Gene Symbol: rplK
Description: 50S ribosomal subunit protein L11
Alias: ECK3974, JW3946, relC
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Wimberly B, Guymon R, McCutcheon J, White S, Ramakrishnan V. A detailed view of a ribosomal active site: the structure of the L11-RNA complex. Cell. 1999;97:491-502 pubmed
    ..These antibiotics are proposed to bind in this cleft, locking the putative switch and interfering with the function of elongation factors...
  2. Rosendahl G, Douthwaite S. Cooperative assembly of proteins in the ribosomal GTPase centre demonstrated by their interactions with mutant 23S rRNAs. Nucleic Acids Res. 1995;23:2396-403 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, none of the mutations prevents incorporation of L11 into ribosomes in vivo, indicating that other, as yet unidentified, factors are involved in the cooperative assembly process. ..
  3. Rosendahl G, Douthwaite S. Ribosomal proteins L11 and L10.(L12)4 and the antibiotic thiostrepton interact with overlapping regions of the 23 S rRNA backbone in the ribosomal GTPase centre. J Mol Biol. 1993;234:1013-20 pubmed
    ..L12)4 and other proteins within the ribosome. The antibiotics thiostrepton and micrococcin inhibit the catalytic functions of this region by slotting in between the accessible loops and interacting with nucleotides there. ..
  4. Agrawal R, Linde J, Sengupta J, Nierhaus K, Frank J. Localization of L11 protein on the ribosome and elucidation of its involvement in EF-G-dependent translocation. J Mol Biol. 2001;311:777-87 pubmed
    ..The results provide a new insight into the mechanism of EF-G-dependent translocation. ..
  5. Egebjerg J, Douthwaite S, Liljas A, Garrett R. Characterization of the binding sites of protein L11 and the L10.(L12)4 pentameric complex in the GTPase domain of 23 S ribosomal RNA from Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 1990;213:275-88 pubmed
    ..It also provides a structural rationale for the mutually co-operative binding of protein L11 with the antibiotics thiostrepton and micrococcin, and with the L10.(L12)4 protein complex. ..
  6. Beauclerk A, Cundliffe E, Dijk J. The binding site for ribosomal protein complex L8 within 23 s ribosomal RNA of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1984;259:6559-63 pubmed
    ..Previously, protein L11 had been shown to protect residues 1052-1112 of 23 S rRNA. It is concluded that the binding sites for the L8 protein complex and for protein L11 are immediately adjacent within 23 S rRNA of E. coli. ..
  7. Valle M, Zavialov A, Li W, Stagg S, Sengupta J, Nielsen R, et al. Incorporation of aminoacyl-tRNA into the ribosome as seen by cryo-electron microscopy. Nat Struct Biol. 2003;10:899-906 pubmed
    ..From these new findings we propose a mechanism that can explain the sequence of events during the decoding of mRNA on the ribosome. ..
  8. Datta P, Sharma M, Qi L, Frank J, Agrawal R. Interaction of the G' domain of elongation factor G and the C-terminal domain of ribosomal protein L7/L12 during translocation as revealed by cryo-EM. Mol Cell. 2005;20:723-31 pubmed publisher
  9. Bowen W, Van Dyke N, Murgola E, Lodmell J, Hill W. Interaction of thiostrepton and elongation factor-G with the ribosomal protein L11-binding domain. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:2934-43 pubmed
    ..The implications for recent models of thiostrepton activity and factor interactions are discussed. ..

More Information


  1. Dabbs E. Kasugamycin-dependent mutants of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1978;136:994-1001 pubmed
    ..Three showed changes in protein S9. Each of two mutants had changes in two proteins, S18 and L11. Three of these mutants additionally had protein S18 occurring in a partly altered, partly unaltered form. ..
  2. Taylor W, Burgess R. Escherichia coli RNA polymerase binding and initiation of transcription on fragments of lambda rifd 18 DNA containing promoters for lambda genes and for rrnB, tufB, rplC,A, rplJ,L, and rpoB,C genes. Gene. 1979;6:331-65 pubmed
    ..lambda and for Escherichia coli ribosomal RNA (rrnB), elongation factor Tu (tufB), ribosomal proteins L11 (rplK), L1 (rplA), L10 (rplJ), and L7/L12 (rplL), and RNA polymerase subunits beta (rpoB) and beta' (rpoC) were studied ..
  3. Ralling G, Linn T. Relative activities of the transcriptional regulatory sites in the rplKAJLrpoBC gene cluster of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1984;158:279-85 pubmed
    ..We find that the promoters preceding rplK (rplKp) and rplJ (rplJp) are indeed the major promoters of this gene cluster...
  4. Tate W, McCaughan K, Ward C, Sumpter V, Trotman C, Stoffler Meilicke M, et al. The ribosomal binding domain of the Escherichia coli release factors. Modification of tyrosine in the N-terminal domain of ribosomal protein L11 affects release factors 1 and 2 differentially. J Biol Chem. 1986;261:2289-93 pubmed
    ..These results suggest the involvement of the N terminus of L11 in the binding domain of the bacterial release factors and indicate that there are subtle differences in how the two factors interact with the ribosome. ..
  5. Dognin M, Wittmann Liebold B. Identification of methylated amino acids during sequence analysis. Application to the Escherichia coli ribosomal protein L11. Hoppe Seylers Z Physiol Chem. 1980;361:1697-705 pubmed
    ..The identification was confirmed by comparing the N-terminal dipeptide of protein L11 with the synthesised dipeptide Me3Ala-Lys. The behaviour of these methylated amino acids during sequence analysis is described. ..
  6. Van Dyke N, Murgola E. Site of functional interaction of release factor 1 with the ribosome. J Mol Biol. 2003;330:9-13 pubmed
    ..Our results show for the first time that it is precisely the N-terminal part of ribosomal protein L11 that is required for the functional interaction of release factor 1 with the ribosome in the cell. ..
  7. Parker J, Watson R, Friesen J. A relaxed mutant with an altered ribosomal protein L11. Mol Gen Genet. 1976;144:111-4 pubmed
    ..The L11 structural gene, rplK, maping near rif, is carried by the bacteriophage lambdacI857S7drifd18, and is most likely identical with relC.
  8. Friesen J, Fiil N, Parker J, Haseltine W. A new relaxed mutant of Escherichia coli with an altered 50S ribosomal subunit. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1974;71:3465-9 pubmed
    ..Rel C maps near rif. Studies in vitro demonstrate the lesion to be probably in one of the 50S ribosomal proteins that can be removed by 1.0 M LiCl. ..
  9. Littlechild J, Dijk J, Garrett R. The identification of new RNA-binding proteins in the Escherichia coli ribosome. FEBS Lett. 1977;74:292-4 pubmed
  10. Jenvert R, Schiavone L. The flexible N-terminal domain of ribosomal protein L11 from Escherichia coli is necessary for the activation of stringent factor. J Mol Biol. 2007;365:764-72 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the N-terminal domain can activate stringent factor in trans. It is also shown that this activation is dependent on unacylated tRNA. ..
  11. Yang X, Ishiguro E. Involvement of the N terminus of ribosomal protein L11 in regulation of the RelA protein of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:6532-7 pubmed
    Amino acid-deprived rplK (previously known as relC) mutants of Escherichia coli cannot activate (p)ppGpp synthetase I (RelA) and consequently exhibit relaxed phenotypes...
  12. Downing W, Sullivan S, Gottesman M, Dennis P. Sequence and transcriptional pattern of the essential Escherichia coli secE-nusG operon. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:1621-7 pubmed
    ..transcripts initiated at the PEG promoter and terminated at the Rho-independent terminator in the region of the rplK promoter...
  13. Linn T, Goman M, Scaife J. Lambda transducing bacteriophage carrying deletions of the argCBH-rpoBC region of the Escherichia coli chromosome. J Bacteriol. 1979;140:479-89 pubmed
    ..We thus extend and confirm knowledge of the organization of this part of the chromosome. The new phages are useful tools for studying the genes for the bacterial transcription and translation machinery. ..
  14. Mueller F, Sommer I, Baranov P, Matadeen R, Stoldt M, Wöhnert J, et al. The 3D arrangement of the 23 S and 5 S rRNA in the Escherichia coli 50 S ribosomal subunit based on a cryo-electron microscopic reconstruction at 7.5 A resolution. J Mol Biol. 2000;298:35-59 pubmed
  15. Dognin M, Wittmann Liebold B. Purification and primary structure determination of the N-terminal blocked protein, L11, from Escherichia coli ribosomes. Eur J Biochem. 1980;112:131-51 pubmed
    ..The protein contains 141 amino acid residues and has a molecular weight of 14874. Secondary structure predictions of the protein are given, and its sequence is compared with those of other E. coli ribosomal proteins. ..
  16. Chang C, Chang N. Methylation of the ribosomal proteins in Escherichia coli. Nature and stoichiometry of the methylated amino acids in 50S ribosomal proteins. Biochemistry. 1975;14:468-77 pubmed
    ..1 methyl group/molecule of protein). One unknown methylated neutral amino acid was detected in protein L11 and at least one and possibly two other unidentified methylated amino acids appeared to be present in protein L33. ..
  17. Wendrich T, Blaha G, Wilson D, Marahiel M, Nierhaus K. Dissection of the mechanism for the stringent factor RelA. Mol Cell. 2002;10:779-88 pubmed
  18. Blyn L, Risen L, Griffey R, Draper D. The RNA-binding domain of ribosomal protein L11 recognizes an rRNA tertiary structure stabilized by both thiostrepton and magnesium ion. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000;28:1778-84 pubmed
    ..Experiments using these assays with both an Escherichia coli rRNA fragment and a thermostable variant of that RNA show that Mg(2+), L11 and thiostrepton all induce the RNA to fold to an essentially identical tertiary structure. ..
  19. Demirci H, Gregory S, Dahlberg A, Jogl G. Multiple-site trimethylation of ribosomal protein L11 by the PrmA methyltransferase. Structure. 2008;16:1059-66 pubmed
  20. Bruckner R, Matzura H. In vivo synthesis of a polycistronic messenger RNA for the ribosomal proteins L11, L1, L10 and L7/12 in Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1981;183:277-82 pubmed
    ..Smaller distinct mRNA species could also be detected by this technique. They originate from intercistronic transcription termination and re-initiation as well as from processing of the larger polycistronic mRNA. ..
  21. McCaughan K, Ward C, Trotman C, Tate W. The ribosomal binding domain for the bacterial release factors RF-1, RF-2 and RF-3. FEBS Lett. 1984;175:90-4 pubmed
    ..RF-3 cannot restore activity with RF-1 or RF-2 to ribosomes lacking both these sets of proteins. The stimulatory effects of an absence of either L11 or RF-3 on the activity of RF-2 are not additive or synergistic. ..
  22. Jerez C, Weissbach H. Methylation of newly synthesized ribosomal protein L11 in a DNA-directed in vitro system. J Biol Chem. 1980;255:8706-10 pubmed
    ..lambda rifd 18 DNA also contains the genes for rRNA and newly synthesized 16 S and 23 S RNA are also methylated in this in vitro system. ..
  23. Hui I, Maltman K, Little R, Hastrup S, Johnsen M, Fiil N, et al. Insertions of transposon Tn5 into ribosomal protein PNA polymerase operons. J Bacteriol. 1982;152:1022-32 pubmed
    ..The results confirmed the organization of these genes into two transcription units as follows: PL11, rplK (L11), rplA (L1), PL10, rplJ (L10), rplL (L12), rpoB (beta). . ...
  24. Thomas M, Nomura M. Translational regulation of the L11 ribosomal protein operon of Escherichia coli: mutations that define the target site for repression by L1. Nucleic Acids Res. 1987;15:3085-96 pubmed
    ..These results are also consistent with the previously proposed model for the secondary structure of the L11 leader mRNA. ..
  25. Tate W, Schulze H, Nierhaus K. The Escherichia coli ribosomal protein L11 suppresses release factor 2 but promotes the release factor 1 activities in peptide chain termination. J Biol Chem. 1983;258:12816-20 pubmed
    ..This is the first example of a differential or an opposite effect of a ribosomal component on the activities of the two release factors, and the studies suggest that L11 has a critical role in the binding domain for the two factors. ..
  26. Schrier P, Moller W. The involvement of 50S ribosomal protein l11 in the EF-G dependent GTP hydrolysis of E. coli ribosomes. FEBS Lett. 1975;54:130-4 pubmed
  27. An G, Friesen J. Characterization of promoter-cloning plasmids: analysis of operon structure in the rif region of Escherichia coli and isolation of an enhanced internal promoter mutant. J Bacteriol. 1980;144:904-16 pubmed
    ..Analysis of a variety of plasmids in which tet is fused to various promoters yielded the following results: (i) rplK and rplA, genes for ribosomal protein L11 and L1, respectively, were cotranscribed from a common promoter located ..
  28. Newman A, Hayward R. Cloning of DNA of the rpoBC operon from the chromosome of Escherichia coli K12. Mol Gen Genet. 1980;177:527-33 pubmed
    ..As in lambdarifd 18 itself, this promoter is shared with rplJ but not with rplKA. The properties of the latter phage also show that the dominant rifampicin-resistance characteristic of lambdarifd 18 results from more than one mutation. ..
  29. Dabbs E. Selection for Escherichia coli mutants with proteins missing from the ribosome. J Bacteriol. 1979;140:734-7 pubmed
    ..Mutants were found with protein S20, L11, L15, L28, L29, or L30 missing. ..
  30. Li W, Agirrezabala X, Lei J, Bouakaz L, Brunelle J, Ortiz Meoz R, et al. Recognition of aminoacyl-tRNA: a common molecular mechanism revealed by cryo-EM. EMBO J. 2008;27:3322-31 pubmed publisher
  31. Iben J, Draper D. Specific interactions of the L10(L12)4 ribosomal protein complex with mRNA, rRNA, and L11. Biochemistry. 2008;47:2721-31 pubmed publisher
  32. Maeder C, Conn G, Draper D. Optimization of a ribosomal structural domain by natural selection. Biochemistry. 2006;45:6635-43 pubmed
  33. Sato H, Ito K, Nakamura Y. Ribosomal protein L11 mutations in two functional domains equally affect release factors 1 and 2 activity. Mol Microbiol. 2006;60:108-20 pubmed
    ..These L11 mutations were located on the surface of two domains of L11, and interpreted to affect the interaction between L11 and rRNA or the RFs thereby leading to the altered translation termination. ..
  34. Bouakaz L, Bouakaz E, Murgola E, Ehrenberg M, Sanyal S. The role of ribosomal protein L11 in class I release factor-mediated translation termination and translational accuracy. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:4548-56 pubmed
  35. Choli T. Structural properties of ribosomal protein L11 from Escherichia coli. Biochem Int. 1989;19:1323-38 pubmed
    ..It appears probable that the central region of L11, in which the protease cleavages occur, plays an important part in structural and functional aspects. ..
  36. Little R, Fiil N, Dennis P. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of ribosomal protein and ribonucleic acid polymerase genes. J Bacteriol. 1981;147:25-35 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the observed reduction in the translation efficiency of beta subunit messenger RNA may be related to an inhibitory effect caused by accumulation of RNA polymerase assembly intermediates. ..
  37. Murgola E, Xu W, Arkov A. Mutations at three sites in the Escherichia coli 23S ribosomal RNA binding region for protein L11 cause UGA-specific suppression and conditional lethality. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser. 1995;:70-2 pubmed
  38. Stoffler G, Cundliffe E, Stoffler Meilicke M, Dabbs E. Mutants of Escherichia coli lacking ribosomal protein L11. J Biol Chem. 1980;255:10517-22 pubmed
    ..Ribosomes of AM68, AM76, and AM77, did not bind the antibiotic thiostrepton, but binding was recovered upon reconstitution with wild type Protein L11. ..
  39. Steward K, Linn T. In vivo analysis of overlapping transcription units in the rplKAJLrpoBC ribosomal protein-RNA polymerase gene cluster of Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 1991;218:23-31 pubmed
    ..The results show that transcription initiated at the upstream rplKp promoter (located just before rplK) does not terminate before the rplJp promoter (located upstream from rplJ), but instead reads through into the ..
  40. García Marcos A, Morreale A, Guarinos E, Briones E, Remacha M, Ortiz A, et al. In vivo assembling of bacterial ribosomal protein L11 into yeast ribosomes makes the particles sensitive to the prokaryotic specific antibiotic thiostrepton. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:7109-17 pubmed
    ..Molecular dynamic simulations using modelled complexes support the correct assembly of bacterial L11 into the yeast ribosome and confirm its direct implication of its CTD in the binding of thiostrepton to ribosomes. ..
  41. Todorova R, Saihara Y. Specific binding of ribosome recycling factor (RRF) with the Escherichia coli ribosomes by BIACORE. Mol Biol Rep. 2003;30:113-9 pubmed
    ..We can consider an electrostatic character of the interactions with most probable candidate 16S and 23S r RNA at the interface of 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits. ..
  42. Post L, Strycharz G, Nomura M, Lewis H, Dennis P. Nucleotide sequence of the ribosomal protein gene cluster adjacent to the gene for RNA polymerase subunit beta in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979;76:1697-701 pubmed
    ..The sequence covers the genes for ribosomal proteins L11 (rplK), LI (rplA), L10 (rplJ), and L7/L12 ((rplL), and the 5' end of the gene for the beta subunit of RNA polymerase (..
  43. Downing W, Dennis P. Transcription products from the rplKAJL-rpoBC gene cluster. J Mol Biol. 1987;194:609-20 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the two major promoters, PL11 and PL10, are both utilized to drive the interrelated transcriptional expression of this ribosomal protein-RNA polymerase gene cluster. ..
  44. Stoffler G, Hasenbank R, Dabbs E. Expression of the L11-L1 operon in mutants of Escherichia coli lacking the ribosomal proteins L1 or L11. Mol Gen Genet. 1981;181:164-8 pubmed
    ..The supernatant concentrations of other proteins were indistinguishable in all strains. ..
  45. Lederer F, Alix J, Hayes D. N-Trimethylalanine, a novel blocking group, found in E. coli ribosomal protein L11. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1977;77:470-80 pubmed
  46. Gotz F, Fleischer C, Pon C, Gualerzi C. Subunit association defects in Escherichia coli ribosome mutants lacking proteins S20 and L11. Eur J Biochem. 1989;183:19-24 pubmed
  47. Naaktgeboren N, Schrier P, Moller W, Voorma H. The involvement of protein L11 in the joining of the 30-S initiation complex to the 50-S subunit. Eur J Biochem. 1976;62:117-23 pubmed
    ..If joining is impaired than both the level of fMet-tRNA binding and of the IF-2-mediated GTP hydrolysis is lowered. ..
  48. Baxter R, Ganoza M, Zahid N, Chung D. Reconstruction of peptidyltransferase activity on 50S and 70S ribosomal particles by peptide fragments of protein L16. Eur J Biochem. 1987;163:473-9 pubmed
    ..Also, EF-P, a soluble protein which reconstructs the peptide-bond formation and transesterification reactions on 70S ribosomes, stimulated both peptidyltransferase activities exhibited by the L16 N-terminal peptide. ..
  49. Highland J, Howard G, Ochsner E, Hasenbank R, Gordon J, Stoffler G. Identification of a ribosomal protein necessary for thiostrepton binding to Escherichia coli ribosomes. J Biol Chem. 1975;250:1141-5 pubmed
    ..We conclude, therefore, that protein L11 is required for the ribosomal binding of thiostrepton. ..
  50. Ryan P, Lu M, Draper D. Recognition of the highly conserved GTPase center of 23 S ribosomal RNA by ribosomal protein L11 and the antibiotic thiostrepton. J Mol Biol. 1991;221:1257-68 pubmed
    ..The results are discussed in terms of a model in which conformational flexibility of the GTPase center RNA is functionally important during the ribosome elongation cycle. ..
  51. Tate W, Dognin M, Noah M, Stoffler Meilicke M, Stoffler G. The NH2-terminal domain of Escherichia coli ribosomal protein L11. Its three-dimensional location and its role in the binding of release factors 1 and 2. J Biol Chem. 1984;259:7317-24 pubmed
    ..In all but one case, release factor 1 was more sensitive. These studies indicate that there are significant differences in the binding domains for the two release factors which are affected by the NH2-terminal part of L11. ..
  52. Isono K, Krauss J, Hirota Y. Isolation and characterization of temperature-sensitive mutants of Escherichia coli with altered ribosomal proteins. Mol Gen Genet. 1976;149:297-302 pubmed
    ..The importance of these mutants for structural and functional analyses of ribosomes is discussed. ..
  53. Van Dyke N, Xu W, Murgola E. Limitation of ribosomal protein L11 availability in vivo affects translation termination. J Mol Biol. 2002;319:329-39 pubmed
  54. Danchin A. A new technique for selection of sensitive and auxotrophic mutants of E. coli: isolation of a strain sensitive to an excess of one-carbon metabolites. Mol Gen Genet. 1977;150:293-9 pubmed
    ..It carries two mutations, smg A1 (near metA and arg H), probably identical to relC, and smgB (between asn and ilv), probably part of the E. coli membrane ATPase.
  55. Schmidt F, Thompson J, Lee K, Dijk J, Cundliffe E. The binding site for ribosomal protein L11 within 23 S ribosomal RNA of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1981;256:12301-5 pubmed
    ..It proved to be 61 residues long and the constituent oligonucleotides could be fitted perfectly between residues 1052 and 1112 of the nucleotide sequence of E. coli 23 S rRNA. ..
  56. Shcherbakov D, Dontsova M, Tribus M, Garber M, Piendl W. Stability of the 'L12 stalk' in ribosomes from mesophilic and (hyper)thermophilic Archaea and Bacteria. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:5800-14 pubmed
    ..A cooperative effect of binding to 23S rRNA of protein L11 and the L10/L12(4) complex from mesophilic and thermophilic Archaea was shown to be temperature-dependent. ..
  57. Wang Y, Qin H, Kudaravalli R, Kirillov S, Dempsey G, Pan D, et al. Single-molecule structural dynamics of EF-G--ribosome interaction during translocation. Biochemistry. 2007;46:10767-75 pubmed
    ..6 state results from the conformational lability of unlocked ribosomes formed during translocation. An idling state, possibly pertinent to regulation of protein synthesis, is detected in some ribosomes in the poly(Phe) system. ..