rpoS

Summary

Gene Symbol: rpoS
Description: RNA polymerase, sigma S (sigma 38) factor
Alias: ECK2736, JW5437, abrD, appR, csi2, dpeB, katF, nur, otsX, sigS
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
Products:     rpoS

Top Publications

  1. Soper T, Woodson S. The rpoS mRNA leader recruits Hfq to facilitate annealing with DsrA sRNA. RNA. 2008;14:1907-17 pubmed publisher
    ..DsrA sRNA stimulates translation of the RpoS stress response factor in Escherichia coli by base-pairing with the 5' leader of the rpoS mRNA and opening a stem-..
  2. Wise A, Brems R, Ramakrishnan V, Villarejo M. Sequences in the -35 region of Escherichia coli rpoS-dependent genes promote transcription by E sigma S. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:2785-93 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that DNA sequences in the -35 region function as part of a discriminator mechanism to shift transcription between E sigma D and E sigma S. ..
  3. Bougdour A, Wickner S, Gottesman S. Modulating RssB activity: IraP, a novel regulator of sigma(S) stability in Escherichia coli. Genes Dev. 2006;20:884-97 pubmed
    ..Our results reveal a novel mechanism of regulation of sigma(S) stability through the regulation of RssB activity and identify IraP as a member of a new class of regulators, the anti-adaptor proteins. ..
  4. Chang Y, Wang A, Cronan J. Expression of Escherichia coli pyruvate oxidase (PoxB) depends on the sigma factor encoded by the rpoS(katF) gene. Mol Microbiol. 1994;11:1019-28 pubmed
    ..We report that PoxB activity is dependent on a functional rpoS(katF) gene which encodes a sigma factor required to transcribe a number of stationary-phase-induced genes...
  5. Worhunsky D, Godek K, Litsch S, Schlax P. Interactions of the non-coding RNA DsrA and RpoS mRNA with the 30 S ribosomal subunit. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:15815-24 pubmed
    Expression of sigma(s), the gene product of rpoS, is controlled translationally in response to many environmental stresses...
  6. Guillemet M, Moreau P. Fur-dependent detoxification of organic acids by rpoS mutants during prolonged incubation under aerobic, phosphate starvation conditions. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:5567-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We show in this work that rpoS-null mutants incubated in the absence of any amino acid survived during prolonged incubation under aerobic, P(i) ..
  7. Dong T, Kirchhof M, Schellhorn H. RpoS regulation of gene expression during exponential growth of Escherichia coli K12. Mol Genet Genomics. 2008;279:267-77 pubmed
    b>RpoS is a major regulator of genes required for adaptation to stationary phase in E. coli...
  8. King T, Ishihama A, Kori A, Ferenci T. A regulatory trade-off as a source of strain variation in the species Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:5614-20 pubmed
    ..we report on isolates of Escherichia coli with distinct ratios of sigma factors (RpoD, sigmaD, or sigma70 and RpoS or sigmaS) that affect transcription initiated by RNA polymerase. Both laboratory E...
  9. Typas A, Becker G, Hengge R. The molecular basis of selective promoter activation by the sigmaS subunit of RNA polymerase. Mol Microbiol. 2007;63:1296-306 pubmed
    ..how the principle sigma factor in stationary phase and in stressful conditions in Escherichia coli, sigmaS (RpoS), can specifically target its large regulon in vivo, although it is known to recognize the same core promoter ..
  10. Becker G, Hengge Aronis R. What makes an Escherichia coli promoter sigma(S) dependent? Role of the -13/-14 nucleotide promoter positions and region 2.5 of sigma(S). Mol Microbiol. 2001;39:1153-65 pubmed
    ..5 in sigmaS in transcription initiation. Moreover, we propose a consensus sequence for a sigmaS-selective promoter and discuss its emergence and functional properties from an evolutionary point of view. ..

Detail Information

Publications76

  1. Soper T, Woodson S. The rpoS mRNA leader recruits Hfq to facilitate annealing with DsrA sRNA. RNA. 2008;14:1907-17 pubmed publisher
    ..DsrA sRNA stimulates translation of the RpoS stress response factor in Escherichia coli by base-pairing with the 5' leader of the rpoS mRNA and opening a stem-..
  2. Wise A, Brems R, Ramakrishnan V, Villarejo M. Sequences in the -35 region of Escherichia coli rpoS-dependent genes promote transcription by E sigma S. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:2785-93 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that DNA sequences in the -35 region function as part of a discriminator mechanism to shift transcription between E sigma D and E sigma S. ..
  3. Bougdour A, Wickner S, Gottesman S. Modulating RssB activity: IraP, a novel regulator of sigma(S) stability in Escherichia coli. Genes Dev. 2006;20:884-97 pubmed
    ..Our results reveal a novel mechanism of regulation of sigma(S) stability through the regulation of RssB activity and identify IraP as a member of a new class of regulators, the anti-adaptor proteins. ..
  4. Chang Y, Wang A, Cronan J. Expression of Escherichia coli pyruvate oxidase (PoxB) depends on the sigma factor encoded by the rpoS(katF) gene. Mol Microbiol. 1994;11:1019-28 pubmed
    ..We report that PoxB activity is dependent on a functional rpoS(katF) gene which encodes a sigma factor required to transcribe a number of stationary-phase-induced genes...
  5. Worhunsky D, Godek K, Litsch S, Schlax P. Interactions of the non-coding RNA DsrA and RpoS mRNA with the 30 S ribosomal subunit. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:15815-24 pubmed
    Expression of sigma(s), the gene product of rpoS, is controlled translationally in response to many environmental stresses...
  6. Guillemet M, Moreau P. Fur-dependent detoxification of organic acids by rpoS mutants during prolonged incubation under aerobic, phosphate starvation conditions. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:5567-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We show in this work that rpoS-null mutants incubated in the absence of any amino acid survived during prolonged incubation under aerobic, P(i) ..
  7. Dong T, Kirchhof M, Schellhorn H. RpoS regulation of gene expression during exponential growth of Escherichia coli K12. Mol Genet Genomics. 2008;279:267-77 pubmed
    b>RpoS is a major regulator of genes required for adaptation to stationary phase in E. coli...
  8. King T, Ishihama A, Kori A, Ferenci T. A regulatory trade-off as a source of strain variation in the species Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:5614-20 pubmed
    ..we report on isolates of Escherichia coli with distinct ratios of sigma factors (RpoD, sigmaD, or sigma70 and RpoS or sigmaS) that affect transcription initiated by RNA polymerase. Both laboratory E...
  9. Typas A, Becker G, Hengge R. The molecular basis of selective promoter activation by the sigmaS subunit of RNA polymerase. Mol Microbiol. 2007;63:1296-306 pubmed
    ..how the principle sigma factor in stationary phase and in stressful conditions in Escherichia coli, sigmaS (RpoS), can specifically target its large regulon in vivo, although it is known to recognize the same core promoter ..
  10. Becker G, Hengge Aronis R. What makes an Escherichia coli promoter sigma(S) dependent? Role of the -13/-14 nucleotide promoter positions and region 2.5 of sigma(S). Mol Microbiol. 2001;39:1153-65 pubmed
    ..5 in sigmaS in transcription initiation. Moreover, we propose a consensus sequence for a sigmaS-selective promoter and discuss its emergence and functional properties from an evolutionary point of view. ..
  11. Mulvey M, Loewen P. Nucleotide sequence of katF of Escherichia coli suggests KatF protein is a novel sigma transcription factor. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989;17:9979-91 pubmed
    The katF gene of Escherichia coli has been sequenced revealing a 1086 base pair open reading frame from which the sequence of a 362 amino acid protein has been deduced...
  12. Repoila F, Majdalani N, Gottesman S. Small non-coding RNAs, co-ordinators of adaptation processes in Escherichia coli: the RpoS paradigm. Mol Microbiol. 2003;48:855-61 pubmed
    ..This suggests that they play a role in cell adaptation. In this review, we use the regulation of RpoS (sigma38) translation as a paradigm of sRNA-mediated response to environmental conditions; rpoS is currently the ..
  13. Ruiz N, Silhavy T. Constitutive activation of the Escherichia coli Pho regulon upregulates rpoS translation in an Hfq-dependent fashion. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:5984-92 pubmed
    Regulation of the sigma factor RpoS occurs at the levels of transcription, translation, and protein stability activity, and it determines whether Escherichia coli turns on or off the stationary-phase response...
  14. Ferenci T. What is driving the acquisition of mutS and rpoS polymorphisms in Escherichia coli?. Trends Microbiol. 2003;11:457-61 pubmed
    Pathogenic and commensal Escherichia coli isolates frequently contain defective alleles of the mutS and rpoS genes, located in a highly polymorphic segment of the chromosome...
  15. Weber H, Polen T, Heuveling J, Wendisch V, Hengge R. Genome-wide analysis of the general stress response network in Escherichia coli: sigmaS-dependent genes, promoters, and sigma factor selectivity. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:1591-603 pubmed
    The sigmaS (or RpoS) subunit of RNA polymerase is the master regulator of the general stress response in Escherichia coli...
  16. Hengge R. Proteolysis of sigmaS (RpoS) and the general stress response in Escherichia coli. Res Microbiol. 2009;160:667-76 pubmed publisher
    The sigma(S) (RpoS) subunit of RNA polymerase is the master regulator of the general stress response in Escherichia coli. Regulation of sigma(S) occurs at the levels of transcription, translation, proteolysis and protein activity...
  17. Flores N, Escalante A, de Anda R, Báez Viveros J, Merino E, Franco B, et al. New insights into the role of sigma factor RpoS as revealed in escherichia coli strains lacking the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008;14:176-92 pubmed
    It has been demonstrated that about 10% of the Escherichia coli genes are under direct or indirect control of RpoS. Therefore, Weber et al...
  18. Lease R, Belfort M. A trans-acting RNA as a control switch in Escherichia coli: DsrA modulates function by forming alternative structures. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:9919-24 pubmed
    ..regulatory RNA of Escherichia coli that acts in trans by RNA-RNA interactions with two different mRNAs, hns and rpoS. DsrA has opposite effects on these transcriptional regulators...
  19. Subbarayan P, Sarkar M. A stop codon-dependent internal secondary translation initiation region in Escherichia coli rpoS. RNA. 2004;10:1359-65 pubmed
    Sigma S (sigmaS) encoded by rpoS is a stationary phase-specific sigma subunit of the Escherichia coli RNA polymerase holoenzyme. In many E...
  20. Patten C, Kirchhof M, Schertzberg M, Morton R, Schellhorn H. Microarray analysis of RpoS-mediated gene expression in Escherichia coli K-12. Mol Genet Genomics. 2004;272:580-91 pubmed
    The alternative sigma factor RpoS controls the expression of many stationary-phase genes in Escherichia coli and other bacteria...
  21. Rajkumari K, Gowrishankar J. An N-terminally truncated RpoS (sigma(S)) protein in Escherichia coli is active in vivo and exhibits normal environmental regulation even in the absence of rpoS transcriptional and translational control signals. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:3167-75 pubmed
    b>RpoS (sigma(S)) in Escherichia coli is a stationary-phase-specific primary sigma factor of RNA polymerase which is 330 amino acids long and belongs to the eubacterial sigma(70) family of proteins. Conserved domain 1...
  22. Jishage M, Kvint K, Shingler V, Nystrom T. Regulation of sigma factor competition by the alarmone ppGpp. Genes Dev. 2002;16:1260-70 pubmed
    ..Thus, the stringent response encompasses a mechanism that alters the relative competitiveness of sigma factors in accordance with cellular demands during physiological stress. ..
  23. Farewell A, Kvint K, Nystrom T. Negative regulation by RpoS: a case of sigma factor competition. Mol Microbiol. 1998;29:1039-51 pubmed
    A mutation in the Escherichia coli gene encoding the stationary phase-inducible sigma factor (sigmaS, RpoS) not only abolishes transcription of some genes in stationary phase, but also causes superinduction of other stationary phase-..
  24. King T, Seeto S, Ferenci T. Genotype-by-environment interactions influencing the emergence of rpoS mutations in Escherichia coli populations. Genetics. 2006;172:2071-9 pubmed
    Polymorphisms in rpoS are common in Escherichia coli. rpoS status influences a trade-off between nutrition and stress resistance and hence fitness across different environments...
  25. Becker G, Klauck E, Hengge Aronis R. Regulation of RpoS proteolysis in Escherichia coli: the response regulator RssB is a recognition factor that interacts with the turnover element in RpoS. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:6439-44 pubmed
    The degradation of the RpoS (sigmaS) subunit of RNA polymerase in Escherichia coli is a prime example of regulated proteolysis in prokaryotes...
  26. Ferenci T. Maintaining a healthy SPANC balance through regulatory and mutational adaptation. Mol Microbiol. 2005;57:1-8 pubmed
    ..Porin-mediated outer membrane permeability and the RpoS-controlled general stress response both involve a trade-off between self-preservation and nutritional competence, ..
  27. Igarashi K, Kashiwagi K. Polyamine Modulon in Escherichia coli: genes involved in the stimulation of cell growth by polyamines. J Biochem. 2006;139:11-6 pubmed
    ..protein (OppA), which is important for nutrient supply, adenylate cyclase (Cya), RNA polymerase sigma(38) subunit (RpoS), transcription factor of iron transport operon (FecI), and transcription factor of growth-related genes including ..
  28. Arluison V, Hohng S, Roy R, Pellegrini O, Regnier P, Ha T. Spectroscopic observation of RNA chaperone activities of Hfq in post-transcriptional regulation by a small non-coding RNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:999-1006 pubmed
    ..transfer assay to probe how Hfq modulates the interaction between a sRNA, DsrA, and its regulatory target mRNA, rpoS. The relevant RNA fragments were labelled so that changes in intra- and intermolecular RNA structures can be ..
  29. Resch A, Afonyushkin T, Lombo T, McDowall K, Blasi U, Kaberdin V. Translational activation by the noncoding RNA DsrA involves alternative RNase III processing in the rpoS 5'-leader. RNA. 2008;14:454-9 pubmed publisher
    The intricate regulation of the Escherichia coli rpoS gene, which encodes the stationary phase sigma-factor sigmaS, includes translational activation by the noncoding RNA DsrA...
  30. Koleva R, Austin C, Kowaleski J, Neems D, Wang L, Vary C, et al. Interactions of ribosomal protein S1 with DsrA and rpoS mRNA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;348:662-8 pubmed
    Ribosomal protein S1 is shown to interact with the non-coding RNA DsrA and with rpoS mRNA. DsrA is a non-coding RNA that is important in controlling expression of the rpoS gene product in Escherichia coli...
  31. Merrikh H, Ferrazzoli A, Lovett S. Growth phase and (p)ppGpp control of IraD, a regulator of RpoS stability, in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:7436-46 pubmed publisher
    The antiadaptor protein IraD inhibits the proteolysis of the alternative sigma factor, RpoS, which promotes the synthesis of >100 genes during the general stress response and during stationary phase...
  32. Zinser E, Kolter R. Escherichia coli evolution during stationary phase. Res Microbiol. 2004;155:328-36 pubmed
    ..Investigation of these mutations has revealed insights into the molecular and physiological bases of evolution during prolonged starvation stress. ..
  33. Gaal T, Ross W, Estrem S, Nguyen L, Burgess R, Gourse R. Promoter recognition and discrimination by EsigmaS RNA polymerase. Mol Microbiol. 2001;42:939-54 pubmed
    ..DNA recognition by EsigmaS versus Esigma70 thus presents an alternative solution to the problem of promoter selectivity. ..
  34. Gowrishankar J, Yamamoto K, Subbarayan P, Ishihama A. In vitro properties of RpoS (sigma(S)) mutants of Escherichia coli with postulated N-terminal subregion 1.1 or C-terminal region 4 deleted. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:2673-9 pubmed
    ..1 of sigma(70), substitutions in which have previously been shown to rectify the anomalous electrophoretic migration of sigma(70) (V. Gopal and D. Chatterji, Eur. J. Biochem. 244:614-618, 1997). ..
  35. Majdalani N, Hernandez D, Gottesman S. Regulation and mode of action of the second small RNA activator of RpoS translation, RprA. Mol Microbiol. 2002;46:813-26 pubmed
    Translation of the stationary phase sigma factor RpoS is stimulated by at least two small RNAs, DsrA and RprA. DsrA disrupts an inhibitory secondary structure in the rpoS leader mRNA by pairing with the upstream RNA...
  36. Bougdour A, Cunning C, Baptiste P, Elliott T, Gottesman S. Multiple pathways for regulation of sigmaS (RpoS) stability in Escherichia coli via the action of multiple anti-adaptors. Mol Microbiol. 2008;68:298-313 pubmed
    ..Our results reveal that multiple anti-adaptor proteins allow the regulation of sigmaS stability through the regulation of RssB activity under a variety of stress conditions...
  37. Rahman M, Hasan M, Oba T, Shimizu K. Effect of rpoS gene knockout on the metabolism of Escherichia coli during exponential growth phase and early stationary phase based on gene expressions, enzyme activities and intracellular metabolite concentrations. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2006;94:585-95 pubmed
    The RNA polymerase sigma factor, encoded by rpoS gene, controls the expression of a large number of genes in Escherichia coli under stress conditions...
  38. Merrikh H, Ferrazzoli A, Bougdour A, Olivier Mason A, Lovett S. A DNA damage response in Escherichia coli involving the alternative sigma factor, RpoS. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:611-6 pubmed publisher
    ..are consistent with the function of IraD to promote accumulation of the alternative transcription sigma factor, RpoS, by binding to the adaptor RssB protein that targets RpoS for degradation...
  39. Hengge Aronis R. Signal transduction and regulatory mechanisms involved in control of the sigma(S) (RpoS) subunit of RNA polymerase. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2002;66:373-95, table of contents pubmed
    The sigma(S) (RpoS) subunit of RNA polymerase is the master regulator of the general stress response in Escherichia coli and related bacteria...
  40. Vijayakumar S, Kirchhof M, Patten C, Schellhorn H. RpoS-regulated genes of Escherichia coli identified by random lacZ fusion mutagenesis. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:8499-507 pubmed
    b>RpoS is a conserved alternative sigma factor that regulates the expression of many stress response genes in Escherichia coli. The RpoS regulon is large but has not yet been completely characterized...
  41. Notley McRobb L, King T, Ferenci T. rpoS mutations and loss of general stress resistance in Escherichia coli populations as a consequence of conflict between competing stress responses. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:806-11 pubmed
    The general stress resistance of Escherichia coli is controlled by the RpoS sigma factor (phi(S)), but mutations in rpoS are surprisingly common in natural and laboratory populations...
  42. Gill R, Valdes J, Bentley W. A comparative study of global stress gene regulation in response to overexpression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. Metab Eng. 2000;2:178-89 pubmed
    ..ftsH, clpP, lon, ompT, degP, groEL, aceA, ibpA), SOS/DNA damage (recA, lon, IS5 transposase), stationary phase (rpoS, aceA), and bacteriophage life cycle (ftsH, recA) genes...
  43. Barth E, Gora K, Gebendorfer K, Settele F, Jakob U, Winter J. Interplay of cellular cAMP levels, {sigma}S activity and oxidative stress resistance in Escherichia coli. Microbiology. 2009;155:1680-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Downregulation of CRP in turn causes the derepression of rpoS, encoding the alternative sigma factor sigma(S), which activates the general stress response in E. coli...
  44. Mikulecky P, Kaw M, Brescia C, Takach J, Sledjeski D, Feig A. Escherichia coli Hfq has distinct interaction surfaces for DsrA, rpoS and poly(A) RNAs. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2004;11:1206-14 pubmed
    ..We tested the mutants' DsrA-dependent activation of rpoS, and their ability to stabilize DsrA ncRNA against degradation in vivo...
  45. Lacour S, Landini P. SigmaS-dependent gene expression at the onset of stationary phase in Escherichia coli: function of sigmaS-dependent genes and identification of their promoter sequences. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:7186-95 pubmed
    The sigma(S) subunit of RNA polymerase, the product of the rpoS gene, controls the expression of genes responding to starvation and cellular stresses...
  46. Subbarayan P, Sarkar M. A comparative study of variation in codon 33 of the rpoS gene in Escherichia coli K12 stocks: implications for the synthesis of sigma(s). Mol Genet Genomics. 2004;270:533-8 pubmed publisher
    The Escherichia coli rpoS gene encodes an RNA polymerase sigma factor (sigma S or sigma(S)) required for the expression of stationary-phase genes. In the first published rpoS sequence from E. coli K-12 codon 33 is given as CAG...
  47. Subbarayan P, Sarkar M. Escherichia coli rpoS gene has an internal secondary translation initiation region. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;313:294-9 pubmed
    Sigma S (sigma(s)) encoded by rpoS in Escherichia coli is a stationary phase specific sigma subunit of the RNA polymerase holoenzyme. Widespread among the E. coli K12 strains is an amber mutation that prematurely terminates sigma(s)...
  48. Lange R, Fischer D, Hengge Aronis R. Identification of transcriptional start sites and the role of ppGpp in the expression of rpoS, the structural gene for the sigma S subunit of RNA polymerase in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:4676-80 pubmed
    b>rpoS is the structural gene for the sigma S subunit of RNA polymerase which controls the expression of a large number of genes in Escherichia coli that are induced during entry into stationary phase or in response to increased medium ..
  49. Zhang A, Altuvia S, Tiwari A, Argaman L, Hengge Aronis R, Storz G. The OxyS regulatory RNA represses rpoS translation and binds the Hfq (HF-I) protein. EMBO J. 1998;17:6061-8 pubmed
    ..Among the OxyS targets is the rpoS-encoded sigma(s) subunit of RNA polymerase...
  50. Seputiene V, Daugelavicius A, Suziedelis K, Suziedeliene E. Acid response of exponentially growing Escherichia coli K-12. Microbiol Res. 2006;161:65-74 pubmed
    ..This AR required the glutamate-dependent AR system. Acid protection was largely dependent on RpoS in unadapted and adapted cells grown in minimal medium...
  51. Tsui H, Feng G, Winkler M. Negative regulation of mutS and mutH repair gene expression by the Hfq and RpoS global regulators of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:7476-87 pubmed
    ..Consequently, we tested whether the amounts of MutS, MutL, and MutH were regulated by two global regulators, RpoS (sigma38) and Hfq (HF-I [putative RNA chaperone]), which are involved in stationary-phase transition...
  52. Spira B, Hu X, Ferenci T. Strain variation in ppGpp concentration and RpoS levels in laboratory strains of Escherichia coli K-12. Microbiology. 2008;154:2887-95 pubmed publisher
    ..differ in their level of stress resistance due to strain variation in the level of the sigma factor sigma(S) (or RpoS), the transcriptional master controller of the general stress response...
  53. Trotochaud A, Wassarman K. 6S RNA function enhances long-term cell survival. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:4978-85 pubmed
    ..We conclude that 6S RNA regulation of both sigma(70) and sigma(S) activities contributes to increased cell persistence during nutrient deprivation. ..
  54. Freire P, Amaral J, Santos J, Arraiano C. Adaptation to carbon starvation: RNase III ensures normal expression levels of bolA1p mRNA and sigma(S). Biochimie. 2006;88:341-6 pubmed
    ..RNase III is furthermore shown to be necessary for the normal expression of sigma(S), ensuring normal levels of rpoS mRNA and sigma(S) protein under glucose starvation...
  55. Hirsch M, Elliott T. Role of ppGpp in rpoS stationary-phase regulation in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:5077-87 pubmed
    The bacterial sigma factor RpoS is strongly induced under a variety of stress conditions and during growth into stationary phase...
  56. Klauck E, Lingnau M, Hengge Aronis R. Role of the response regulator RssB in sigma recognition and initiation of sigma proteolysis in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2001;40:1381-90 pubmed
    In growing Escherichia coli cells, the master regulator of the general stress response, sigmaS (RpoS), is subject to rapid proteolysis...
  57. Sak B, Eisenstark A, Touati D. Exonuclease III and the catalase hydroperoxidase II in Escherichia coli are both regulated by the katF gene product. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:3271-5 pubmed
    ..xthA) and hydroperoxidase II (HP-II, product of katE) activity in Escherichia coli were influenced by a functional katF gene. The katF gene product is also necessary for synthesis of HP-II...
  58. Jung I, Kim S, Kim I. The RpoS-mediated regulation of isocitrate dehydrogenase gene expression in Escherichia coli. Curr Microbiol. 2006;52:21-6 pubmed
    ..Genetic inactivation of an rpoS gene, whose product is an alternative sigma factor, induced the icd gene expression approximately 4...
  59. Farrell M, Finkel S. The growth advantage in stationary-phase phenotype conferred by rpoS mutations is dependent on the pH and nutrient environment. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:7044-52 pubmed
    ..A common early adaptation to this culture environment is a mutant rpoS allele, such as rpoS819, that results in attenuated RpoS activity...
  60. Bouche S, Klauck E, Fischer D, Lucassen M, Jung K, Hengge Aronis R. Regulation of RssB-dependent proteolysis in Escherichia coli: a role for acetyl phosphate in a response regulator-controlled process. Mol Microbiol. 1998;27:787-95 pubmed
    Sigma(S) (RpoS) is a highly unstable global regulatory protein in Escherichia coli, whose degradation is inhibited by various stress signals, such as carbon starvation, high osmolarity and heat shock...
  61. Moreau P, Gerard F, Lutz N, Cozzone P. Non-growing Escherichia coli cells starved for glucose or phosphate use different mechanisms to survive oxidative stress. Mol Microbiol. 2001;39:1048-60 pubmed
    ..in an OxyR-dependent manner in response to H2O2 challenge, we found that the inactivation of oxyR and both oxyR and rpoS genes had little effect on the viability of Pi-starved cells...
  62. Zhou Y, Gottesman S. Modes of regulation of RpoS by H-NS. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:7022-5 pubmed
    Regulated degradation of RpoS requires RssB and ClpXP protease...
  63. Schweder T, Lee K, Lomovskaya O, Matin A. Regulation of Escherichia coli starvation sigma factor (sigma s) by ClpXP protease. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:470-6 pubmed
  64. Ishihama A. Protein-protein communication within the transcription apparatus. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:2483-9 pubmed
  65. Bordes P, Conter A, Morales V, Bouvier J, Kolb A, Gutierrez C. DNA supercoiling contributes to disconnect sigmaS accumulation from sigmaS-dependent transcription in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2003;48:561-71 pubmed
  66. Kolodkin Gal I, Engelberg Kulka H. The stationary-phase sigma factor sigma(S) is responsible for the resistance of Escherichia coli stationary-phase cells to mazEF-mediated cell death. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:3177-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Deletion of rpoS, the gene encoding sigma(S) from the bacterial chromosome, permitted mazEF-mediated cell death during stationary ..
  67. Rosenthal A, Hu M, Gralla J. Osmolyte-induced transcription: -35 region elements and recognition by sigma38 (rpoS). Mol Microbiol. 2006;59:1052-61 pubmed
    ..The ensuing transcriptional activation is mediated by unknown elements at sigma38 (rpoS)-dependent promoters...
  68. Ferrières L, Thompson A, Clarke D. Elevated levels of sigma S inhibit biofilm formation in Escherichia coli: a role for the Rcs phosphorelay. Microbiology. 2009;155:3544-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the Rcs phosphorelay is involved in maintaining appropriate levels of sigma(S) during biofilm formation in E. coli. ..
  69. Takayanagi Y, Tanaka K, Takahashi H. Structure of the 5' upstream region and the regulation of the rpoS gene of Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1994;243:525-31 pubmed
    The nucleotide sequence of the 5' upstream region of the Escherichia coli rpoS gene was determined and analyzed...
  70. Shiratsuchi A, Nitta M, Kuroda A, Komiyama C, Gawasawa M, Shimamoto N, et al. Inhibition of Phagocytic Killing of Escherichia coli in Drosophila Hemocytes by RNA Chaperone Hfq. J Immunol. 2016;197:1298-307 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study indicates that the RNA chaperone Hfq contributes to the persistent infection of E. coli by maintaining the expression of bacterial genes, including one coding for ?(38), that help bacteria evade host immunity. ..
  71. Joo D, Nolte A, Calendar R, Zhou Y, Jin D. Multiple regions on the Escherichia coli heat shock transcription factor sigma32 determine core RNA polymerase binding specificity. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:1095-102 pubmed
    ..2, and the other was in a region conserved only among heat shock sigma factors. These data suggest that there is more than one core RNAP binding region in sigma32 and that differences in contact sites probably exist among sigma factors. ..
  72. Muffler A, Fischer D, Hengge Aronis R. The RNA-binding protein HF-I, known as a host factor for phage Qbeta RNA replication, is essential for rpoS translation in Escherichia coli. Genes Dev. 1996;10:1143-51 pubmed
    The rpoS-encoded sigma(S) subunit of RNA polymerase in Escherichia coli is a global regulatory factor involved in several stress responses...
  73. Colland F, Fujita N, Kotlarz D, Bown J, Meares C, Ishihama A, et al. Positioning of sigma(S), the stationary phase sigma factor, in Escherichia coli RNA polymerase-promoter open complexes. EMBO J. 1999;18:4049-59 pubmed
    ..2 reacts only weakly with the -35 promoter element. This provides a structural basis for the minor role of the -35 sequence in sigma(S)-dependent promoter recognition. ..
  74. Moorthy S, Mahadevan S. Differential spectrum of mutations that activate the Escherichia coli bgl operon in an rpoS genetic background. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:4033-8 pubmed
    ..The rpoS-encoded sigmaS, the stationary-phase sigma factor, is involved in both physiological as well as genetic changes ..
  75. Kim E, Shin M, Rhee J, Choy H. Factors influencing preferential utilization of RNA polymerase containing sigma-38 in stationary-phase gene expression in Escherichia coli. J Microbiol. 2004;42:103-10 pubmed
    ..Thus, the preferential expression of stationary-phase genes by Esigma38 is unlikely the consequence of selective inhibition of Esigma70 by 6S RNA. ..