Gene Symbol: rpsA
Description: 30S ribosomal subunit protein S1
Alias: ECK0902, JW0894, ssyF
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Aliprandi P, Sizun C, Perez J, Mareuil F, Caputo S, Leroy J, et al. S1 ribosomal protein functions in translation initiation and ribonuclease RegB activation are mediated by similar RNA-protein interactions: an NMR and SAXS analysis. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:13289-301 pubmed publisher
    ..All of these results suggest that the ability of S1 to recognize different RNAs results from a high adaptability of both its structure and its binding surface...
  2. Wower I, Zwieb C, Guven S, Wower J. Binding and cross-linking of tmRNA to ribosomal protein S1, on and off the Escherichia coli ribosome. EMBO J. 2000;19:6612-21 pubmed
  3. Aseev L, Levandovskaya A, Tchufistova L, Scaptsova N, Boni I. A new regulatory circuit in ribosomal protein operons: S2-mediated control of the rpsB-tsf expression in vivo. RNA. 2008;14:1882-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The S2-mediated autogenous control is impaired in rpsB mutants and, more surprisingly, in the rpsA mutant producing decreased amounts of truncated r-protein S1 (rpsAIS10), indicating that S2 might act as a ..
  4. Koleva R, Austin C, Kowaleski J, Neems D, Wang L, Vary C, et al. Interactions of ribosomal protein S1 with DsrA and rpoS mRNA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;348:662-8 pubmed
    ..Ribonuclease probing experiments indicate that S1 binding has a weak but detectable effect on the secondary structure of DsrA or rpoS mRNA. ..
  5. Sukhodolets M, Garges S, Adhya S. Ribosomal protein S1 promotes transcriptional cycling. RNA. 2006;12:1505-13 pubmed
  6. Tedin K, Resch A, Blasi U. Requirements for ribosomal protein S1 for translation initiation of mRNAs with and without a 5' leader sequence. Mol Microbiol. 1997;25:189-99 pubmed
    ..coli ribosomes depleted for S1. We have shown that S1 is required for ternary complex formation on ompA mRNA but not for leaderless mRNAs or for mRNAs in which the RBS is close to the 5' end. ..
  7. Komarova A, Tchufistova L, Dreyfus M, Boni I. AU-rich sequences within 5' untranslated leaders enhance translation and stabilize mRNA in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:1344-9 pubmed
    ..These data strongly support the idea that the lacZ mRNA in E. coli can be stabilized only by translating, and not by stalling, ribosomes. ..
  8. Kalapos M, Paulus H, Sarkar N. Identification of ribosomal protein S1 as a poly(A) binding protein in Escherichia coli. Biochimie. 1997;79:493-502 pubmed
    ..The implications of these results for the possible interaction of poly(A) tracts of mRNA and the translational machinery of E coli are discussed. ..
  9. Salah P, Bisaglia M, Aliprandi P, Uzan M, Sizun C, Bontems F. Probing the relationship between Gram-negative and Gram-positive S1 proteins by sequence analysis. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:5578-88 pubmed publisher
    ..coli S1 on the basis of their sequence. This enabled us to identify the nature of the domains present in Gram-positive proteins and, subsequently, to probe the filiations between all forms of S1. ..

More Information


  1. Skorski P, Proux F, Cheraiti C, Dreyfus M, Hermann Le Denmat S. The deleterious effect of an insertion sequence removing the last twenty percent of the essential Escherichia coli rpsA gene is due to mRNA destabilization, not protein truncation. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:6205-12 pubmed
    Ribosomal protein S1, the product of the essential rpsA gene, consists of six imperfect repeats of the same motif...
  2. Qu X, Lancaster L, Noller H, Bustamante C, Tinoco I. Ribosomal protein S1 unwinds double-stranded RNA in multiple steps. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:14458-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Unwinding by multiple small substeps is much less rate limited by thermal breathing than unwinding in a single step. Thus, a multistep scheme greatly expedites S1 unwinding of an RNA structure compared to a single-step mode. ..
  3. Boni I, Artamonova V, Dreyfus M. The last RNA-binding repeat of the Escherichia coli ribosomal protein S1 is specifically involved in autogenous control. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:5872-9 pubmed
    ..mutation, originally selected as an extragenic suppressor of a protein export defect, has been mapped within the rpsA gene encoding ribosomal protein S1. Here, we examine the nature of this mutation and its effect on translation...
  4. Bycroft M, Hubbard T, Proctor M, Freund S, Murzin A. The solution structure of the S1 RNA binding domain: a member of an ancient nucleic acid-binding fold. Cell. 1997;88:235-42 pubmed
    ..Enhanced sequence searches reveal hitherto unidentified S1 domains in RNase E, RNase II, NusA, EMB-5, and other proteins. ..
  5. Boni I, Zlatkin I, Budowsky E. Ribosomal protein S1 associates with Escherichia coli ribosomal 30-S subunit by means of protein-protein interactions. Eur J Biochem. 1982;121:371-6 pubmed
    ..4. Mild trypsin treatment of S1-depleted 30-S subunits greatly reduces their S1 binding capacity. ..
  6. Komarova A, Tchufistova L, Supina E, Boni I. Protein S1 counteracts the inhibitory effect of the extended Shine-Dalgarno sequence on translation. RNA. 2002;8:1137-47 pubmed
  7. Okada T, Wower I, Wower J, Zwieb C, Kimura M. Contribution of the second OB fold of ribosomal protein S1 from Escherichia coli to the recognition of TmRNA. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2004;68:2319-25 pubmed
    ..S(-1); and kd, 0.56 x 10(-3) S(-1)). These results suggest that the second OB fold in protein S1 is essential for the recognition of tmRNA, while the four C-terminal OB folds play a role in stabilizing the S1-tmRNA complex. ..
  8. McGinness K, Sauer R. Ribosomal protein S1 binds mRNA and tmRNA similarly but plays distinct roles in translation of these molecules. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:13454-9 pubmed
    ..Moreover, tagging of proteins translated from model mRNAs with either no or an increased requirement for S1 is indistinguishable. These results raise the possibility that S1 plays little or no role in tmRNA-mediated tagging. ..
  9. Boni I, Isaeva D, Musychenko M, Tzareva N. Ribosome-messenger recognition: mRNA target sites for ribosomal protein S1. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991;19:155-62 pubmed
    ..We propose that S1 binding sites, represented by pyrimidine-rich sequences upstream from the SD region, serve as determinants involved in recognition of mRNA by the ribosome. ..
  10. Rajkowitsch L, Schroeder R. Dissecting RNA chaperone activity. RNA. 2007;13:2053-60 pubmed
    ..These results underline the difference between the two reaction types, making it necessary to distinguish and classify proteins according to their specific RNA chaperone activities. ..
  11. Boni I, Artamonova V, Tzareva N, Dreyfus M. Non-canonical mechanism for translational control in bacteria: synthesis of ribosomal protein S1. EMBO J. 2001;20:4222-32 pubmed
    Translation initiation region (TIR) of the rpsA mRNA encoding ribosomal protein S1 is one of the most efficient in Escherichia coli despite the absence of a canonical Shine-Dalgarno-element...
  12. Sengupta J, Agrawal R, Frank J. Visualization of protein S1 within the 30S ribosomal subunit and its interaction with messenger RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:11991-6 pubmed
    ..Evidence for direct interaction of S1 with 11 nucleotides of the mRNA, immediately upstream of the Shine-Dalgarno sequence, explains the protein's role in the recognition of the 5' region of mRNA. ..
  13. Moll I, Grill S, GRUNDLING A, Blasi U. Effects of ribosomal proteins S1, S2 and the DeaD/CsdA DEAD-box helicase on translation of leaderless and canonical mRNAs in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2002;44:1387-96 pubmed
    ..These data are discussed in terms of a model, wherein DeaD/CsdA is involved in ribosome biogenesis rather than acting directly on mRNA. ..
  14. Byrgazov K, Manoharadas S, Kaberdina A, Vesper O, Moll I. Direct interaction of the N-terminal domain of ribosomal protein S1 with protein S2 in Escherichia coli. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32702 pubmed publisher
  15. Sukhodolets M, Garges S. Interaction of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase with the ribosomal protein S1 and the Sm-like ATPase Hfq. Biochemistry. 2003;42:8022-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The limited sequence homology between Hfq and known ATP-utilizing enzymes suggests a new class of ATPases...
  16. Tzareva N, Makhno V, Boni I. Ribosome-messenger recognition in the absence of the Shine-Dalgarno interactions. FEBS Lett. 1994;337:189-94 pubmed
    ..Protein S1 appears to be a key recognition element. S1 binds to sequences within the leaders of (-SD)mRNAs thus providing their affinity to E. coli ribosomes...
  17. Sørensen M, Fricke J, Pedersen S. Ribosomal protein S1 is required for translation of most, if not all, natural mRNAs in Escherichia coli in vivo. J Mol Biol. 1998;280:561-9 pubmed
    We have deleted the chromosomal rpsA gene, encoding ribosomal protein S1, from an Escherichia coli strain carrying a plasmid where rpsA was controlled by the lac promoter and operator...
  18. Bordeau V, Felden B. Ribosomal protein S1 induces a conformational change of tmRNA; more than one protein S1 per molecule of tmRNA. Biochimie. 2002;84:723-9 pubmed
    ..Ribosomal protein(s) S1 is proposed to set tmRNA in the mRNA mode, relieving strains that may develop when translating a looped mRNA. ..
  19. Komarova A, Chufistova L, Aseev L, Boni I. [An Escherichia coli strain producing a leaderless mRNA from the chromosomal lac promoter]. Bioorg Khim. 2005;31:557-60 pubmed
  20. Kamen R. Characterization of the subunits of Q-beta replicase. Nature. 1970;228:527-33 pubmed
  21. Valle M, Gillet R, Kaur S, Henne A, Ramakrishnan V, Frank J. Visualizing tmRNA entry into a stalled ribosome. Science. 2003;300:127-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The structure reveals how tmRNA could move through the ribosome despite its complicated topology and also suggests roles for proteins S1 and SmpB in the function of tmRNA...
  22. Tsareva N, Muzychenko M, Boni I. [Analysis of the secondary structure of the regulatory region of mRNA of the Escherichia coli rpsA gene]. Bioorg Khim. 1993;19:968-77 pubmed
    The rpsA gene of E. coli coding for the ribosomal protein S1 was inserted into the plasmid pGEM-3Z under the control of a T7 promoter. The resulted plasmid was used for mRNA preparation in vitro...
  23. Skorski P, Leroy P, Fayet O, Dreyfus M, Hermann Le Denmat S. The highly efficient translation initiation region from the Escherichia coli rpsA gene lacks a shine-dalgarno element. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:6277-85 pubmed
    The translational initiation region (TIR) of the Escherichia coli rpsA gene, which encodes ribosomal protein S1, shows a number of unusual features...
  24. Skouv J, Schnier J, Rasmussen M, Subramanian A, Pedersen S. Ribosomal protein S1 of Escherichia coli is the effector for the regulation of its own synthesis. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:17044-9 pubmed
    To facilitate the study of the regulation of the rpsA gene, a translational fusion between the rpsA gene and the lacZ gene was constructed...
  25. Hindennach I, Stoffler G, Wittmann H. Ribosomal proteins. Isolation of the proteins from 30S ribosomal subunits of Escherichia coli. Eur J Biochem. 1971;23:7-11 pubmed
  26. Karzai A, Sauer R. Protein factors associated with the SsrA.SmpB tagging and ribosome rescue complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:3040-4 pubmed
  27. Subramanian A, van Duin J. Exchange of individual ribosomal proteins between ribosomes as studied by heavy isotope-transfer experiments. Mol Gen Genet. 1977;158:1-9 pubmed
    ..Protein L9 consistently showed appreciably greater exchange in transfer experiments as compared to the controls suggesting that it may exchange in vivo. ..
  28. Moll I, Resch A, Blasi U. Discrimination of 5'-terminal start codons by translation initiation factor 3 is mediated by ribosomal protein S1. FEBS Lett. 1998;436:213-7 pubmed
    ..This suggests that 5'-terminal start codons are recognised by IF3 as non-standard because of the lack of 16S rRNA-mRNA contacts. ..
  29. Adilakshmi T, Bellur D, Woodson S. Concurrent nucleation of 16S folding and induced fit in 30S ribosome assembly. Nature. 2008;455:1268-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Although early steps in assembly are linked to intrinsically stable rRNA structure, later steps correspond to regions of induced fit between the proteins and the rRNA. ..
  30. Boni I, Isaeva D. [Localization of RNA sites in bacteriophages Qbeta, fr and MS2 involved in interaction with ribosomal protein S1 during formation of complexes with 30S ribosomal subunit]. Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR. 1988;298:1015-8 pubmed
  31. Schnier J, Kimura M, Foulaki K, Subramanian A, Isono K, Wittmann Liebold B. Primary structure of Escherichia coli ribosomal protein S1 and of its gene rpsA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982;79:1008-11 pubmed
    ..coli MRE600) and the nucleotide sequence of the S1 gene (rpsA, of a K-12 strain)...
  32. Schnier J, Stoffler G, Nishi K. Deletion and insertion mutants in the structural gene for ribosomal protein S1 from Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1986;261:11866-71 pubmed
    Mutants have been constructed by deleting regions of the gene rpsA for ribosomal protein S1, which had been cloned in plasmid pACYC184...
  33. Kitakawa M, Isono K. An amber mutation in the gene rpsA for ribosomal protein S1 in Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1982;185:445-7 pubmed
    An amber mutation has been induced in the gene rpsA (which codes for ribosomal protein S1) of Escherichia coli K-12 strain in the presence of an amber suppressor (supD) and mutations sueA, sueB and sueC that additively enhance the ..
  34. Blumenthal T, Landers T, Weber K. Bacteriophage Q replicase contains the protein biosynthesis elongation factors EF Tu and EF Ts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1972;69:1313-7 pubmed
    ..In addition, Qbeta replicase activity can be reconstituted from subunits I and II with EF Tu and EF Ts. ..
  35. Windbichler N, von Pelchrzim F, Mayer O, Csaszar E, Schroeder R. Isolation of small RNA-binding proteins from E. coli: evidence for frequent interaction of RNAs with RNA polymerase. RNA Biol. 2008;5:30-40 pubmed
    ..Our observations show that RNA polymerase is able to bind and react with many different RNAs and we suggest that RNAs are involved in transcriptional regulation more frequently than anticipated. ..
  36. Kitakawa M, Blumenthal L, Isono K. Isolation and characterization of specialized transducing lambda phages carrying ribosomal protein genes of Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1980;180:343-9 pubmed
    ..It was found that proteins S6 and S18 synthesized in the cells irradiated with UV light were not modified under these conditions in which no concomitant ribosome assembly took place. ..
  37. Withey J, Friedman D. A salvage pathway for protein structures: tmRNA and trans-translation. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2003;57:101-23 pubmed
    ..Both the release of stalled ribosomes and the subsequent degradation of tagged proteins are important consequences of trans-translation. ..
  38. Boni I, Isaeva D, Budovskiĭ E. [Ribosomal protein S1 in the complex of E. coli ribosomal subunit 30S with phage MS2 RNA interacts with internal region of the replicase gene]. Bioorg Khim. 1986;12:293-6 pubmed
    ..The possible spatial proximity between these two regions is discussed. ..
  39. Berk V, Zhang W, Pai R, Cate J, Cate J. Structural basis for mRNA and tRNA positioning on the ribosome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:15830-4 pubmed
    ..Binding of the anticodon stem-loop of P-site tRNA to the ribosome is sufficient to lock the head of the small ribosomal subunit in a single conformation, thereby preventing movement of mRNA and tRNA before mRNA decoding. ..
  40. Wegleńska A, Jacob B, Sirko A. Transcriptional pattern of Escherichia coli ihfB (himD) gene expression. Gene. 1996;181:85-8 pubmed
    ..The ihfB gene is expressed as both monocistronic and polycistronic (hybridizing also to an internal rpsA probe) transcript...
  41. Himeno H, Hanawa Suetsugu K, Kimura T, Takagi K, Sugiyama W, Shirata S, et al. A novel GTPase activated by the small subunit of ribosome. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:5303-9 pubmed
    ..We also found that 17S RNA, a putative precursor of 16S rRNA, was contained in the small subunit of the ribosome from the RsgA-deletion strain. RsgA is a novel GTPase that might provide a new insight into the function of ribosome. ..
  42. Vecerek B, Beich Frandsen M, Resch A, Blasi U. Translational activation of rpoS mRNA by the non-coding RNA DsrA and Hfq does not require ribosome binding. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:1284-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest a simple mechanistic model in which translational activation by DsrA provides a translationally competent rpoS mRNA to which 30S subunits can readily bind. ..
  43. Schnier J, Isono K. The DNA sequence of the gene rpsA of Escherichia coli coding for ribosomal protein S1. Nucleic Acids Res. 1982;10:1857-65 pubmed
    The DNA sequence of the gene rpsA as well as of its neighboring regions has been determined using the dideoxyribonucleotide method. It was found that there is an "open-reading-frame" of 350 bp which precedes the gene rpsA...
  44. Flamm E, Weisberg R. Primary structure of the hip gene of Escherichia coli and of its product, the beta subunit of integration host factor. J Mol Biol. 1985;183:117-28 pubmed
    ..upstream from the initial AUG codon and about 75 base-pairs downstream from the 3' end of the neighboring gene, rpsA, and we constructed an IHF beta overproducer by fusing the coding sequences to the lambda pL promoter...
  45. Tchufistova L, Komarova A, Boni I. A key role for the mRNA leader structure in translational control of ribosomal protein S1 synthesis in gamma-proteobacteria. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:6996-7002 pubmed
    The translation initiation region (TIR) of the Escherichia coli rpsA mRNA coding for ribosomal protein S1 is characterized by a remarkable efficiency in driving protein synthesis despite the absence of the canonical Shine-Dalgarno element,..
  46. Hori K, Harada K, Kuwano M. Function of bacteriophage Qbeta replicase containing an altered subunit IV. J Mol Biol. 1974;86:699-708 pubmed
  47. Christiansen L, Pedersen S. Cloning, restriction endonuclease mapping and post-transcriptional regulation of rpsA, the structural gene for ribosomal protein S1. Mol Gen Genet. 1981;181:548-51 pubmed
    ..5 min on the E. coli map. One of these phages, lambda aspC2, carries rpsA, the structural gene for the ribosomal protein S1...
  48. Daigle D, Brown E. Studies of the interaction of Escherichia coli YjeQ with the ribosome in vitro. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:1381-7 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that the YjeQ protein participates in a guanine nucleotide-dependent interaction with the ribosome and implicate this conserved, essential GTPase as a novel factor in ribosome function. ..
  49. Wower I, Zwieb C, Wower J. Contributions of pseudoknots and protein SmpB to the structure and function of tmRNA in trans-translation. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:54202-9 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results provide unanticipated insights into the functions of the pseudoknots and protein SmpB during tmRNA folding, maturation, and protein synthesis. ..
  50. Shiba K, Ito K, Yura T. Suppressors of the secY24 mutation: identification and characterization of additional ssy genes in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1986;166:849-56 pubmed
    ..5 min between tsx and lon; ssyD around 3 min; ssyE at 72.5 min near secY; ssyF at 20.5 min within rpsA; and ssyG at 69.0 min near argG...
  51. Robertson E, Nicholson A. Phosphorylation of Escherichia coli translation initiation factors by the bacteriophage T7 protein kinase. Biochemistry. 1992;31:4822-7 pubmed
    ..These results provide the first evidence for the functional involvement of protein phosphorylation in the control of bacterial translation. ..
  52. Freestone P, Grant S, Toth I, Norris V. Identification of phosphoproteins in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1995;15:573-80 pubmed
    ..In addition, a calcium-stimulated protein of 70 kDa was identified as the heat-shock protein DnaK, and a 17 kDa lipid-stimulated phosphoprotein as nucleotide diphosphate kinase...
  53. Kondo M, Gallerani R, Weissmann C. Subunit structure of Q-beta replicase. Nature. 1970;228:525-7 pubmed
  54. Landers T, Blumenthal T, Weber K. Function and structure in ribonucleic acid phage Q beta ribonucleic acid replicase. The roles of the different subunits in transcription of synthetic templates. J Biol Chem. 1974;249:5801-8 pubmed
  55. Andersen E, Rosenblad M, Larsen N, Westergaard J, Burks J, Wower I, et al. The tmRDB and SRPDB resources. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:D163-8 pubmed publisher
    ..All alignments can be easily examined using a new exploratory browser. The databases provide links to high-resolution structures and serve as depositories for structures obtained by molecular modeling...
  56. Noller H, Hoang L, Fredrick K. The 30S ribosomal P site: a function of 16S rRNA. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:855-8 pubmed
    ..Deletion of these tails now shows that the 16S rRNA contacts alone are sufficient to support protein synthesis in living cells. ..
  57. Kita H, Cho J, Matsuura T, Nakaishi T, Taniguchi I, Ichikawa T, et al. Functional Qbeta replicase genetically fusing essential subunits EF-Ts and EF-Tu with beta-subunit. J Biosci Bioeng. 2006;101:421-6 pubmed
    ..The fused protein, a single-chain alpha-less Qbeta replicase, was mostly found in the soluble fraction and could be readily purified. These results pave the way for the large-scale production of the highly purified form of this enzyme. ..
  58. Odaert B, Saida F, Aliprandi P, Durand S, Créchet J, Guerois R, et al. Structural and functional studies of RegB, a new member of a family of sequence-specific ribonucleases involved in mRNA inactivation on the ribosome. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:2019-28 pubmed
    ..Although these ribonucleases have different catalytic sites, we propose that RegB is a new member of the RelE/YoeB structural and functional family of ribonucleases specialized in mRNA inactivation within the ribosome. ..
  59. Durand S, Richard G, Bisaglia M, Laalami S, Bontems F, Uzan M. Activation of RegB endoribonuclease by S1 ribosomal protein requires an 11 nt conserved sequence. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:6549-60 pubmed
    ..Our data support the notion that RegB alone recognizes only the trinucleotide GGA, which it cleaves very inefficiently, and that stimulation of RegB activity by S1 depends on the nucleotide immediately 3' to -GGA-. ..
  60. Pedersen S, Skouv J, Kajitani M, Ishihama A. Transcriptional organization of the rpsA operon of Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1984;196:135-40 pubmed
    Three strong and two minor rpsA promoters were found by nuclease S1 mapping, promoter cloning and in vitro transcription. The longest transcript encodes a protein, located upstream from rpsA with a molecular weight of 25,000...
  61. Duval M, Korepanov A, Fuchsbauer O, Fechter P, Haller A, Fabbretti A, et al. Escherichia coli ribosomal protein S1 unfolds structured mRNAs onto the ribosome for active translation initiation. PLoS Biol. 2013;11:e1001731 pubmed publisher
    ..This work shows that S1 confers to the ribosome dynamic properties to initiate translation of a large set of mRNAs with diverse structural features. ..
  62. Artamonova V, Boni I. [Mutation ssF29 in the gene for E. coli ribosomal protein S1, suppressing a defect in transmembrane protein transport results from insertion of the IS10R element]. Bioorg Khim. 1996;22:941-3 pubmed
    ..The ssyF mutation was found to result from insertion of the IS10(R) element which causes the termination of translation of ..
  63. Fricke J, Neuhard J, Kelln R, Pedersen S. The cmk gene encoding cytidine monophosphate kinase is located in the rpsA operon and is required for normal replication rate in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:517-23 pubmed
    A gene encoding a polypeptide of 25 kDa is located immediately upstream of the gene for ribosomal protein S1, rpsA. In high gene copy number, this gene, mssA, was previously found to suppress defects in smbA, which is now known to be ..
  64. Kamen R, Kondo M, Römer W, Weissmann C. Reconstitution of Q replicase lacking subunit with protein-synthesis-interference factor i. Eur J Biochem. 1972;31:44-51 pubmed
  65. Wahba A, Miller M, Niveleau A, Landers T, Carmichael G, Weber K, et al. Subunit I of G beta replicase and 30 S ribosomal protein S1 of Escherichia coli. Evidence for the identity of the two proteins. J Biol Chem. 1974;249:3314-6 pubmed
  66. Miyajima A, Kaziro Y. Coordination of levels of elongation factors Tu, Ts, and G, and ribosomal protein SI in Escherichia coli. J Biochem. 1978;83:453-62 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that in E. coli the syntheses of the above four proteins are regulated in a coordinated manner and are subject to stringent control. ..