Gene Symbol: rpoE
Description: RNA polymerase sigma E factor
Alias: ECK2571, JW2557, sigE
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
Products:     rpoE

Top Publications

  1. Lonetto M, Brown K, Rudd K, Buttner M. Analysis of the Streptomyces coelicolor sigE gene reveals the existence of a subfamily of eubacterial RNA polymerase sigma factors involved in the regulation of extracytoplasmic functions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:7573-7 pubmed
    ..probe, designed from the N-terminal sequence of purified sigma E, was used to isolate the sigma E gene (sigE)...
  2. Guisbert E, Rhodius V, Ahuja N, Witkin E, Gross C. Hfq modulates the sigmaE-mediated envelope stress response and the sigma32-mediated cytoplasmic stress response in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:1963-73 pubmed
    ..Together, our results indicate that Hfq may play a general role in stress response regulation in E. coli. ..
  3. Wade J, Castro Roa D, Grainger D, Hurd D, Busby S, Struhl K, et al. Extensive functional overlap between sigma factors in Escherichia coli. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006;13:806-14 pubmed
    ..SigmaE-regulated promoters also overlap extensively with those for sigma70. These results suggest that extensive functional overlap between sigma factors is an important phenomenon. ..
  4. Kabir M, Yamashita D, Koyama S, Oshima T, Kurokawa K, Maeda M, et al. Cell lysis directed by sigmaE in early stationary phase and effect of induction of the rpoE gene on global gene expression in Escherichia coli. Microbiology. 2005;151:2721-35 pubmed
    It has been shown that Escherichia coli cells with increased expression of the rpoE gene encoding sigma(E) exhibit enhanced cell lysis in early stationary phase...
  5. Cuny C, Lesbats M, Dukan S. Induction of a global stress response during the first step of Escherichia coli plate growth. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:885-9 pubmed
    ..cells from exponential-phase cultures were plated on LBA, several global regulons, like heat shock regulons (RpoH, RpoE, CpxAR) and oxidative-stress regulons (SoxRS, OxyR, Fur), were immediately induced...
  6. Rezuchova B, Miticka H, Homerova D, Roberts M, Kormanec J. New members of the Escherichia coli sigmaE regulon identified by a two-plasmid system. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2003;225:1-7 pubmed
    ..In addition to previously identified rpoE-dependent promoters, 11 new promoters potentially directing the expression of 15 genes were identified that were ..
  7. De Las Penas A, Connolly L, Gross C. The sigmaE-mediated response to extracytoplasmic stress in Escherichia coli is transduced by RseA and RseB, two negative regulators of sigmaE. Mol Microbiol. 1997;24:373-85 pubmed
  8. Johansen J, Eriksen M, Kallipolitis B, Valentin Hansen P. Down-regulation of outer membrane proteins by noncoding RNAs: unraveling the cAMP-CRP- and sigmaE-dependent CyaR-ompX regulatory case. J Mol Biol. 2008;383:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The conservation of CyaR, MicA, RybB, and their targets suggests that the omp mRNA-sRNA regulatory network is an integral part of the envelope stress response in many enterobacteria. ..
  9. Hasselblatt H, Kurzbauer R, Wilken C, Krojer T, Sawa J, Kurt J, et al. Regulation of the sigmaE stress response by DegS: how the PDZ domain keeps the protease inactive in the resting state and allows integration of different OMP-derived stress signals upon folding stress. Genes Dev. 2007;21:2659-70 pubmed
    ..Thus, the PDZ domain and loop L3 of DegS define a novel molecular switch allowing strict regulation of the sigmaE stress response system. ..

More Information


  1. Campbell E, Tupy J, Gruber T, Wang S, Sharp M, Gross C, et al. Crystal structure of Escherichia coli sigmaE with the cytoplasmic domain of its anti-sigma RseA. Mol Cell. 2003;11:1067-78 pubmed
    ..In combination with a model of the sigma(E) holoenzyme and biochemical data, the structure reveals that RseA functions by sterically occluding the two primary binding determinants on sigma(E) for core RNA polymerase. ..
  2. Ades S. Regulation by destruction: design of the sigmaE envelope stress response. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2008;11:535-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Structural and biochemical studies of the proteases that mediate signal transduction reveal the molecular underpinnings enabling this design. ..
  3. Hayden J, Ades S. The extracytoplasmic stress factor, sigmaE, is required to maintain cell envelope integrity in Escherichia coli. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1573 pubmed publisher
    ..Members of the rpoE subclass of ECF sigma factors are implicated in sensing stress in the cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria and ..
  4. Andersen C, Holland I, Jacq A. Verapamil, a Ca2+ channel inhibitor acts as a local anesthetic and induces the sigma E dependent extra-cytoplasmic stress response in E. coli. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1758:1587-95 pubmed
    ..This is accompanied by induction of degP expression, as a result of the activation of the RpoE (SigmaE) extra-cytoplasmic stress response, and activation of the psp operon...
  5. Douchin V, Bohn C, Bouloc P. Down-regulation of porins by a small RNA bypasses the essentiality of the regulated intramembrane proteolysis protease RseP in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:12253-9 pubmed
  6. Johansen J, Rasmussen A, Overgaard M, Valentin Hansen P. Conserved small non-coding RNAs that belong to the sigmaE regulon: role in down-regulation of outer membrane proteins. J Mol Biol. 2006;364:1-8 pubmed
  7. Ades S. Control of the alternative sigma factor sigmaE in Escherichia coli. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2004;7:157-62 pubmed
    ..This mechanism of signal transduction, regulated intramembrane proteolysis, is used in transmembrane signaling pathways from bacteria to humans. ..
  8. Walsh N, Alba B, Bose B, Gross C, Sauer R. OMP peptide signals initiate the envelope-stress response by activating DegS protease via relief of inhibition mediated by its PDZ domain. Cell. 2003;113:61-71 pubmed
    ..Peptide binding to inhibitory PDZ domains in proteases related to DegS, including DegP/HtrA, may also regulate the degradation of specific substrates by these enzymes...
  9. Hiratsu K, Amemura M, Nashimoto H, Shinagawa H, Makino K. The rpoE gene of Escherichia coli, which encodes sigma E, is essential for bacterial growth at high temperature. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:2918-22 pubmed
    ..The location of the rpoE gene encoding sigma E on the Escherichia coli chromosome has recently been established, but no rpoE mutant has yet ..
  10. Udekwu K, Wagner E. Sigma E controls biogenesis of the antisense RNA MicA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:1279-88 pubmed
    ..Thus, MicA is part of the sigma(E) regulon and downregulates its target gene, ompA, probably to alleviate membrane stress. ..
  11. Erickson J, Gross C. Identification of the sigma E subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase: a second alternate sigma factor involved in high-temperature gene expression. Genes Dev. 1989;3:1462-71 pubmed
  12. Costanzo A, Ades S. Growth phase-dependent regulation of the extracytoplasmic stress factor, sigmaE, by guanosine 3',5'-bispyrophosphate (ppGpp). J Bacteriol. 2006;188:4627-34 pubmed
  13. Bianchi A, Baneyx F. Hyperosmotic shock induces the sigma32 and sigmaE stress regulons of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1999;34:1029-38 pubmed
  14. Thompson K, Rhodius V, Gottesman S. SigmaE regulates and is regulated by a small RNA in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:4243-56 pubmed
    ..The activity of rybB-lacZ and the detection of RybB were totally abolished in an rpoE-null strain. In vitro, sigma(E) efficiently transcribes from this promoter...
  15. Missiakas D, Raina S. The extracytoplasmic function sigma factors: role and regulation. Mol Microbiol. 1998;28:1059-66 pubmed
    ..Presumably, an on-and-off switch of the anti-sigma activity leads to the release of the sigma factor and thereby to the co-ordinate transcription of the specific regulon it governs. ..
  16. Ades S, Grigorova I, Gross C. Regulation of the alternative sigma factor sigma(E) during initiation, adaptation, and shutoff of the extracytoplasmic heat shock response in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:2512-9 pubmed
    ..However, the relationship between sigma(E) activity and the rate of degradation of RseA is complex, indicating that other factors may cooperate with RseA and serve to fine-tune the response. ..
  17. Rouvi re P, de las Pe as A, Mecsas J, Lu C, Rudd K, Gross C. rpoE, the gene encoding the second heat-shock sigma factor, sigma E, in Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 1995;14:1032-42 pubmed
    ..To further understand this response, we located the rpoE gene at 55.5' and analyzed the role of sigma E...
  18. Erickson J, Vaughn V, Walter W, Neidhardt F, Gross C. Regulation of the promoters and transcripts of rpoH, the Escherichia coli heat shock regulatory gene. Genes Dev. 1987;1:419-32 pubmed
    ..5 degrees C but rpoH mRNA synthesis increases by less than twofold, indicating that there is post-transcriptional control of the level of rpoH mRNA and presumably of sigma 32. ..
  19. Lane W, Darst S. The structural basis for promoter -35 element recognition by the group IV sigma factors. PLoS Biol. 2006;4:e269 pubmed
    ..These principles of sigma(E)4/-35 element recognition can be applied to a wide range of other group IV sigma factors. ..
  20. Kabir M, Yamashita D, Noor R, Yamada M. Effect of sigmaS on sigmaE-directed cell lysis in Escherichia coli early stationary phase. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2004;8:189-94 pubmed
    ..Based on these results and experiments with hydrogen peroxide, we propose that some stresses generate living but non-culturable cells, which are subject to sigmaE-directed cell lysis. ..
  21. Nitta T, Nagamitsu H, Murata M, Izu H, Yamada M. Function of the sigma(E) regulon in dead-cell lysis in stationary-phase Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:5231-7 pubmed
    ..levels in Escherichia coli by either repressing the expression of rseA encoding an anti-sigma(E) factor or cloning rpoE in a multicopy plasmid, led to a large decrease in the number of dead cells and the accumulation of cellular ..
  22. Button J, Silhavy T, Ruiz N. A suppressor of cell death caused by the loss of sigmaE downregulates extracytoplasmic stress responses and outer membrane vesicle production in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:1523-30 pubmed
    ..coli, the effector of the sigma(E) response, the sigma factor RpoE (sigma(E)), is essential for viability...
  23. Kanehara K, Ito K, Akiyama Y. YaeL (EcfE) activates the sigma(E) pathway of stress response through a site-2 cleavage of anti-sigma(E), RseA. Genes Dev. 2002;16:2147-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we obtained rpoE, encoding an extracytoplasmic stress response sigma factor (sigma(E)), as a multicopy suppressor against the yaeL ..
  24. Missiakas D, Mayer M, Lemaire M, Georgopoulos C, Raina S. Modulation of the Escherichia coli sigmaE (RpoE) heat-shock transcription-factor activity by the RseA, RseB and RseC proteins. Mol Microbiol. 1997;24:355-71 pubmed
    The sigma(E) (RpoE) transcription factor of Escherichia coli regulates the expression of genes whose products are devoted to extracytoplasmic activities...
  25. Costanzo A, Nicoloff H, Barchinger S, Banta A, Gourse R, Ades S. ppGpp and DksA likely regulate the activity of the extracytoplasmic stress factor sigmaE in Escherichia coli by both direct and indirect mechanisms. Mol Microbiol. 2008;67:619-32 pubmed
    ..However, ppGpp and its cofactor DksA can also activate transcription by EsigmaEin vitro, suggesting that the effects of ppGpp on sigmaE activity are both direct and indirect. ..
  26. Alba B, Zhong H, Pelayo J, Gross C. degS (hhoB) is an essential Escherichia coli gene whose indispensable function is to provide sigma (E) activity. Mol Microbiol. 2001;40:1323-33 pubmed
    ..We also show that the putative active site of DegS is periplasmic and that DegS requires its N-terminal transmembrane domain for its sigma (E)-related function...
  27. Onufryk C, Crouch M, Fang F, Gross C. Characterization of six lipoproteins in the sigmaE regulon. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:4552-61 pubmed
    ..We suggest that this lipoprotein performs a very important but as-yet-unknown function in maintaining the integrity of the cell envelope. ..
  28. Mecsas J, Rouviere P, Erickson J, Donohue T, Gross C. The activity of sigma E, an Escherichia coli heat-inducible sigma-factor, is modulated by expression of outer membrane proteins. Genes Dev. 1993;7:2618-28 pubmed
  29. Danese P, Silhavy T. The sigma(E) and the Cpx signal transduction systems control the synthesis of periplasmic protein-folding enzymes in Escherichia coli. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1183-93 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that sigma(E) and CpxA/CpxR are involved in regulating both protein-turnover and protein-folding activities within the bacterial envelope. ..
  30. De Las Penas A, Connolly L, Gross C. SigmaE is an essential sigma factor in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:6862-4 pubmed
    ..We present evidence that sigmaE is an essential sigma factor at all temperatures. Cells lacking sigmaE are able to grow at low temperatures because of the presence of a frequently arising, unlinked suppressor mutation. ..
  31. Vines E, Marolda C, Balachandran A, Valvano M. Defective O-antigen polymerization in tolA and pal mutants of Escherichia coli in response to extracytoplasmic stress. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:3359-68 pubmed
    ..delta tolA and W3110 delta pal containing lacZ reporter fusions to fkpA and degP, we also demonstrate that the RpoE-mediated extracytoplasmic stress response is upregulated in these mutants...
  32. Redford P, Welch R. Role of sigma E-regulated genes in Escherichia coli uropathogenesis. Infect Immun. 2006;74:4030-8 pubmed
    ..A mutant of degQ, a close homolog of degP, was not attenuated in mice. This is the first report that the DegP degradase is an E. coli virulence factor in an animal infection model. ..
  33. Konovalova A, Schwalm J, Silhavy T. A Suppressor Mutation That Creates a Faster and More Robust σE Envelope Stress Response. J Bacteriol. 2016;198:2345-51 pubmed publisher
    ..proteins (OMPs) in the periplasm of Escherichia coli It relies on σE, an alternative sigma factor encoded by the rpoE gene...
  34. Murata M, Noor R, Nagamitsu H, Tanaka S, Yamada M. Novel pathway directed by ? E to cause cell lysis in Escherichia coli. Genes Cells. 2012;17:234-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the results suggest that the cell lysis proceeds in the cascade of ?(E) ? expression of micA and rybB ? reduction in Omp proteins ? disintegration of the outer membrane. ..
  35. Moreau P. Protective role of the RpoE (?E) and Cpx envelope stress responses against gentamicin killing of nongrowing Escherichia coli incubated under aerobic, phosphate starvation conditions. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2014;357:151-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Constitutive activity of the Cpx and RpoE (?(E)) envelope stress regulons increased the resistance of P- and N-starved cells...
  36. Kontur W, Saecker R, Davis C, Capp M, Record M. Solute probes of conformational changes in open complex (RPo) formation by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase at the lambdaPR promoter: evidence for unmasking of the active site in the isomerization step and for large-scale coupled folding in the subseq. Biochemistry. 2006;45:2161-77 pubmed
  37. Huerta A, Collado Vides J. Sigma70 promoters in Escherichia coli: specific transcription in dense regions of overlapping promoter-like signals. J Mol Biol. 2003;333:261-78 pubmed
    ..We suggest that transcriptional regulators as well as other functional promoters play an important role in keeping these latent signals suppressed. ..
  38. Maeda H, Jishage M, Nomura T, Fujita N, Ishihama A. Two extracytoplasmic function sigma subunits, sigma(E) and sigma(FecI), of Escherichia coli: promoter selectivity and intracellular levels. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:1181-4 pubmed
    ..coli W3110 (type A) were determined to be 0.7 to 2.0 and 0.1 to 0.2 fmol per microg of total proteins (or 3 to 9 and 0.4 to 0.9 molecules per cell), respectively, and less than 1% of the level of the major sigma(70) subunit. ..
  39. Lipinska B, Sharma S, Georgopoulos C. Sequence analysis and regulation of the htrA gene of Escherichia coli: a sigma 32-independent mechanism of heat-inducible transcription. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988;16:10053-67 pubmed
    ..The P3 promoter is especially active at high temperatures and is recognized by a recently identified transcriptional factor, sigma E. ..
  40. Grace E, Gopalkrishnan S, Girard M, Blankschien M, Ross W, Gourse R, et al. Activation of the σE-dependent stress pathway by conjugative TraR may anticipate conjugational stress. J Bacteriol. 2015;197:924-31 pubmed publisher
  41. Gopalkrishnan S, Nicoloff H, Ades S. Co-ordinated regulation of the extracytoplasmic stress factor, sigmaE, with other Escherichia coli sigma factors by (p)ppGpp and DksA may be achieved by specific regulation of individual holoenzymes. Mol Microbiol. 2014;93:479-93 pubmed publisher
  42. Vogt S, Raivio T. Hfq reduces envelope stress by controlling expression of envelope-localized proteins and protein complexes in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2014;92:681-97 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that Hfq has a more extensive role in regulating the expression of envelope proteins and horizontally acquired virulence genes in E.?coli than previously recognized. ..
  43. Noor R, Murata M, Yamada M. Oxidative stress as a trigger for growth phase-specific sigmaE-dependent cell lysis in Escherichia coli. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;17:177-87 pubmed publisher
    Sigma(E), encoded by rpoE, causes lysis of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) cells at the early stationary phase in Escherichia coli. However, the factors that trigger this lysis phenomenon remain unidentified...
  44. Nicoloff H, Gopalkrishnan S, Ades S. Appropriate Regulation of the σE-Dependent Envelope Stress Response Is Necessary To Maintain Cell Envelope Integrity and Stationary-Phase Survival in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2017;199: pubmed publisher
    ..coli, loss of σE results in lethality. Here we demonstrate that excessive σE activity is also lethal and results in decreased membrane integrity, the very phenotype the system is designed to prevent. ..
  45. Dries D, Yu G. Rip exposed: how ectodomain shedding regulates the proteolytic processing of transmembrane substrates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:14737-8 pubmed publisher
  46. Rueggeberg K, Toba F, Bird J, Franck N, Thompson M, Hay A. The lysis cassette of DLP12 defective prophage is regulated by RpoE. Microbiology. 2015;161:1683-93 pubmed publisher
    ..a putative - 35 and - 10 sigma site recognized by the extracytoplasmic stress response sigma factor, RpoE. In this work, we report that RpoE overexpression promoted transcription from essDp in vivo, and in vitro using ..
  47. Raina S, Missiakas D, Georgopoulos C. The rpoE gene encoding the sigma E (sigma 24) heat shock sigma factor of Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 1995;14:1043-55 pubmed
    ..Both approaches identified the same gene, rpoE, mapping at 55.5 min on the E.coli genetic map and encoding a polypeptide of 191 amino acid residues...
  48. Hizukuri Y, Akiyama Y. PDZ domains of RseP are not essential for sequential cleavage of RseA or stress-induced ?(E) activation in vivo. Mol Microbiol. 2012;86:1232-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that recognition of the cleaved amino acid by the RseP PDZ domain is not essential for sequential cleavage of RseA and ?(E) stress response in vivo. ..
  49. Wang Q, Kaguni J. A novel sigma factor is involved in expression of the rpoH gene of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:4248-53 pubmed
    ..This result suggests that induction of heat shock proteins by the stringent response is not mediated by increased transcription of the rpoH gene. ..
  50. Tam C, Missiakas D. Changes in lipopolysaccharide structure induce the sigma(E)-dependent response of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2005;55:1403-12 pubmed
    ..A model is proposed whereby structural intermediates of the LPS biosynthetic pathway or modified LPS molecules may function as signals that activate the sigma(E) response. ..
  51. Young J, Hartl F. A stress sensor for the bacterial periplasm. Cell. 2003;113:1-2 pubmed
    ..This interaction relieves the inhibition of the neighboring protease domain of DegS, triggering a proteolysis cascade that leads to the sigma(E)-driven expression of periplasmic chaperones...
  52. Peano C, Wolf J, Demol J, Rossi E, Petiti L, De Bellis G, et al. Characterization of the Escherichia coli σ(S) core regulon by Chromatin Immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) analysis. Sci Rep. 2015;5:10469 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, our results highlight a direct role of Eσ(S) in the regulation of non coding RNAs, such as OmrA/B, RyeA/B and SibC. ..
  53. Traviglia S, Datwyler S, Yan D, Ishihama A, Meares C. Targeted protein footprinting: where different transcription factors bind to RNA polymerase. Biochemistry. 1999;38:15774-8 pubmed
    ..GreA cuts a larger set of sites, whereas omega shows no overlap with the others, cutting only the beta' subunit at a unique location. ..
  54. Martin D, Schurr M, Yu H, Deretic V. Analysis of promoters controlled by the putative sigma factor AlgU regulating conversion to mucoidy in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: relationship to sigma E and stress response. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:6688-96 pubmed
    ..typhimurium was cloned and sequenced, and it is displayed one amino acid substitution relative to its E. coli equivalent. AlgU and its close homologs in E. coli and S. typhimurium may be functionally related...
  55. Kulp A, Kuehn M. Recognition of ?-strand motifs by RseB is required for ?(E) activity in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:6179-86 pubmed publisher
    ..By understanding the details of how such stress response pathways are activated, we can gain a greater understanding of how bacteria survive in harsh environments. ..
  56. Noor R, Murata M, Nagamitsu H, Klein G, Raina S, Yamada M. Dissection of sigma(E)-dependent cell lysis in Escherichia coli: roles of RpoE regulators RseA, RseB and periplasmic folding catalyst PpiD. Genes Cells. 2009;14:885-99 pubmed publisher
    ..To understand the mechanism of sigma(E)-dependent cell lysis, we examined the consequences of deletion derivatives of rpoE regulators rseA, rseB and rseC on sigma(E) transcription, on levels of free versus membrane-bound sigma(E) and on ..
  57. Ono K, Kutsukake K, Abo T. Suppression by enhanced RpoE activity of the temperature-sensitive phenotype of a degP ssrA double mutant in Escherichia coli. Genes Genet Syst. 2009;84:15-24 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of the rpoE gene, which encodes sigmaE responsible for the expression of factors involved in extracellular stress response, ..
  58. Wahl A, Hubert P, Sturgis J, Bouveret E. Tagging of Escherichia coli proteins with new cassettes allowing in vivo systematic fluorescent and luminescent detection, and purification from physiological expression levels. Proteomics. 2009;9:5389-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These cassettes are therefore very valuable for the versatility of experiments they make available for a given strain, from biochemistry to dynamic and in vivo studies. ..
  59. Mutalik V, Nonaka G, Ades S, Rhodius V, Gross C. Promoter strength properties of the complete sigma E regulon of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:7279-87 pubmed publisher
  60. Polissi A, De Laurentis W, Zangrossi S, Briani F, Longhi V, Pesole G, et al. Changes in Escherichia coli transcriptome during acclimatization at low temperature. Res Microbiol. 2003;154:573-80 pubmed
    ..not previously associated with cold shock response, among these, the extracytoplasmic stress response regulators rpoE and rseA, and eight genes with unknown function...
  61. Ehrmann M, Clausen T. Proteolysis as a regulatory mechanism. Annu Rev Genet. 2004;38:709-24 pubmed
    ..The bacterial RseA and the human amyloid precursor processing pathways are used as models to review these novel principles that are evolutionarily conserved and have wide biological implications. ..
  62. Skovierova H, Rezuchova B, Homerova D, Roberts M, Kormanec J. Characterization of the sigmaE-dependent rpoEp3 promoter of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006;261:53-9 pubmed
    ..revealed a consensus sequence almost identical to the sigma(E)-dependent rpoEp3 promoter directing expression of rpoE. This two-plasmid system was previously optimized to identify nucleotides critical for the rpoEp3 promoter activity...
  63. Egler M, Grosse C, Grass G, Nies D. Role of the extracytoplasmic function protein family sigma factor RpoE in metal resistance of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:2297-307 pubmed
    b>RpoE of Escherichia coli is a sigma factor of the extracytoplasmic function protein family and is required for the expression of proteins involved in maintaining the integrity of periplasmic and outer membrane components. RpoE of E...
  64. Bury Moné S, Nomane Y, Reymond N, Barbet R, Jacquet E, Imbeaud S, et al. Global analysis of extracytoplasmic stress signaling in Escherichia coli. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000651 pubmed publisher
    ..The extracytoplasmic stress signaling pathways in E. coli thus regulate mainly complementary functions whose discrete contributions are integrated to mount the full adaptive response. ..
  65. Riehle M, Bennett A, Lenski R, Long A. Evolutionary changes in heat-inducible gene expression in lines of Escherichia coli adapted to high temperature. Physiol Genomics. 2003;14:47-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus evolution at high temperature led to significant changes at the molecular level in heat-inducible gene expression and at the organismal level in inducible thermotolerance and fitness...
  66. Brooks B, Buchanan S. Signaling mechanisms for activation of extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1778:1930-45 pubmed
    ..coli. Homologues from other Gram-negative bacteria suggest that these two signaling mechanisms and variations on these mechanisms may be the general schemes by which ECF sigma factors are regulated in Gram-negative bacteria. ..
  67. Miticka H, Rowley G, Rezuchova B, Homerova D, Humphreys S, Farn J, et al. Transcriptional analysis of the rpoE gene encoding extracytoplasmic stress response sigma factor sigmaE in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2003;226:307-14 pubmed
    The rpoE gene of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), which encodes the extracytoplasmic stress response sigma factor sigmaE, is critically important for the virulence of S. Typhimurium...
  68. Klein G, Stupak A, Biernacka D, Wojtkiewicz P, Lindner B, Raina S. Multiple Transcriptional Factors Regulate Transcription of the rpoE Gene in Escherichia coli under Different Growth Conditions and When the Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis Is Defective. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:22999-23019 pubmed
    The RpoE ? factor is essential for the viability of Escherichia coli RpoE regulates extracytoplasmic functions including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) translocation and some of its non-stoichiometric modifications...