Gene Symbol: rpoH
Description: RNA polymerase, sigma 32 (sigma H) factor
Alias: ECK3445, JW3426, fam, hin, htpR
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
Products:     rpoH

Top Publications

  1. Grossman A, Erickson J, Gross C. The htpR gene product of E. coli is a sigma factor for heat-shock promoters. Cell. 1984;38:383-90 pubmed
    The htpR gene of E. coli encodes a positive regulator of the heat-shock response. We have fused the htpR gene to the inducible PL promoter of phage lambda...
  2. Guisbert E, Yura T, Rhodius V, Gross C. Convergence of molecular, modeling, and systems approaches for an understanding of the Escherichia coli heat shock response. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2008;72:545-54 pubmed publisher
    ..coli and discuss how these additional components contribute to regulation. Finally, we discuss recent genomic experiments that reveal additional functional aspects of the HSR. ..
  3. Obrist M, Narberhaus F. Identification of a turnover element in region 2.1 of Escherichia coli sigma32 by a bacterial one-hybrid approach. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:3807-13 pubmed
    Induction of the heat shock response in Escherichia coli requires the alternative sigma factor sigma32 (RpoH)...
  4. Bukau B, Walker G. Mutations altering heat shock specific subunit of RNA polymerase suppress major cellular defects of E. coli mutants lacking the DnaK chaperone. EMBO J. 1990;9:4027-36 pubmed
    ..Of the five suppressors we analyzed, four were of the sidB class and mapped within rpoH, which encodes the heat shock specific sigma subunit (sigma 32) of RNA polymerase...
  5. Ito K, Akiyama Y, Yura T, Shiba K. Diverse effects of the MalE-LacZ hybrid protein on Escherichia coli cell physiology. J Bacteriol. 1986;167:201-4 pubmed
    ..This latter effect was dependent on the htpR gene product but independent of the function of the signal sequence on the hybrid protein...
  6. Erickson J, Gross C. Identification of the sigma E subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase: a second alternate sigma factor involved in high-temperature gene expression. Genes Dev. 1989;3:1462-71 pubmed
    The rpoH gene of Escherichia coli encodes sigma 32, the 32-kD sigma-factor responsible for the heat-inducible transcription of the heat shock genes. rpoH is transcribed from at least three promoters...
  7. Tatsuta T, Tomoyasu T, Bukau B, Kitagawa M, Mori H, Karata K, et al. Heat shock regulation in the ftsH null mutant of Escherichia coli: dissection of stability and activity control mechanisms of sigma32 in vivo. Mol Microbiol. 1998;30:583-93 pubmed
    ..In addition, CbpA, an analogue of DnaJ, was demonstrated to have overlapping functions with DnaJ in both the activity and the stability control of sigma32. ..
  8. Yura T, Guisbert E, Poritz M, Lu C, Campbell E, Gross C. Analysis of sigma32 mutants defective in chaperone-mediated feedback control reveals unexpected complexity of the heat shock response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:17638-43 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the mutants identify a regulatory step downstream of chaperone binding that is required for both inactivation and degradation of sigma32. ..
  9. Kanemori M, Nishihara K, Yanagi H, Yura T. Synergistic roles of HslVU and other ATP-dependent proteases in controlling in vivo turnover of sigma32 and abnormal proteins in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:7219-25 pubmed
    ..during steady-state growth induces the heat shock response by stabilizing normally unstable sigma32 (encoded by the rpoH gene) specifically required for transcription of heat shock genes...

More Information


  1. Tomoyasu T, Arsene F, Ogura T, Bukau B. The C terminus of sigma(32) is not essential for degradation by FtsH. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:5911-7 pubmed
    ..These results indicate an important role for the C terminus of sigma(32) in RNA polymerase binding but no essential role for FtsH-dependent degradation and association of chaperones. ..
  2. Tomoyasu T, Ogura T, Tatsuta T, Bukau B. Levels of DnaK and DnaJ provide tight control of heat shock gene expression and protein repair in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1998;30:567-81 pubmed
    ..DnaK and DnaJ thus constitute the primary stress-sensing and transducing system of the E. coli heat shock response, which detects protein misfolding with high sensitivity. ..
  3. Morita M, Kanemori M, Yanagi H, Yura T. Heat-induced synthesis of sigma32 in Escherichia coli: structural and functional dissection of rpoH mRNA secondary structure. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:401-10 pubmed
    ..coli depends primarily on the increased synthesis and stabilization of otherwise scarce and unstable sigma32 (rpoH gene product), which is required for the transcription of heat shock genes...
  4. Blaszczak A, Georgopoulos C, Liberek K. On the mechanism of FtsH-dependent degradation of the sigma 32 transcriptional regulator of Escherichia coli and the role of the Dnak chaperone machine. Mol Microbiol. 1999;31:157-66 pubmed
  5. Arsene F, Tomoyasu T, Bukau B. The heat shock response of Escherichia coli. Int J Food Microbiol. 2000;55:3-9 pubmed
    ..The E. coli heat shock response is positively controlled at the transcriptional level by the product of the rpoH gene, the heat shock promoter-specific sigma32 subunit of RNA polymerase...
  6. Tilly K, Erickson J, Sharma S, Georgopoulos C. Heat shock regulatory gene rpoH mRNA level increases after heat shock in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1986;168:1155-8 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli rpoH gene product sigma 32 is essential for the increase in heat shock gene transcription found after exposure of the bacteria to a sudden temperature increase...
  7. Guisbert E, Herman C, Lu C, Gross C. A chaperone network controls the heat shock response in E. coli. Genes Dev. 2004;18:2812-21 pubmed
    ..We discuss why using a chaperone network to regulate sigma32 results in a more sensitive and accurate detection of the protein folding environment. ..
  8. Tilly K, Spence J, Georgopoulos C. Modulation of stability of the Escherichia coli heat shock regulatory factor sigma. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:1585-9 pubmed
    ..The heat shock response of Escherichia coli is under the positive control of the sigma 32 protein (the product of the rpoH gene)...
  9. Morita M, Tanaka Y, Kodama T, Kyogoku Y, Yanagi H, Yura T. Translational induction of heat shock transcription factor sigma32: evidence for a built-in RNA thermosensor. Genes Dev. 1999;13:655-65 pubmed
    ..coli is primarily caused by increased cellular levels of the heat shock sigma-factor sigma32 encoded by the rpoH gene. Increased sigma32 levels result from both enhanced synthesis and stabilization...
  10. Gamer J, Bujard H, Bukau B. Physical interaction between heat shock proteins DnaK, DnaJ, and GrpE and the bacterial heat shock transcription factor sigma 32. Cell. 1992;69:833-42 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, DnaJ-sigma 32 and DnaK-sigma 32 associations occur independent of DnaK and DnaJ, respectively. These results suggest distinct regulatory functions of DnaJ and DnaK/GrpE. ..
  11. Harcum S, Haddadin F. Global transcriptome response of recombinant Escherichia coli to heat-shock and dual heat-shock recombinant protein induction. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006;33:801-14 pubmed
  12. Joo D, Ng N, Calendar R. A sigma32 mutant with a single amino acid change in the highly conserved region 2.2 exhibits reduced core RNA polymerase affinity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:4907-12 pubmed
    sigma32, the product of the rpoH gene in Escherichia coli, provides promoter specificity by interacting with core RNAP...
  13. Liberek K, Galitski T, Zylicz M, Georgopoulos C. The DnaK chaperone modulates the heat shock response of Escherichia coli by binding to the sigma 32 transcription factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:3516-20 pubmed
    ..Consistent with the fact that dnaK756 mutant bacteria overexpress heat shock proteins at all temperatures, purified DnaK756 mutant protein did not appreciably bind to sigma 32. ..
  14. Horikoshi M, Yura T, Tsuchimoto S, Fukumori Y, Kanemori M. Conserved region 2.1 of Escherichia coli heat shock transcription factor sigma32 is required for modulating both metabolic stability and transcriptional activity. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:7474-80 pubmed
    ..The evidence suggests that sigma32 stabilization does not result from an elevated affinity for core RNA polymerase. Region 2.1 may, therefore, be involved in interactions with the proteolytic machinery, including molecular chaperones. ..
  15. Cowing D, Bardwell J, Craig E, Woolford C, Hendrix R, Gross C. Consensus sequence for Escherichia coli heat shock gene promoters. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985;82:2679-83 pubmed
    ..in vivo, and each is recognized in vitro by RNA polymerase containing sigma 32, the sigma factor encoded by rpoH (htpR) but not by RNA polymerase containing sigma 70...
  16. Straus D, Walter W, Gross C. The heat shock response of E. coli is regulated by changes in the concentration of sigma 32. Nature. 1987;329:348-51 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that sigma 32 is directly responsible for regulation of the heat shock response. ..
  17. Koo B, Rhodius V, Campbell E, Gross C. Dissection of recognition determinants of Escherichia coli sigma32 suggests a composite -10 region with an 'extended -10' motif and a core -10 element. Mol Microbiol. 2009;72:815-29 pubmed publisher
    ..This result supports the idea that K130 mediates extended -10 recognition. Sigma32 is the first Group 3 sigma shown to use the 'extended -10' recognition motif. ..
  18. Yura T, Nakahigashi K. Regulation of the heat-shock response. Curr Opin Microbiol. 1999;2:153-8 pubmed
    ..Analyses of the 'CIRCE' and other regulons or operons in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria have provided new insights into their significance and regulatory mechanisms. ..
  19. Gamer J, Multhaup G, Tomoyasu T, McCarty J, Rudiger S, Schönfeld H, et al. A cycle of binding and release of the DnaK, DnaJ and GrpE chaperones regulates activity of the Escherichia coli heat shock transcription factor sigma32. EMBO J. 1996;15:607-17 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that reversible inhibition of sigma32 activity through transient association of DnaK and DnaJ is a central regulatory element of the heat shock response. ..
  20. Jishage M, Kvint K, Shingler V, Nystrom T. Regulation of sigma factor competition by the alarmone ppGpp. Genes Dev. 2002;16:1260-70 pubmed
    ..Thus, the stringent response encompasses a mechanism that alters the relative competitiveness of sigma factors in accordance with cellular demands during physiological stress. ..
  21. Brehmer D, Gässler C, Rist W, Mayer M, Bukau B. Influence of GrpE on DnaK-substrate interactions. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:27957-64 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the ATP-triggered dissociation of GrpE and substrates from DnaK occurs in a concerted fashion. ..
  22. Morita M, Kanemori M, Yanagi H, Yura T. Dynamic interplay between antagonistic pathways controlling the sigma 32 level in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:5860-5 pubmed
    ..primarily on the transient increase in the cellular level of heat-shock sigma factor final sigma(32) encoded by the rpoH gene, which results from both enhanced synthesis and transient stabilization of normally unstable final sigma(32)...
  23. Miyazaki R, Yura T, Suzuki T, Dohmae N, Mori H, Akiyama Y. A Novel SRP Recognition Sequence in the Homeostatic Control Region of Heat Shock Transcription Factor ?32. Sci Rep. 2016;6:24147 pubmed publisher
    ..Homeostatic regulation of HSR thus requires a novel type of SRP recognition mechanism. ..
  24. Wang Q, Kaguni J. A novel sigma factor is involved in expression of the rpoH gene of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:4248-53 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli rpoH gene encoding sigma 32, which is involved in the heat shock response, is transcribed from as many as four promoters...
  25. Jenkins D, Auger E, Matin A. Role of RpoH, a heat shock regulator protein, in Escherichia coli carbon starvation protein synthesis and survival. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:1992-6 pubmed
    ..32-controlled heat shock proteins (DnaK, GroEL, and HtpG) were not induced during starvation in an isogenic delta rpoH strain, which is unable to synthesize sigma 32...
  26. Yura T, Kawasaki Y, Kusukawa N, Nagai H, Wada C, Yano R. Roles and regulation of the heat shock sigma factor sigma 32 in Escherichia coli. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 1990;58:187-90 pubmed
  27. Collins J. Journal club. A bioengineer gets schooled by Escherichia coli. Nature. 2009;460:155 pubmed publisher
  28. Noguchi A, Ikeda A, Mezaki M, Fukumori Y, Kanemori M. DnaJ-promoted binding of DnaK to multiple sites on ?32 in the presence of ATP. J Bacteriol. 2014;196:1694-703 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that there are multiple DnaK binding sites on ?(32) and that DnaJ strongly promotes DnaK binding to any site in the presence of ATP, regardless of the intrinsic affinity of DnaK for the site. ..
  29. Wagner M, Zahrl D, Rieser G, Koraimann G. Growth phase- and cell division-dependent activation and inactivation of the {sigma}32 regulon in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:1695-702 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased sigma(32) protein levels result from transcriptional activation of the rpoH gene...
  30. Hasan C, Shimizu K. Effect of temperature up-shift on fermentation and metabolic characteristics in view of gene expressions in Escherichia coli. Microb Cell Fact. 2008;7:35 pubmed publisher
    ..heat shock genes such as groEL, dnaK, htpG and ibpB as well as mlc were expressed in much the same way as that of rpoH during the first 10-20 minutes after temperature up-shift...
  31. Díaz Acosta A, Sandoval M, Delgado Olivares L, Membrillo Hernández J. Effect of anaerobic and stationary phase growth conditions on the heat shock and oxidative stress responses in Escherichia coli K-12. Arch Microbiol. 2006;185:429-38 pubmed
    ..Here we report on the heat shock response of E. coli K-12 cells growing in the presence or absence of oxygen. An rpoH mutant (impaired in the synthesis of the sigma(32) transcriptional factor) exhibited an increased sensitivity to ..
  32. Fujita N, Ishihama A. Heat-shock induction of RNA polymerase sigma-32 synthesis in Escherichia coli: transcriptional control and a multiple promoter system. Mol Gen Genet. 1987;210:10-5 pubmed
    Transcriptional start sites of the rpoH gene which codes for a minor sigma factor (sigma 32) of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase were determined...
  33. Kourennaia O, Tsujikawa L, deHaseth P. Mutational analysis of Escherichia coli heat shock transcription factor sigma 32 reveals similarities with sigma 70 in recognition of the -35 promoter element and differences in promoter DNA melting and -10 recognition. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:6762-9 pubmed
    ..4 on the activities of the two sigma factors are consistent with the pronounced differences between both the amino acid sequences in this region and the recognized promoter DNA sequences. ..
  34. Zhang H, Yang J, Wu S, Gong W, Chen C, Perrett S. Glutathionylation of the Bacterial Hsp70 Chaperone DnaK Provides a Link between Oxidative Stress and the Heat Shock Response. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:6967-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Such a mechanism provides a link between oxidative stress and the heat shock response in bacteria. ..
  35. Kashlev M, Gragerov A, Nikiforov V. Heat shock response in Escherichia coli promotes assembly of plasmid encoded RNA polymerase beta-subunit into RNA polymerase. Mol Gen Genet. 1989;216:469-74 pubmed
    ..Alternatively, plasmid-borne subunits assemble into RNA polymerase with low efficiency in rpoH mutant cells known to have reduced level of hsps...
  36. Aertsen A, Vanoirbeek K, De Spiegeleer P, Sermon J, Hauben K, Farewell A, et al. Heat shock protein-mediated resistance to high hydrostatic pressure in Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:2660-6 pubmed
    ..Several further observations provide additional support for this hypothesis: (i). the expression of rpoH, encoding the heat shock-specific sigma factor sigma(32), was also induced by high pressure; (ii)...
  37. Wada C, Imai M, Yura T. Host control of plasmid replication: requirement for the sigma factor sigma 32 in transcription of mini-F replication initiator gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:8849-53 pubmed
    Replication of F factor or mini-F plasmid is strongly inhibited in the rpoH (htpR) mutants of Escherichia coli deficient in the sigma factor (sigma 32) known to be required for heat shock gene expression...
  38. Smith H. The transcriptional response of Escherichia coli to recombinant protein insolubility. J Struct Funct Genomics. 2007;8:27-35 pubmed
    ..Manipulation of the sigma32 regulon might provide a general mechanism for improving recombinant protein solubility. ..
  39. Nagai H, Yuzawa H, Yura T. Regulation of the heat shock response in E coli: involvement of positive and negative cis-acting elements in translation control of sigma 32 synthesis. Biochimie. 1991;73:1473-9 pubmed
    When cells of E coli are transferred from 30 to 42 degrees C, the cellular level of sigma 32 (rpoH gene product) increases transiently, resulting in increased transcription of a set of heat shock genes...
  40. Katz C, Rasouly A, Gur E, Shenhar Y, Biran D, Ron E. Temperature-dependent proteolysis as a control element in Escherichia coli metabolism. Res Microbiol. 2009;160:684-6 pubmed publisher
    ..One important mechanism involves temperature-dependent proteolysis, which constitutes a fast response to temperature shift-ups. Here we discuss the effect of proteolysis on protein synthesis, and the heat shock response. ..
  41. VanBogelen R, Kelley P, Neidhardt F. Differential induction of heat shock, SOS, and oxidation stress regulons and accumulation of nucleotides in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:26-32 pubmed
    ..coli for the ability to cause accumulation of adenylylated nucleotides and to induce proteins of the heat shock (htpR-controlled), the oxidation stress (oxyR-controlled), and the SOS (lexA-controlled) regulons...
  42. Patra M, Roy S, Dasgupta R, Basu T. GroEL to DnaK chaperone network behind the stability modulation of σ(32) at physiological temperature in Escherichia coli. FEBS Lett. 2015;589:4047-52 pubmed publisher
    ..coli at physiological temperature. This study further reveals that neither DnaK nor GroEL singly can modulate σ(32) stability in vivo; there is an ordered network between them, where GroEL acts upstream of DnaK. ..
  43. Taglicht D, Padan E, Oppenheim A, Schuldiner S. An alkaline shift induces the heat shock response in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:885-7 pubmed
    ..peaked at 5 to 10 min, as was previously reported for the heat-induced response, and was dependent on a functional rpoH gene, which is the positive regulator of the heat shock response...
  44. Joo D, Nolte A, Calendar R, Zhou Y, Jin D. Multiple regions on the Escherichia coli heat shock transcription factor sigma32 determine core RNA polymerase binding specificity. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:1095-102 pubmed
    ..analyzed the core RNA polymerase (RNAP) binding activity of the purified products of nine defective alleles of the rpoH gene, which encodes sigma32 in Escherichia coli...
  45. Ogawa T, Yamada Y, Kuroda T, Kishi T, Moriya S. The datA locus predominantly contributes to the initiator titration mechanism in the control of replication initiation in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2002;44:1367-75 pubmed
    ..These DnaA boxes may act as cores for the cooperative binding of DnaA to the entire datA region. ..
  46. Narberhaus F, Weiglhofer W, Fischer H, Hennecke H. The Bradyrhizobium japonicum rpoH1 gene encoding a sigma 32-like protein is part of a unique heat shock gene cluster together with groESL1 and three small heat shock genes. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:5337-46 pubmed
    ..japonicum and defined its induction pattern after heat shock. A B. japonicum rpoH-like gene (rpoH1) was cloned by complementation of an Escherichia coli strain lacking sigma 32...
  47. Neidhardt F, VanBogelen R, Lau E. Molecular cloning and expression of a gene that controls the high-temperature regulon of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1983;153:597-603 pubmed
    ..are induced coordinately by a shift to a high temperature under the control of a single chromosomal gene called htpR or hin...
  48. Bianchi A, Baneyx F. Hyperosmotic shock induces the sigma32 and sigmaE stress regulons of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1999;34:1029-38 pubmed
    ..Osmotic upshift led to a twofold increase in the enzymatic activity of the lambdaTLF247 rpoH:lacZ translational fusion whether or not the cells were treated with rifampicin, indicating that both heat shock ..
  49. Tsuchido T, VanBogelen R, Neidhardt F. Heat shock response in Escherichia coli influences cell division. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83:6959-63 pubmed
    ..cell division in Escherichia coli, revealed that this gene is probably identical to the heat shock regulatory gene htpR. The fam-715 mutant and different htpR mutants were found to share the following three characteristics: temperature-..
  50. Erickson J, Vaughn V, Walter W, Neidhardt F, Gross C. Regulation of the promoters and transcripts of rpoH, the Escherichia coli heat shock regulatory gene. Genes Dev. 1987;1:419-32 pubmed
    In Escherichia coli the product of the rpoH (htpR) gene, sigma 32, directs RNA polymerase to initiate transcription from heat shock promoters at all temperatures...
  51. Wade J, Castro Roa D, Grainger D, Hurd D, Busby S, Struhl K, et al. Extensive functional overlap between sigma factors in Escherichia coli. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006;13:806-14 pubmed
    ..SigmaE-regulated promoters also overlap extensively with those for sigma70. These results suggest that extensive functional overlap between sigma factors is an important phenomenon. ..
  52. Tobe T, Ito K, Yura T. Isolation and physical mapping of temperature-sensitive mutants defective in heat-shock induction of proteins in Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1984;195:10-6 pubmed
    ..These mutants carry a single mutation in the gene htp R (formerly hin) located at min 76 on the E. coli genetic map...
  53. Yuzawa H, Nagai H, Mori H, Yura T. Heat induction of sigma 32 synthesis mediated by mRNA secondary structure: a primary step of the heat shock response in Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 1993;21:5449-55 pubmed
    ..The synthesis of sigma 32 is induced by enhancing translation of its mRNA transcribed from the rpoH (htpR) gene...
  54. Kogoma T, Yura T. Sensitization of Escherichia coli cells to oxidative stress by deletion of the rpoH gene, which encodes the heat shock sigma factor. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:630-2 pubmed
    A deletion in the rpoH gene greatly increased the sensitivity of Escherichia coli sodA sodB mutants to oxidative stress. The effect of the rpoH deletion on sodA+ sodB+ cells was only marginal...
  55. Janaszak A, Majczak W, Nadratowska B, Szalewska Palasz A, Konopa G, Taylor A. A sigma54-dependent promoter in the regulatory region of the Escherichia coli rpoH gene. Microbiology. 2007;153:111-23 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli rpoH gene is transcribed from four known and differently regulated promoters: P1, P3, P4 and P5...
  56. Yamamori T, Yura T. Genetic control of heat-shock protein synthesis and its bearing on growth and thermal resistance in Escherichia coli K-12. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982;79:860-4 pubmed
    ..Hence, the mutation defines a (regulatory) gene, designated hin (heat shock induction), whose product is required for active transcription of a set of heat-inducible operons in E...
  57. Liberek K, Wall D, Georgopoulos C. The DnaJ chaperone catalytically activates the DnaK chaperone to preferentially bind the sigma 32 heat shock transcriptional regulator. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:6224-8 pubmed
    ..The activated form of DnaK binds preferentially to sigma 32 versus the bacteriophage lambda P protein substrate. ..
  58. Wada C, Akiyama Y, Ito K, Yura T. Inhibition of F plasmid replication in htpR mutants of Escherichia coli deficient in sigma 32 protein. Mol Gen Genet. 1986;203:208-13 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli htpR (= hin, rpoH) mutants are defective in the induction of heat-shock proteins due to a deficiency in sigma 32 and are unable to grow at high temperature...
  59. Guisbert E, Rhodius V, Ahuja N, Witkin E, Gross C. Hfq modulates the sigmaE-mediated envelope stress response and the sigma32-mediated cytoplasmic stress response in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:1963-73 pubmed
    ..Together, our results indicate that Hfq may play a general role in stress response regulation in E. coli. ..
  60. Urech C, Koby S, Oppenheim A, Munchbach M, Hennecke H, Narberhaus F. Differential degradation of Escherichia coli sigma32 and Bradyrhizobium japonicum RpoH factors by the FtsH protease. Eur J Biochem. 2000;267:4831-9 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli heat shock sigma factor sigma32 (RpoH) is rapidly degraded under non-stress conditions. The integrity of the DnaK chaperone machinery and the ATP-dependent FtsH protease are required for sigma32 proteolysis in vivo...
  61. Yano R, Yura T. [Structure and function of the heat shock regulatory gene]. Seikagaku. 1986;58:19-23 pubmed
  62. Kanemori M, Yanagi H, Yura T. Marked instability of the sigma(32) heat shock transcription factor at high temperature. Implications for heat shock regulation. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:22002-7 pubmed
  63. Yura T, Nakahigashi K, Kanemori M. Transcriptional regulation of stress-inducible genes in procaryotes. EXS. 1996;77:165-81 pubmed
    ..genes in response to elevated temperature is caused primarily by transient increase in the amount of sigma 32 (rpoH gene product) specifically required for transcription from the heat shock promoters...
  64. Koo B, Rhodius V, Nonaka G, deHaseth P, Gross C. Reduced capacity of alternative sigmas to melt promoters ensures stringent promoter recognition. Genes Dev. 2009;23:2426-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Divergent sigmas may generally use a nonoptimal Region 2.3 to increase promoter stringency, enabling them to mount a focused response to altered conditions. ..
  65. Landick R, Vaughn V, Lau E, VanBogelen R, Erickson J, Neidhardt F. Nucleotide sequence of the heat shock regulatory gene of E. coli suggests its protein product may be a transcription factor. Cell. 1984;38:175-82 pubmed
    We have sequenced a cloned segment of E. coli chromosomal DNA that includes the heat shock regulatory gene htpR. This segment contains an 852 nucleotide open reading frame bounded by transcriptional and translational signals...
  66. Cuny C, Lesbats M, Dukan S. Induction of a global stress response during the first step of Escherichia coli plate growth. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:885-9 pubmed
    ..when cells from exponential-phase cultures were plated on LBA, several global regulons, like heat shock regulons (RpoH, RpoE, CpxAR) and oxidative-stress regulons (SoxRS, OxyR, Fur), were immediately induced...
  67. Seoh H, Weech M, Zhang N, Squires C. rRNA antitermination functions with heat shock promoters. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:6486-9 pubmed
  68. Lim B, Miyazaki R, NEHER S, Siegele D, Ito K, Walter P, et al. Heat shock transcription factor ?32 co-opts the signal recognition particle to regulate protein homeostasis in E. coli. PLoS Biol. 2013;11:e1001735 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that ?(32) must be membrane-associated to be properly regulated in response to the protein folding status in the cell, explaining how the HSR integrates information from both the cytoplasm and bacterial cell membrane...
  69. Wegrzyn A, Szalewska Pałasz A, Błaszczak A, Liberek K, Wegrzyn G. Differential inhibition of transcription from sigma70- and sigma32-dependent promoters by rifampicin. FEBS Lett. 1998;440:172-4 pubmed
  70. Saint Ruf C, Taddei F, Matic I. Stress and survival of aging Escherichia coli rpoS colonies. Genetics. 2004;168:541-6 pubmed
    ..By measuring cell viability and by transcriptome analysis, here we show that rpoS cells as well as wild-type cells survive when they form colonies on solid media. ..
  71. Yano R, Imai M, Yura T. The use of operon fusions in studies of the heat-shock response: effects of altered sigma 32 on heat-shock promoter function in Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1987;207:24-8 pubmed
    ..In contrast, most amber rpoH (htpR) mutants tested (in a Su- background) failed to respond to a temperature shift, though some mutants affected ..
  72. Pierson D, Campbell A. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of bisC, the structural gene for biotin sulfoxide reductase in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:2194-8 pubmed
  73. Tagkopoulos I, Liu Y, Tavazoie S. Predictive behavior within microbial genetic networks. Science. 2008;320:1313-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We further show that these internal correlations reflect a true associative learning paradigm, because they show rapid decoupling upon exposure to novel environments. ..
  74. Seo J, Kang D, Cha H. Comparison of cellular stress levels and green-fluorescent-protein expression in several Escherichia coli strains. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2003;37:103-7 pubmed
    Constructs comprising stress-gene promoter elements from rpoH (Sigma 32), clpB or dnaK linked to a green-fluorescent-protein (GFP) expression vector were previously used as non-invasive "stress probes" in Escherichia coli...
  75. Raffaelle M, Kanin E, Vogt J, Burgess R, Ansari A. Holoenzyme switching and stochastic release of sigma factors from RNA polymerase in vivo. Mol Cell. 2005;20:357-66 pubmed
    ..Release of sigma factors during each round of transcription provides a simple mechanism for rapidly reprogramming polymerase with the relevant sigma factor and is consistent with the occurrence of a "sigma cycle" in vivo. ..
  76. Meibom K, Søgaard Andersen L, Mironov A, Valentin Hansen P. Dissection of a surface-exposed portion of the cAMP-CRP complex that mediates transcription activation and repression. Mol Microbiol. 1999;32:497-504 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the results provide insight into the mechanism by which CytR might prevent CRP-mediated transcription. ..
  77. M ller A, Hoffmann J, Meyer H, Narberhaus F, Jakob U, Leichert L. Nonnative disulfide bond formation activates the ?32-dependent heat shock response in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2013;195:2807-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Nonnative disulfide bond formation in the cytoplasm causes protein unfolding. This stabilizes ?(32) by preventing its DnaK- and FtsH-dependent degradation...
  78. Xu X, Niu Y, Liang K, Wang J, Li X, Yang Y. Heat shock transcription factor δ³² is targeted for degradation via an ubiquitin-like protein ThiS in Escherichia coli. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;459:240-245 pubmed publisher
    ..The results presented here establish a new model for δ(32) degradation and show that Escherichia coli uses a small-protein modifier to control protein stability. ..