;69:1171-80 pubmed
    The RuvA and RuvB proteins of E. coli, which are induced as part of the cellular response to DNA damage, act together to promote the branch migration of Holliday junctions...
  30. Mashimo K, Nagata Y, Kawata M, Iwasaki H, Yamamoto K. Role of the RuvAB protein in avoiding spontaneous formation of deletion mutations in the Escherichia coli K-12 endogenous tonB gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;323:197-203 pubmed
    ..Thus, the ruvAB- strain is a deletion mutator. We discuss the role of RuvAB in avoiding deletions. ..
  31. Lee Y, Flora R, McCafferty J, Gor J, Tsaneva I, Perkins S. A tetramer-octamer equilibrium in Mycobacterium leprae and Escherichia coli RuvA by analytical ultracentrifugation. J Mol Biol. 2003;333:677-82 pubmed
    In the context of the bacterial RuvABC system, RuvA protein binds to and is involved in the subsequent processing of a four-way DNA structure called Holliday junction that is formed during homologous recombination...
  32. Hebert M, Wells R. Roles of double-strand breaks, nicks, and gaps in stimulating deletions of CTG.CAG repeats by intramolecular DNA repair. J Mol Biol. 2005;353:961-79 pubmed
    ..This instability took place by intramolecular repair, which was not dependent on RuvA. Double-strand break-induced instabilities were partially stabilized by a mutation in recF...
  33. Sharples G, Benson F, Illing G, Lloyd R. Molecular and functional analysis of the ruv region of Escherichia coli K-12 reveals three genes involved in DNA repair and recombination. Mol Gen Genet. 1990;221:219-26 pubmed
    Recombinant plasmids carrying ruvA, ruvB, or both were constructed and used to investigate the genetic defects in a collection of UV-sensitive ruv mutants...
  34. Sukhodolets V. [Effect of mutations for the ruvABC genes on recombination between direct DNA repairs in Escherichia coli strains carrying extended tandem duplication]. Genetika. 2002;38:1215-22 pubmed
    ..The recombinogenic effect of thymine starvation seems to occur at late stages of recombination, which are controlled by ruvABC genes. ..
  35. Taylor A. Movement and resolution of Holliday junctions by enzymes from E. coli. Cell. 1992;69:1063-5 pubmed
    b>RuvA and RuvB act together to move Holliday junctions. RuvC cleaves Holliday junctions and apparently acts in concert with RuvA and RuvB. RecG can substitute for RuvABC in the RecBCD pathway of recombination but not in the RecF pathway.
  36. Guarino E, Jimenez Sanchez A, Guzmán E. Defective ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase impairs replication fork progression in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:3496-501 pubmed
  37. Osman F, Gaskell L, Whitby M. Efficient second strand cleavage during Holliday junction resolution by RuvC requires both increased junction flexibility and an exposed 5' phosphate. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5347 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a 5' phosphate is not a universal requirement since efficient cleavage by Mus81-Eme1 appears to depend solely on the increased junction flexibility that is developed by the first incision. ..
  38. Gupta S, Yeeles J, Marians K. Regression of replication forks stalled by leading-strand template damage: I. Both RecG and RuvAB catalyze regression, but RuvC cleaves the holliday junctions formed by RecG preferentially. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:28376-87 pubmed publisher
    ..We also find that RecG stimulates RuvAB-catalyzed regression, presumably because it is more efficient at generating the initial Holliday junction from the stalled fork. ..
  39. Dawid A, Croquette V, Grigoriev M, Heslot F. Single-molecule study of RuvAB-mediated Holliday-junction migration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:11611-6 pubmed
    ..The average migration rate at zero load was found to be approximately 43 bp/sec. Furthermore, the load dependence of the migration rate is small, within the force range of -3.4 pN (hindering force) to +3.4 pN (assisting force). ..
  40. Kepple K, Boldt J, Segall A. Holliday junction-binding peptides inhibit distinct junction-processing enzymes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:6867-72 pubmed
    ..These inhibitors should be extremely useful for dissecting homologous recombination and recombination-dependent repair in vitro and in vivo. ..
  41. Lopez C, Yang S, Deibler R, Ray S, Pennington J, Digate R, et al. A role for topoisomerase III in a recombination pathway alternative to RuvABC. Mol Microbiol. 2005;58:80-101 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with a role for topoisomerase III in disentangling recombination intermediates as an alternative to RuvABC to maintain the stability of the genome. ..
  42. Mahdi A, Briggs G, Lloyd R. Modulation of DNA damage tolerance in Escherichia coli recG and ruv strains by mutations affecting PriB, the ribosome and RNA polymerase. Mol Microbiol. 2012;86:675-91 pubmed publisher
  43. Attfield P, Benson F, Lloyd R. Analysis of the ruv locus of Escherichia coli K-12 and identification of the gene product. J Bacteriol. 1985;164:276-81 pubmed
    ..2-kb section of the cloned DNA fragment. A comparison of the proteins encoded by ruv wild-type and mutant plasmids identified the gene product as a protein of molecular weight 41,000. ..
  44. Han Y, Tani T, Hayashi M, Hishida T, Iwasaki H, Shinagawa H, et al. Direct observation of DNA rotation during branch migration of Holliday junction DNA by Escherichia coli RuvA-RuvB protein complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:11544-8 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli RuvA-RuvB complex promotes branch migration of Holliday junction DNA, which is the central intermediate of homologous recombination...
  45. Iype L, Wood E, Inman R, Cox M. RuvA and RuvB proteins facilitate the bypass of heterologous DNA insertions during RecA protein-mediated DNA strand exchange. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:24967-78 pubmed
    ..The RuvA and RuvB proteins dramatically facilitate the bypass of larger heterologous inserts...
  46. Rafferty J, Sedelnikova S, Hargreaves D, Artymiuk P, Baker P, Sharples G, et al. Crystal structure of DNA recombination protein RuvA and a model for its binding to the Holliday junction. Science. 1996;274:415-21 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli DNA binding protein RuvA acts in concert with the helicase RuvB to drive branch migration of Holliday intermediates during recombination and DNA repair. The atomic structure of RuvA was determined at a resolution of 1...
  47. Bianco P, Tracy R, Kowalczykowski S. DNA strand exchange proteins: a biochemical and physical comparison. Front Biosci. 1998;3:D570-603 pubmed
    ..coli, UvsX protein from Bacteriophage T4, and RAD51 protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ..
  48. Zahradka D, Zahradka K, Petranovic M, Dermic D, Brcic Kostic K. The RuvABC resolvase is indispensable for recombinational repair in sbcB15 mutants of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:4141-7 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the mutant SbcB protein stabilizes these junctions and makes their processing highly dependent on RuvABC resolvase. ..
  49. Khan S, Kuzminov A. Replication forks stalled at ultraviolet lesions are rescued via RecA and RuvABC protein-catalyzed disintegration in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:6250-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, chromosomes fragment when replication forks stall at UV lesions and regress, generating Holliday junctions. Remarkably, cells specifically utilize fork breakage to rescue stalled replication and avoid lethality. ..
  50. Flores M, Bidnenko V, Michel B. The DNA repair helicase UvrD is essential for replication fork reversal in replication mutants. EMBO Rep. 2004;5:983-8 pubmed
    ..coli polymerase III mutants, whereas its partners in DNA repair (UvrA/B and MutL/S) are not. We conclude that UvrD participates in replication fork reversal in E. coli. ..
  51. Zahradka K, Zahradka D, Petranovic M. Loss of lambda prophage recombinogenicity in UV-irradiated Escherichia coli: the role of host genes ruvA, ruvB, ruvC, and recG. Res Microbiol. 2001;152:873-81 pubmed
    ..Irradiated prophage retained its ability to recombine in ruvA, ruvB, ruvC, and recG mutants...
  52. Long J, Massoni S, Sandler S. RecA4142 causes SOS constitutive expression by loading onto reversed replication forks in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:2575-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In sbcCD mutants, RecA4142 can bind other DNA substrates by itself that are normally degraded by the SbcCD nuclease. ..
  53. Foster P, Trimarchi J, Maurer R. Two enzymes, both of which process recombination intermediates, have opposite effects on adaptive mutation in Escherichia coli. Genetics. 1996;142:25-37 pubmed
    ..RuvAB and RecG, E. coli's two enzymes for translocating Holliday junctions, have opposite effects: RuvAB is required for RecA-dependent adaptive mutations, whereas RecG inhibits them. ..
  54. Bolt E, Lloyd R. Substrate specificity of RusA resolvase reveals the DNA structures targeted by RuvAB and RecG in vivo. Mol Cell. 2002;10:187-98 pubmed
    ..We present evidence that replication restart in UV-irradiated cells relies on the processing of stalled replication forks by RecG helicase and of Holliday junctions by the RuvABC resolvasome, and that RuvAB alone may not promote repair. ..
  55. Dennis C, Fedorov A, Käs E, Salomé L, Grigoriev M. RuvAB-directed branch migration of individual Holliday junctions is impeded by sequence heterology. EMBO J. 2004;23:2413-22 pubmed
    ..We conclude that translocation of the junctions through a sequence heterology occurs with a probability of bypass being determined both by the length of the heterologous region and the lifetime of the stalled RuvAB complex. ..
  56. Prabhu V, Simons A, Iwasaki H, Gai D, Simmons D, Chen J. p53 blocks RuvAB promoted branch migration and modulates resolution of Holliday junctions by RuvC. J Mol Biol. 2002;316:1023-32 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that p53 could have similar effects on eukaryotic homologues of RuvABC and thus have a direct role in recombinational DNA repair. ..
  57. Nowosielska A, Calmann M, Zdraveski Z, Essigmann J, Marinus M. Spontaneous and cisplatin-induced recombination in Escherichia coli. DNA Repair (Amst). 2004;3:719-28 pubmed
    ..Lac+ formation for both spontaneous and cisplatin-induced recombination requires the products of the recA, recBC, ruvA, ruvB, ruvC, priA and polA genes...
  58. Sutherland J, Tse Dinh Y. Analysis of RuvABC and RecG involvement in the escherichia coli response to the covalent topoisomerase-DNA complex. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:4445-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Escherichia coli strains with ruvA and recG mutations are found to have increased sensitivity to low levels of norfloxacin treatment, but the ..
  59. Kaplan D, O Donnell M. RuvA is a sliding collar that protects Holliday junctions from unwinding while promoting branch migration. J Mol Biol. 2006;355:473-90 pubmed
    The RuvAB proteins catalyze branch migration of Holliday junctions during DNA recombination in Escherichia coli. RuvA binds tightly to the Holliday junction, and then recruits two RuvB pumps to power branch migration...
  60. Parsons C, Stasiak A, West S. The E.coli RuvAB proteins branch migrate Holliday junctions through heterologous DNA sequences in a reaction facilitated by SSB. EMBO J. 1995;14:5736-44 pubmed
    ..Two Escherichia coli proteins, RuvA and RuvB, promote the formation of heteroduplex DNA by catalysing the branch migration of crossovers, or Holliday ..
  61. Grigorian A, Lustig R, Guzmán E, Mahaffy J, Zyskind J. Escherichia coli cells with increased levels of DnaA and deficient in recombinational repair have decreased viability. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:630-44 pubmed
  62. Takahagi M, Iwasaki H, Nakata A, Shinagawa H. Molecular analysis of the Escherichia coli ruvC gene, which encodes a Holliday junction-specific endonuclease. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:5747-53 pubmed
    ..ruvC appeared to be regulated by at least two promoters, but, in contrast to the ruvAB operon, ruvC is not regulated by the SOS system as demonstrated by operon fusions. ..
  63. Pollard L, Chutake Y, Rindler P, Bidichandani S. Deficiency of RecA-dependent RecFOR and RecBCD pathways causes increased instability of the (GAA*TTC)n sequence when GAA is the lagging strand template. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:6884-94 pubmed
    ..Our data implicate defective processing of stalled replication forks as a mechanism for genetic instability of the (GAA*TTC)n sequence. ..
  64. Beam C, Saveson C, Lovett S. Role for radA/sms in recombination intermediate processing in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:6836-44 pubmed
    ..We combined a radA mutation with other mutations in recombination genes, including recA, recB, recG, recJ, recQ, ruvA, and ruvC...
  65. Lovett S. Replication arrest-stimulated recombination: Dependence on the RecA paralog, RadA/Sms and translesion polymerase, DinB. DNA Repair (Amst). 2006;5:1421-7 pubmed
    ..Here I show that this enhanced recombination is dependent on other factors: the RuvA Holliday junction helicase, the RecJ single-strand DNA exonuclease, the RadA/Sms RecA-paralog protein of unknown ..
  66. West S. The RuvABC proteins and Holliday junction processing in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:1237-41 pubmed
  67. Lloyd R, Benson F, Shurvinton C. Effect of ruv mutations on recombination and DNA repair in Escherichia coli K12. Mol Gen Genet. 1984;194:303-9 pubmed
    ..1974). ..
  68. Amit R, Gileadi O, Stavans J. Direct observation of RuvAB-catalyzed branch migration of single Holliday junctions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:11605-10 pubmed
    ..The apparent processivity of branch migration between pauses of inactivity is approximately 7,000 bp. Branch migration persists against opposing forces up to 23 pN. ..
  69. Grompone G, Ehrlich D, Michel B. Cells defective for replication restart undergo replication fork reversal. EMBO Rep. 2004;5:607-12 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that types of replication blockage that cause replication fork reversal occur spontaneously. ..
  70. Buljubasic M, Zahradka D, Zahradka K. RecQ helicase acts before RuvABC, RecG and XerC proteins during recombination in recBCD sbcBC mutants of Escherichia coli. Res Microbiol. 2013;164:987-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that RecQ acts upstream of RuvABC, RecG and XerC proteins, a finding that is compatible with its primary role in initiation of the RecF recombination pathway. ..
  71. Iype L, Inman R, Cox M. Blocked RecA protein-mediated DNA strand exchange reactions are reversed by the RuvA and RuvB proteins. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:19473-80 pubmed
    ..Addition of the RuvA and RuvB proteins to these stalled intermediates leads to the rapid conversion of intermediates back to the ..
  72. Yao J, Zhong J, Lambowitz A. Gene targeting using randomly inserted group II introns (targetrons) recovered from an Escherichia coli gene disruption library. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:3351-62 pubmed
    ..All such introns tested individually gave the desired specific disruption, some by switching to an alternate retrohoming mechanism targeting single-stranded DNA and using a nascent lagging DNA strand to prime reverse transcription. ..
  73. Le Masson M, Baharoglu Z, Michel B. ruvA and ruvB mutants specifically impaired for replication fork reversal. Mol Microbiol. 2008;70:537-48 pubmed
    ..We present here the isolation and characterization of ruvA and ruvB single mutants that are impaired for RFR at forks arrested by the inactivation of polymerase III, while ..
  74. Dickman M, Sedelnikova S, Rafferty J, Hornby D. Rapid analysis of protein-nucleic acid complexes using MALDI TOF mass spectrometry and ion pair reverse phase liquid chromatography. J Biochem Biophys Methods. 2004;58:39-48 pubmed
    ..branch migration, catalysed by the RuvB protein that is targeted to the Holliday junction by the structure specific RuvA protein, and resolution, which is catalysed by the RuvC endonuclease...