Gene Symbol: rpsU
Description: 30S ribosomal subunit protein S21
Alias: ECK3055, JW3037
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Adilakshmi T, Bellur D, Woodson S. Concurrent nucleation of 16S folding and induced fit in 30S ribosome assembly. Nature. 2008;455:1268-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Although early steps in assembly are linked to intrinsically stable rRNA structure, later steps correspond to regions of induced fit between the proteins and the rRNA. ..
  2. Erickson B, Burton Z, Watanabe K, Burgess R. Nucleotide sequence of the rpsU-dnaG-rpoD operon from Salmonella typhimurium and a comparison of this sequence with the homologous operon of Escherichia coli. Gene. 1985;40:67-78 pubmed
    In Escherichia coli the genes encoding ribosomal protein S21 (rpsU), DNA primase (dnaG), and the 70-kDal sigma subunit of RNA polymerase (rpoD) are contained in a single operon...
  3. Nesin M, Lupski J, Svec P, Godson G. Possible new genes as revealed by molecular analysis of a 5-kb Escherichia coli chromosomal region 5' to the rpsU-dnaG-rpoD macromolecular-synthesis operon. Gene. 1987;51:149-61 pubmed
    The complete nucleotide sequence of 5-kb DNA fragment immediately 5' to the rpsU-dnaG-rpoD macromolecular-synthesis operon in Escherichia coli has been determined. It encodes for six open reading frames...
  4. Held W, Nomura M, Hershey J. Ribosomal protein S21 is required for full activity in the initiation of protein synthesis. Mol Gen Genet. 1974;128:11-22 pubmed
  5. Odom O, Deng H, Dabbs E, Hardesty B. Binding of S21 to the 50S subunit and the effect of the 50S subunit on nonradiative energy transfer between the 3' end of 16S RNA and S21. Biochemistry. 1984;23:5069-76 pubmed
    ..Addition of 50S subunits to 30S particles containing probes on S21 and at the 3' end of 16S RNA caused a decrease in the energy transfer between these points. The results correspond to an apparent change in distance from 51 to 61 A. ..
  6. Pienaar E, Viljoen H. The tri-frame model. J Theor Biol. 2008;251:616-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The theory is demonstrated for the three genes rpsU, dnaG and rpoD of Escherichia coli, which lie on the same operon, as well as for the prfB gene.
  7. Yajnik V, Godson G. Selective decay of Escherichia coli dnaG messenger RNA is initiated by RNase E. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:13253-60 pubmed
    The rpsU-dnaG-rpoD operon messenger RNA that encodes S21, primase, and sigma-70 is cleaved under normal physiological conditions. The dnaG coding portion of the mRNA is then rapidly degraded...
  8. Cooperman B, Expert Bezançon A, Kahan L, Dondon J, Grunberg Manago M. IF-3 crosslinking to Escherichia coli ribosomal 30 S subunits by three different light-dependent procedures: identification of 30 S proteins crosslinked to IF-3--utilization of a new two-stage crosslinking reagent, p-nitrobenzylmaleimide. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1981;208:554-62 pubmed
  9. Lupski J, Smiley B, Godson G. Regulation of the rpsU-dnaG-rpoD macromolecular synthesis operon and the initiation of DNA replication in Escherichia coli K-12. Mol Gen Genet. 1983;189:48-57 pubmed
    ..in the gene fusion experiments, 2) an open reading frame between these promoters and the dnaG gene which is the rpsU (ribosomal protein S21) gene, 3) a sequence homologous to the lambda nut site, 4) a possible LexA protein binding ..

More Information


  1. Held W, Mizushima S, Nomura M. Reconstitution of Escherichia coli 30 S ribosomal subunits from purified molecular components. J Biol Chem. 1973;248:5720-30 pubmed
  2. Stern S, Powers T, Changchien L, Noller H. Interaction of ribosomal proteins S5, S6, S11, S12, S18 and S21 with 16 S rRNA. J Mol Biol. 1988;201:683-95 pubmed
    ..Altogether these results show that many of the small subunit proteins, which have previously been shown to be functionally important, appear to be associated with functionally implicated segments of 16 S rRNA. ..
  3. Versalovic J, Koeuth T, McCabe E, Lupski J. Use of the polymerase chain reaction for physical mapping of Escherichia coli genes. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:5253-5 pubmed
  4. Bubunenko M, Baker T, Court D. Essentiality of ribosomal and transcription antitermination proteins analyzed by systematic gene replacement in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:2844-53 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, although most 30S ribosomal proteins were essential, the knockouts of six ribosomal protein genes, rpsF (S6), rpsI (S9), rpsM (S13), rpsO (S15), rpsQ (S17), and rpsT (S20), were viable. ..
  5. Wittmann Liebold B. Studies on the primary structure of 20 proteins from Escherichia coli ribosomes by means of an improved protein sequenator. FEBS Lett. 1973;36:247-9 pubmed
  6. Vandekerckhove J, Rombauts W, Peeters B, Wittmann Liebold B. Determination of the complete amino acid sequence of protein S21 from Escherichia coli ribosomes. Hoppe Seylers Z Physiol Chem. 1975;356:1955-76 pubmed
    ..It contains neither Met nor Trp. The molecular weight amounts to 8359. Clustering of basic amino acids is observed in five regions. We also include a prediction for regions with alpha-helices and with beta-sheets. ..
  7. Nellemann L, Holm F, Atlung T, Hansen F. Cloning and characterization of the Escherichia coli phosphoglycerate kinase (pgk) gene. Gene. 1989;77:185-91 pubmed
    ..Bacteriol. 154 (1987) 336-343]. The pgk gene was also found to show growth phase regulation; the synthesis of Pgk protein was induced more than ten-fold during transition from the exponential to the stationary growth phase. ..
  8. Burton Z, Gross C, Watanabe K, Burgess R. The operon that encodes the sigma subunit of RNA polymerase also encodes ribosomal protein S21 and DNA primase in E. coli K12. Cell. 1983;32:335-49 pubmed
    ..Within the sequence upstream from rpoD, we have identified the structural genes rpsU and dnaG, which encode the 30S ribosomal protein S21 and DNA primase, respectively...
  9. Lupski J, Godson G. The rpsU-dnaG-rpoD macromolecular synthesis operon of E. coli. Cell. 1984;39:251-2 pubmed
  10. Dabbs E. The gene for ribosomal protein S21, rpsU, maps close to dnaG at 66.5 min on the Escherichia coli chromosomal linkage map. J Bacteriol. 1980;144:603-7 pubmed
    ..5 min on the Escherichia coli chromosomal linkage map. They cotransduced about 95% with this marker. These mutations define gene rpsU, which is very likely the structural gene for protein S21.
  11. Lupski J, Ruiz A, Godson G. Promotion, termination, and anti-termination in the rpsU-dnaG-rpoD macromolecular synthesis operon of E. coli K-12. Mol Gen Genet. 1984;195:391-401 pubmed
    The regulatory regions for the rpsU-dnaG-rpoD macromolecular synthesis operon have been fused to a structural gene whose product is readily assayed (the Cmr structural gene coding for chloramphenicol acetyl transferase, CAT)...
  12. Daigle D, Brown E. Studies of the interaction of Escherichia coli YjeQ with the ribosome in vitro. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:1381-7 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that the YjeQ protein participates in a guanine nucleotide-dependent interaction with the ribosome and implicate this conserved, essential GTPase as a novel factor in ribosome function. ..
  13. Noller H, Hoang L, Fredrick K. The 30S ribosomal P site: a function of 16S rRNA. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:855-8 pubmed
    ..Deletion of these tails now shows that the 16S rRNA contacts alone are sufficient to support protein synthesis in living cells. ..
  14. Hindennach I, Stoffler G, Wittmann H. Ribosomal proteins. Isolation of the proteins from 30S ribosomal subunits of Escherichia coli. Eur J Biochem. 1971;23:7-11 pubmed
  15. Brandt R, Gualerzi C. Ribosomal localization of the mRNA in the 30S initiation complex as revealed by UV crosslinking. FEBS Lett. 1992;311:199-202 pubmed
  16. MacKeen L, Kahan L, Wahba A, Schwartz I. Photochemical cross-linking of initiation factor-3 to Escherichia coli 30 S ribosomal subunits. J Biol Chem. 1980;255:10526-31 pubmed
    ..The target proteins have been identified as S7, S11, S12, S18, and S21 by immunochemical techniques. ..
  17. van Duin J, Wijnands R. The function of ribosomal protein S21 in protein synthesis. Eur J Biochem. 1981;118:615-9 pubmed
    ..Addition of S21 to S21-deprived subunits restores the MS2-RNA-dependent initiation complex formation. ..
  18. Czworkowski J, Odom O, Hardesty B. Fluorescence study of the topology of messenger RNA bound to the 30S ribosomal subunit of Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 1991;30:4821-30 pubmed
    ..By using the distances calculated from energy transfer between the 3' end of 16S rRNA and the ends of RNAs of varying lengths, a topological map of this region of mRNA on the 30S subunit was constructed. ..
  19. Maki J, Schnobrich D, Culver G. The DnaK chaperone system facilitates 30S ribosomal subunit assembly. Mol Cell. 2002;10:129-38 pubmed
    ..These studies reveal a novel role for the DnaK/hsp70 chaperone system, in addition to its well-documented role in protein folding, and suggest that 30S subunit assembly can be facilitated. ..
  20. Himeno H, Hanawa Suetsugu K, Kimura T, Takagi K, Sugiyama W, Shirata S, et al. A novel GTPase activated by the small subunit of ribosome. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:5303-9 pubmed
    ..We also found that 17S RNA, a putative precursor of 16S rRNA, was contained in the small subunit of the ribosome from the RsgA-deletion strain. RsgA is a novel GTPase that might provide a new insight into the function of ribosome. ..
  21. Gu S, Jöckel J, Beinker P, Warnecke J, Semenkov Y, Rodnina M, et al. Conformation of 4.5S RNA in the signal recognition particle and on the 30S ribosomal subunit. RNA. 2005;11:1374-84 pubmed
    ..The functional role of 4.5S RNA binding to the 30S subunit is unclear, as the RNA had no effect on translation or tRNA translocation on the ribosome. ..