Gene Symbol: rpsL
Description: 30S ribosomal subunit protein S12
Alias: ECK3329, JW3304, asuB, strA
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
Products:     rpsL

Top Publications

  1. Cukras A, Southworth D, Brunelle J, Culver G, Green R. Ribosomal proteins S12 and S13 function as control elements for translocation of the mRNA:tRNA complex. Mol Cell. 2003;12:321-8 pubmed
    ..These data support a model where S12 and S13 function as control elements for the more ancient rRNA- and tRNA-driven movements of translocation. ..
  2. Sharma D, Cukras A, Rogers E, Southworth D, Green R. Mutational analysis of S12 protein and implications for the accuracy of decoding by the ribosome. J Mol Biol. 2007;374:1065-76 pubmed
  3. Gill A, Amyes S. The contribution of a novel ribosomal S12 mutation to aminoglycoside resistance of Escherichia coli mutants. J Chemother. 2004;16:347-9 pubmed
    ..DNA sequencing of a 423bp region of the rpsL gene encoding S12 revealed a novel Lys87-->Glu mutation in the streptomycin selected resistant mutants, while ..
  4. Allen P, Noller H. Mutations in ribosomal proteins S4 and S12 influence the higher order structure of 16 S ribosomal RNA. J Mol Biol. 1989;208:457-68 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the opposing effects of these two classes of mutations influence the proof-reading process by somewhat different mechanisms. ..
  5. Himeno H, Hanawa Suetsugu K, Kimura T, Takagi K, Sugiyama W, Shirata S, et al. A novel GTPase activated by the small subunit of ribosome. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:5303-9 pubmed
    ..We also found that 17S RNA, a putative precursor of 16S rRNA, was contained in the small subunit of the ribosome from the RsgA-deletion strain. RsgA is a novel GTPase that might provide a new insight into the function of ribosome. ..
  6. Ozaki M, Mizushima S, Nomura M. Identification and functional characterization of the protein controlled by the streptomycin-resistant locus in E. coli. Nature. 1969;222:333-9 pubmed
  7. Daigle D, Brown E. Studies of the interaction of Escherichia coli YjeQ with the ribosome in vitro. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:1381-7 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that the YjeQ protein participates in a guanine nucleotide-dependent interaction with the ribosome and implicate this conserved, essential GTPase as a novel factor in ribosome function. ..
  8. Lövgren J, Bylund G, Srivastava M, Lundberg L, Persson O, Wingsle G, et al. The PRC-barrel domain of the ribosome maturation protein RimM mediates binding to ribosomal protein S19 in the 30S ribosomal subunits. RNA. 2004;10:1798-812 pubmed
    ..A GST-RimM but not a GST-RimM(YY-->AA) protein bound strongly to S19 in 30S. Thus, RimM likely facilitates maturation of the region of the head of 30S that contains S13 and S19 as well as helices 31 and 33b. ..
  9. Noller H, Hoang L, Fredrick K. The 30S ribosomal P site: a function of 16S rRNA. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:855-8 pubmed
    ..Deletion of these tails now shows that the 16S rRNA contacts alone are sufficient to support protein synthesis in living cells. ..

More Information


  1. Vila Sanjurjo A, Lu Y, Aragonez J, Starkweather R, Sasikumar M, O Connor M. Modulation of 16S rRNA function by ribosomal protein S12. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1769:462-71 pubmed
    ..The C912U mutation on its own confers resistance to streptomycin and restricts miscoding, properties that distinguish it from a majority of the previously described error-promoting ram mutants that also reverse streptomycin dependence. ..
  2. Seki M, Akiyama M, Sugaya Y, Ohtsubo E, Maki H. Strand asymmetry of +1 frameshift mutagenesis at a homopolymeric run by DNA polymerase III holoenzyme of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:33313-9 pubmed
    We have recently shown that single-base frameshifts were predominant among mutations induced within the rpsL target sequence upon oriC plasmid DNA replication in vitro...
  3. Tapio S, Isaksson L. Base 2661 in Escherichia coli 23S rRNA influences the binding of elongation factor Tu during protein synthesis in vivo. Eur J Biochem. 1991;202:981-4 pubmed
    ..either the wild-type or the mutant gene (tufA) for EF-Tu as well as normal or mutant ribosomal protein S12 (rpsL)...
  4. Maki J, Schnobrich D, Culver G. The DnaK chaperone system facilitates 30S ribosomal subunit assembly. Mol Cell. 2002;10:129-38 pubmed
    ..These studies reveal a novel role for the DnaK/hsp70 chaperone system, in addition to its well-documented role in protein folding, and suggest that 30S subunit assembly can be facilitated. ..
  5. Wittmann Liebold B. Studies on the primary structure of 20 proteins from Escherichia coli ribosomes by means of an improved protein sequenator. FEBS Lett. 1973;36:247-9 pubmed
  6. Zengel J, Young R, Dennis P, Nomura M. Role of ribosomal protein S12 in peptide chain elongation: analysis of pleiotropic, streptomycin-resistant mutants of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1977;129:1320-9 pubmed
    ..These experimental results show that the strA gene product, the S12 protein of the 30S subunit, is involved in some aspect of protein chain elongation...
  7. Cooperman B, Expert Bezançon A, Kahan L, Dondon J, Grunberg Manago M. IF-3 crosslinking to Escherichia coli ribosomal 30 S subunits by three different light-dependent procedures: identification of 30 S proteins crosslinked to IF-3--utilization of a new two-stage crosslinking reagent, p-nitrobenzylmaleimide. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1981;208:554-62 pubmed
  8. Hosaka T, Tamehiro N, Chumpolkulwong N, Hori Takemoto C, Shirouzu M, Yokoyama S, et al. The novel mutation K87E in ribosomal protein S12 enhances protein synthesis activity during the late growth phase in Escherichia coli. Mol Genet Genomics. 2004;271:317-24 pubmed
    Resistance to streptomycin in bacterial cells often results from a mutation in the rpsL gene that encodes the ribosomal protein S12...
  9. Holberger L, Hayes C. Ribosomal protein S12 and aminoglycoside antibiotics modulate A-site mRNA cleavage and transfer-messenger RNA activity in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:32188-200 pubmed publisher
    ..Streptomycin did not inhibit A-site cleavage in rpsL mutants, which express streptomycin-resistant variants of ribosomal protein S12...
  10. Heermann R, Zeppenfeld T, Jung K. Simple generation of site-directed point mutations in the Escherichia coli chromosome using Red(R)/ET(R) Recombination. Microb Cell Fact. 2008;7:14 pubmed publisher
    ..We used Red(R)/ET(R) Recombination in combination with rpsL counter-selection to introduce a single point mutation into the E...
  11. Timms A, Steingrimsdottir H, Lehmann A, Bridges B. Mutant sequences in the rpsL gene of Escherichia coli B/r: mechanistic implications for spontaneous and ultraviolet light mutagenesis. Mol Gen Genet. 1992;232:89-96 pubmed
    ..These mutants, characterized as streptomycin resistant (Smr) or dependent (Smd), carry mutations in the rpsL gene. This gene was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction and sequenced...
  12. Pelchovich G, Nadejda S, Dana A, Tuller T, Bravo I, Gophna U. Ribosomal mutations affecting the translation of genes that use non-optimal codons. FEBS J. 2014;281:3701-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the transient emergence of mutants that allow efficient expression of exogenous genes with non-optimal codons could also increase the chances of fixation of laterally transferred genes. ..
  13. Post L, Nomura M. DNA sequences from the str operon of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1980;255:4660-6 pubmed
    ..operon at 72 min on the Escherichia coli chromosome contains genes for ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) S12 (str or rpsL) and S7 (rpsG) and elongation factors G (fus) and Tu (tufA)...
  14. Kaltschmidt E, Wittmann H. Ribosomal proteins. XII. Number of proteins in small and large ribosomal subunits of Escherichia coli as determined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1970;67:1276-82 pubmed
    ..Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis separates all of the component proteins of the ribosomal subunits of Escherichia coli. This method shows 21 proteins in the 30S, and 34 proteins in the 50S, subunit. ..
  15. Post L, Arfsten A, Reusser F, Nomura M. DNA sequences of promoter regions for the str and spc ribosomal protein operons in E. coli. Cell. 1978;15:215-29 pubmed
    ..Extensive sequence similarity between the str and spc promoter regions is found downstream from the Pribnow box-that is, in a transcribed region preceding the translation start sites. ..
  16. MacKeen L, Kahan L, Wahba A, Schwartz I. Photochemical cross-linking of initiation factor-3 to Escherichia coli 30 S ribosomal subunits. J Biol Chem. 1980;255:10526-31 pubmed
    ..The target proteins have been identified as S7, S11, S12, S18, and S21 by immunochemical techniques. ..
  17. Taylor D, Trieber C, Trescher G, Bekkering M. Host mutations (miaA and rpsL) reduce tetracycline resistance mediated by Tet(O) and Tet(M). Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998;42:59-64 pubmed
    ..In addition, mutations in E. coli rpsL genes, generating both streptomycin-resistant and streptomycin-dependent strains, were also shown to reduce the ..
  18. Yates J. Role of ribosomal protein S12 in discrimination of aminoacyl-tRNA. J Biol Chem. 1979;254:11550-4 pubmed
  19. Adilakshmi T, Bellur D, Woodson S. Concurrent nucleation of 16S folding and induced fit in 30S ribosome assembly. Nature. 2008;455:1268-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Although early steps in assembly are linked to intrinsically stable rRNA structure, later steps correspond to regions of induced fit between the proteins and the rRNA. ..
  20. Powers T, Noller H. Selective perturbation of G530 of 16 S rRNA by translational miscoding agents and a streptomycin-dependence mutation in protein S12. J Mol Biol. 1994;235:156-72 pubmed
    ..These results are discussed in terms of a model wherein the conformation of the 530 loop is correlated with the affinity of the ribosome for elongation factor Tu. ..
  21. Zhang J, Sprung R, Pei J, Tan X, Kim S, Zhu H, et al. Lysine acetylation is a highly abundant and evolutionarily conserved modification in Escherichia coli. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2009;8:215-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrate that bacterial lysine acetylation is regulated in response to stress stimuli. ..
  22. Johanson U, Hughes D. Comparison of the complete sequence of the str operon in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. Gene. 1992;120:93-8 pubmed
    ..The order of conservation at the nt and aa level is rpsL greater than tufA greater than rpsG greater than f usA...
  23. Bischof O, Urlaub H, Kruft V, Wittmann Liebold B. Peptide environment of the peptidyl transferase center from Escherichia coli 70 S ribosomes as determined by thermoaffinity labeling with dihydrospiramycin. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:23060-4 pubmed
    ..This approach is a valuable tool to characterize the binding site of spiramycin as well as the peptidyl transferase center at the molecular level. ..
  24. Li W, Agirrezabala X, Lei J, Bouakaz L, Brunelle J, Ortiz Meoz R, et al. Recognition of aminoacyl-tRNA: a common molecular mechanism revealed by cryo-EM. EMBO J. 2008;27:3322-31 pubmed publisher
  25. Lodmell J, Dahlberg A. A conformational switch in Escherichia coli 16S ribosomal RNA during decoding of messenger RNA. Science. 1997;277:1262-7 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that the switch affects codon-anticodon arrangement and proper selection of tRNA at the ribosomal A site, and that the switch is a fundamental mechanism in all ribosomes. ..
  26. Hughes D, Buckingham R. The nucleotide sequence of rpsL and its flanking regions in Salmonella typhimurium. Gene. 1991;104:123-4 pubmed
    The ribosomal protein (r-protein)-encoding gene, rpsL, and regions flanking it, from Salmonella typhimurium, have been sequenced directly from polymerase chain reaction-amplified chromosomal DNA...
  27. Sullivan M, Bock R. Isolation and characterization of antisuppressor mutations in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1985;161:377-84 pubmed
    ..The asuB3 mutation was mapped by P1 cotransduction to rpsL but does not confer resistance to streptomycin...
  28. Bouadloun F, Donner D, Kurland C. Codon-specific missense errors in vivo. EMBO J. 1983;2:1351-6 pubmed
    ..to 10(-3) for wild-type bacteria, decreases to 4 x 10(-4) in streptomycin-resistant bacteria containing mutant S12 (rpsL), and is virtually unchanged in Ram bacteria containing mutant S4 (rpsD)...
  29. Hauser R, Ceol A, Rajagopala S, Mosca R, Siszler G, Wermke N, et al. A second-generation protein-protein interaction network of Helicobacter pylori. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2014;13:1318-29 pubmed publisher
    ..coli of which one third turned out to be conserved in both species. ..
  30. Nagel R, Chan A. Mistranslation and genetic variability: the effect of streptomycin. Mutat Res. 2006;601:162-70 pubmed
    ..coli map that relieves the high translational fidelity conferred by the rpsL mutation...
  31. Toivonen J, Boocock M, Jacobs H. Modelling in Escherichia coli of mutations in mitoribosomal protein S12: novel mutant phenotypes of rpsL. Mol Microbiol. 1999;31:1735-46 pubmed
    The rpsL gene of Escherichia coli encodes the highly conserved rps12 protein of the ribosomal accuracy centre. We have used the E...
  32. Yates J, Gette W, Furth M, Nomura M. Effects of ribosomal mutations on the read-through of a chain termination signal: studies on the synthesis of bacteriophage lambda O gene protein in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977;74:689-93 pubmed
    ..The mutant ribosomes also fail to synthesize the read-through coat protein of RNA phage Qbeta. In addition, the mutant ribosomes restrict suppression of amber mutations in vitro, similar to their effect in vivo. ..
  33. Karimi R, Ehrenberg M. Dissociation rates of peptidyl-tRNA from the P-site of E.coli ribosomes. EMBO J. 1996;15:1149-54 pubmed
    ..The results are also used to interpret some in vivo experiments on translational processivity. ..
  34. O Connor M, De Stasio E, Dahlberg A. Interaction between 16S ribosomal RNA and ribosomal protein S12: differential effects of paromomycin and streptomycin. Biochimie. 1991;73:1493-500 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrate a functional interaction between the 1409-1491 region of rRNA and ribosomal protein S12. ..
  35. Kharat A, Coursange E, Noirclerc Savoye M, Lacoste J, Blot M. IS1 transposition is enhanced by translation errors and by bacterial growth at extreme glucose levels. Acta Biochim Pol. 2006;53:729-38 pubmed
    ..Since starved cells are known to enhance ribosome frameshifting, our data suggests that growth conditions applied in this study could affect IS1 transposition by increasing translation infidelity. ..
  36. Girshovich A, Bochkareva E, Ovchinnikov Y. Elongation factor G and protein S12 are the nearest neighbours in the Escherichia coli ribosome. J Mol Biol. 1981;151:229-43 pubmed
  37. Fontecave M, Mulliez E, Atta M. New light on methylthiolation reactions. Chem Biol. 2008;15:209-10 pubmed publisher
    ..2008) catalyzes the methylthiolation of aspartate 88 of the S12 ribosomal protein in Escherichia coli and shows a strong similarity with the iron-sulfur enzyme MiaB involved in the methylthiolation of tRNAs. ..
  38. Kanie S, Horibata K, Kawano M, Isogawa A, Sakai A, Matsuo N, et al. Roles of RecA protein in spontaneous mutagenesis in Escherichia coli. Genes Genet Syst. 2007;82:99-108 pubmed
    ..both forward mutations and recombination events occurring within about 600 base pairs of a transgenic rpsL target sequence located on Escherichia coli chromosome...
  39. Coetzee T, Herschlag D, Belfort M. Escherichia coli proteins, including ribosomal protein S12, facilitate in vitro splicing of phage T4 introns by acting as RNA chaperones. Genes Dev. 1994;8:1575-88 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that this protein facilitates splicing by acting as an RNA chaperone, promoting the assembly of the catalytically active tertiary structure of ribozymes. ..
  40. Kraal B, Zeef L, Mesters J, Boon K, Vorstenbosch E, Bosch L, et al. Antibiotic resistance mechanisms of mutant EF-Tu species in Escherichia coli. Biochem Cell Biol. 1995;73:1167-77 pubmed
    ..KirT EF-Tu(A375T) is able to reverse the streptomycin-dependent phenotype of a ribosomal protein S12 mutant strain to streptomycin sensitivity. ..
  41. Hawley D, Slobin L, Wahba A. The mechanism of action of initiation factor 3 in protein synthesis. II. Association of the 30S ribosomal protein S12 with IF-3. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1974;61:544-50 pubmed
  42. Rath D, Mangoli S, Mahajan S, Jawali N. A novel mutation spatially remote from the G-domain in IF2 affects the cold stress adaptation of Escherichia coli. Res Microbiol. 2009;160:576-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide evidence that mutant IF2 specifically interacts with rpsL31 in cold, leading to a bacteriostatic effect on host cells. ..
  43. Breckenridge L, Gorini L. Genetic analysis of streptomycin resistance in Escherichia coli. Genetics. 1970;65:9-25 pubmed
  44. Held W, Mizushima S, Nomura M. Reconstitution of Escherichia coli 30 S ribosomal subunits from purified molecular components. J Biol Chem. 1973;248:5720-30 pubmed
  45. Dunkle J, Wang L, Feldman M, Pulk A, Chen V, Kapral G, et al. Structures of the bacterial ribosome in classical and hybrid states of tRNA binding. Science. 2011;332:981-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The structures help to explain how the ratchet-like motion of the two ribosomal subunits contributes to the mechanisms of translocation, termination, and ribosome recycling. ..
  46. Boileau G, Butler P, Hershey J, Traut R. Direct cross-links between initiation factors 1, 2, and 3 and ribosomal proteins promoted by 2-iminothiolane. Biochemistry. 1983;22:3162-70 pubmed
    ..Cross-links between factors IF1-IF2 and IF3-IF2 were also identified. A model integrating these findings with others on the protein topography of the ribosome is presented. ..
  47. Funatsu G, Yaguchi M, Wittmann Liebold B. Primary stucture of protein S12 from the small Escherichia coli ribosomal subunit. FEBS Lett. 1977;73:12-7 pubmed
  48. Lederberg J. Streptomycin resistance; a genetically recessive mutation. J Bacteriol. 1951;61:549-50 pubmed
  49. Stern S, Powers T, Changchien L, Noller H. Interaction of ribosomal proteins S5, S6, S11, S12, S18 and S21 with 16 S rRNA. J Mol Biol. 1988;201:683-95 pubmed
    ..Altogether these results show that many of the small subunit proteins, which have previously been shown to be functionally important, appear to be associated with functionally implicated segments of 16 S rRNA. ..
  50. Anton B, Saleh L, Benner J, Raleigh E, Kasif S, Roberts R. RimO, a MiaB-like enzyme, methylthiolates the universally conserved Asp88 residue of ribosomal protein S12 in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:1826-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The initial results presented here constitute a bioinformatics-driven prediction with preliminary experimental validation that should serve as the starting point for several interesting lines of further inquiry. ..
  51. Heredia Moya J, Kirk K. Synthesis of beta-(S-methyl)thioaspartic acid and derivatives. Bioorg Med Chem. 2008;16:5908-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Following this key transformation, we were able to prepare protected beta-(S-methyl)thioaspartic acid derivative suitable for peptide coupling. ..
  52. Fredriksson A, Ballesteros M, Dukan S, Nystrom T. Induction of the heat shock regulon in response to increased mistranslation requires oxidative modification of the malformed proteins. Mol Microbiol. 2006;59:350-9 pubmed
    ..The data further suggest that it is the oxidative modification of mistranslated DnaK substrates rather than oxidation of DnaK itself that triggers Hsp gene expression upon starvation. ..
  53. Surdina A, Rassokhin T, Golovin A, Spiridonova V, Kraal B, Kopylov A. Selection of random RNA fragments as method for searching for a site of regulation of translation of E. coli streptomycin mRNA by ribosomal protein S7. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2008;73:652-9 pubmed
    ..Location of S7 binding site on the mRNA, as well as putative mode of regulation of coupled translation of S12 and S7 cistrons have been hypothesized. ..
  54. Powers T, Noller H. A functional pseudoknot in 16S ribosomal RNA. EMBO J. 1991;10:2203-14 pubmed
    ..Data from earlier in vitro assembly studies suggest that the pseudoknot structure is stabilized by ribosomal protein S12, mutations in which have long been known to confer streptomycin resistance and dependence. ..
  55. Ragone S, Maman J, Furnham N, Pellegrini L. Structural basis for inhibition of homologous recombination by the RecX protein. EMBO J. 2008;27:2259-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data support a model in which RecX binding to the helical groove of the filament causes local dissociation of RecA protomers, leading to filament destabilisation and HR inhibition. ..
  56. Saito K, Mattheakis L, Nomura M. Post-transcriptional regulation of the str operon in Escherichia coli. Ribosomal protein S7 inhibits coupled translation of S7 but not its independent translation. J Mol Biol. 1994;235:111-24 pubmed
    The str operon of Escherichia coli consists of the genes for ribosomal proteins S12 (rpsL) and S7 (rpsG) and elongation factors G (fusA) and Tu (tufA)...
  57. Kowalak J, Walsh K. Beta-methylthio-aspartic acid: identification of a novel posttranslational modification in ribosomal protein S12 from Escherichia coli. Protein Sci. 1996;5:1625-32 pubmed
    ..The modified residue is located at position 88 in ribosomal protein S12 from Escherichia coli, a phylogenetically conserved protein that has been implicated in maintaining translational accuracy of the ribosome. ..
  58. Zheng C, Yang L, Hoopmann M, Eng J, Tang X, Weisbrod C, et al. Cross-linking measurements of in vivo protein complex topologies. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2011;10:M110.006841 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our unbiased data provide novel in vivo topological information that can impact understanding of biological function, even for cases where high resolution structures are not yet available. ..
  59. Pai R, Zhang W, Schuwirth B, Hirokawa G, Kaji H, Kaji A, et al. Structural Insights into ribosome recycling factor interactions with the 70S ribosome. J Mol Biol. 2008;376:1334-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The structures also reveal contacts between domain II of RRF and protein S12 in the 30S subunit that may also play a role in ribosome recycling. ..
  60. Xu H, Real L, Bailey M. An array of Escherichia coli clones over-expressing essential proteins: a new strategy of identifying cellular targets of potent antibacterial compounds. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;349:1250-7 pubmed
    ..Target identification via target protein over-expression was demonstrated using both mixed clone and individual clone assay formats. ..
  61. Semrad K, Schroeder R. A ribosomal function is necessary for efficient splicing of the T4 phage thymidylate synthase intron in vivo. Genes Dev. 1998;12:1327-37 pubmed
    ..Point mutations in this region efficiently alleviate the effect of a nonsense codon. We infer from these results that the ribosome acts as an RNA chaperone to facilitate proper folding of the intron. ..
  62. Clodi E, Semrad K, Schroeder R. Assaying RNA chaperone activity in vivo using a novel RNA folding trap. EMBO J. 1999;18:3776-82 pubmed
    ..Thus, this structural trap enables detection of RNA chaperone activity in vivo. ..