Gene Symbol: rob
Description: right oriC-binding transcriptional activator, AraC family
Alias: ECK4388, JW4359, cbpB, robA
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Delihas N, Forst S. MicF: an antisense RNA gene involved in response of Escherichia coli to global stress factors. J Mol Biol. 2001;313:1-12 pubmed
    ..The crystal structure of one these transcriptional activators, Rob, complexed with the micF promoter has been reported...
  2. Martin R, Gillette W, Martin N, Rosner J. Complex formation between activator and RNA polymerase as the basis for transcriptional activation by MarA and SoxS in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2002;43:355-70 pubmed
    ..We show here that the closely related activators, MarA, SoxS and Rob, which activate the same family of genes, are capable of forming complexes with RNP core or holoenzyme in the ..
  3. Zhang A, Rosner J, Martin R. Transcriptional activation by MarA, SoxS and Rob of two tolC promoters using one binding site: a complex promoter configuration for tolC in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2008;69:1450-5 pubmed publisher
    ..tolC is regulated in part by MarA, SoxS and Rob, three paralogous transcriptional activators which bind a sequence called the marbox and which activate multiple ..
  4. Helling R, Janes B, Kimball H, Tran T, Bundesmann M, Check P, et al. Toxic waste disposal in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:3699-703 pubmed
    ..The metabolites that accumulate upstream of the blocks caused by the mutations are hypothesized to increase the levels of the AcrAB-TolC pump, thereby removing nalidixic acid from the organism. ..
  5. Griffith K, Fitzpatrick M, Keen E, Wolf R. Two functions of the C-terminal domain of Escherichia coli Rob: mediating "sequestration-dispersal" as a novel off-on switch for regulating Rob's activity as a transcription activator and preventing degradation of Rob by Lon protease. J Mol Biol. 2009;388:415-30 pubmed publisher
    In Escherichia coli, Rob activates transcription of the SoxRS/MarA/Rob regulon...
  6. Demple B. Redox signaling and gene control in the Escherichia coli soxRS oxidative stress regulon--a review. Gene. 1996;179:53-7 pubmed
    ..When the soxRS system is activated, bacteria gain resistance to oxidants, antibiotics and immune cells that generate nitric oxide. The latter features could increase the success (virulence) of some bacterial infections. ..
  7. Martin R, Rosner J. Analysis of microarray data for the marA, soxS, and rob regulons of Escherichia coli. Methods Enzymol. 2003;370:278-80 pubmed
  8. Griffith K, Wolf R. Systematic mutagenesis of the DNA binding sites for SoxS in the Escherichia coli zwf and fpr promoters: identifying nucleotides required for DNA binding and transcription activation. Mol Microbiol. 2001;40:1141-54 pubmed
    ..Based on this exhaustive mutagenesis, we propose the following optimal sequence for SoxS binding: AnVGCACWWWnKRHCAAAHn (n = A, C, G, T; V = A, C, G; W = A, T; K = G, T; R = A, G; H = A, C, T). ..
  9. Casaz P, Garrity Ryan L, McKenney D, Jackson C, Levy S, Tanaka S, et al. MarA, SoxS and Rob function as virulence factors in an Escherichia coli murine model of ascending pyelonephritis. Microbiology. 2006;152:3643-50 pubmed
    MarA, SoxS and Rob are transcription factors belonging to the AraC family...

More Information


  1. Michán C, Manchado M, Pueyo C. SoxRS down-regulation of rob transcription. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:4733-8 pubmed
    b>Rob is regarded as a constitutively expressed protein, although little is known about how rob gene is regulated...
  2. Rosenberg E, Bertenthal D, Nilles M, Bertrand K, Nikaido H. Bile salts and fatty acids induce the expression of Escherichia coli AcrAB multidrug efflux pump through their interaction with Rob regulatory protein. Mol Microbiol. 2003;48:1609-19 pubmed
    ..Its expression is regulated by three XylS/AraC family regulators, MarA, SoxS and Rob. Although MarA and SoxS regulation works by the alteration of their own expression levels, it was not known how Rob,..
  3. Martin R, Gillette W, Rhee S, Rosner J. Structural requirements for marbox function in transcriptional activation of mar/sox/rob regulon promoters in Escherichia coli: sequence, orientation and spatial relationship to the core promoter. Mol Microbiol. 1999;34:431-41 pubmed
    The promoters of the mar/sox/rob regulon of Escherichia coli contain a binding site (marbox) for the homologous transcriptional activators MarA, SoxS and Rob...
  4. Griffith K, Becker S, Wolf R. Characterization of TetD as a transcriptional activator of a subset of genes of the Escherichia coli SoxS/MarA/Rob regulon. Mol Microbiol. 2005;56:1103-17 pubmed
    In Escherichia coli, SoxS, MarA and Rob form a closely related subset of the AraC/XylS family of positive regulators, sharing approximately 42% amino acid sequence identity over the length of SoxS and the ability to activate ..
  5. Aono R. Improvement of organic solvent tolerance level of Escherichia coli by overexpression of stress-responsive genes. Extremophiles. 1998;2:239-48 pubmed
    ..High expression of stress-responsive genes, soxS, marA, and robA, elevated organic solvent tolerance levels of several strains of E. coli...
  6. Barbosa T, Levy S. Differential expression of over 60 chromosomal genes in Escherichia coli by constitutive expression of MarA. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:3467-74 pubmed
    ..Northern blot analysis of selected genes confirmed the results obtained with the macroarrays. The findings reveal that the mar locus mediates a global stress response involving one of the largest networks of genes described. ..
  7. Martin R, Rosner J. Genomics of the marA/soxS/rob regulon of Escherichia coli: identification of directly activated promoters by application of molecular genetics and informatics to microarray data. Mol Microbiol. 2002;44:1611-24 pubmed
    ..Here, we identify directly activated promoters of the overlapping marA, soxS and rob regulon(s) of Escherichia coli by applying informatics, genomics and molecular genetics to microarray data obtained ..
  8. Martin R, Jair K, Wolf R, Rosner J. Autoactivation of the marRAB multiple antibiotic resistance operon by the MarA transcriptional activator in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:2216-23 pubmed
    ..Thus, transcription of the marRAB operon is autorepressed by MarR and autoactivated by MarA at a site that also can be activated by SoxS. ..
  9. Jair K, Yu X, Skarstad K, Thony B, Fujita N, Ishihama A, et al. Transcriptional activation of promoters of the superoxide and multiple antibiotic resistance regulons by Rob, a binding protein of the Escherichia coli origin of chromosomal replication. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:2507-13 pubmed
    The Rob protein, isolated on the basis of its ability to bind to the right arm of the Escherichia coli origin of chromosomal replication, is about 50% identical in amino acid sequence to SoxS and MarA, the direct regulators of the ..
  10. Alekshun M, Levy S. The mar regulon: multiple resistance to antibiotics and other toxic chemicals. Trends Microbiol. 1999;7:410-3 pubmed
    ..The Mar phenotype is induced following exposure to a variety of chemicals with aromatic rings. ..
  11. White D, Goldman J, Demple B, Levy S. Role of the acrAB locus in organic solvent tolerance mediated by expression of marA, soxS, or robA in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:6122-6 pubmed
    ..Constitutive expression of marA of the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) locus or of the soxS or robA gene product produced tolerance to cyclohexane...
  12. Azam T, Hiraga S, Ishihama A. Two types of localization of the DNA-binding proteins within the Escherichia coli nucleoid. Genes Cells. 2000;5:613-26 pubmed
    ..activities of DNA functions accumulate at specific loci within the nucleoid, forming 2 (SeqA), 3-4 (CbpA and CbpB) and 6-10 (Fis and IciA) immuno-stained dots...
  13. Tanaka T, Nishito Y, Masai H. Fork restart protein, PriA, binds around oriC after depletion of nucleotide precursors: Replication fork arrest near the replication origin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;470:546-551 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculate that replication pausing and fork-slow-down shortly after initiation may represent a novel checkpoint that ensures the presence of sufficient nucleotide supply prior to commitment to duplication of the entire genome. ..
  14. Martin R, Bartlett E, Rosner J, Wall M. Activation of the Escherichia coli marA/soxS/rob regulon in response to transcriptional activator concentration. J Mol Biol. 2008;380:278-84 pubmed publisher
    The paralogous transcriptional activators MarA, SoxS, and Rob activate a common set of promoters, the marA/soxS/rob regulon of Escherichia coli, by binding a cognate site (marbox) upstream of each promoter...
  15. Rodgers M, Schleif R. Solution structure of the DNA binding domain of AraC protein. Proteins. 2009;77:202-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This solution structure is discussed in the context of extensive biochemical and physiological data on AraC and with respect to the DNA-bound structures of the MarA and Rob homologs.
  16. Rosner J, Martin R. An excretory function for the Escherichia coli outer membrane pore TolC: upregulation of marA and soxS transcription and Rob activity due to metabolites accumulated in tolC mutants. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:5283-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Because tolC transcription is activated by three paralogous activators, MarA, SoxS, and Rob, we examined the regulation of these activators in tolC mutants...
  17. Taliaferro L, Keen E, Sanchez Alberola N, Wolf R. Transcription activation by Escherichia coli Rob at class II promoters: protein-protein interactions between Rob's N-terminal domain and the ?(70) subunit of RNA polymerase. J Mol Biol. 2012;419:139-57 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Rob, SoxS, and MarA comprise a closely related subset of members of the AraC/XylS family of transcription factors that ..
  18. Kakeda M, Ueguchi C, Yamada H, Mizuno T. An Escherichia coli curved DNA-binding protein whose expression is affected by the stationary phase-specific sigma factor sigma S. Mol Gen Genet. 1995;248:629-34 pubmed
    ..coli chromosome, named Rob. Here, a rob promoter-lacZ transcriptional fusion was constructed on the chromosome, and used to demonstrate that ..
  19. Martin R, Rosner J. The AraC transcriptional activators. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2001;4:132-7 pubmed
    ..Recent X-ray diffraction studies show that the monomeric MarA and Rob activators bind to their asymmetric degenerate DNA sites via two different helix-turn-helix elements...
  20. Duo M, Hou S, Ren D. Identifying Escherichia coli genes involved in intrinsic multidrug resistance. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008;81:731-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in 12 out of the 13 mutants were identified by inverse polymerase chain reaction. Mutants of the genes rob, garP, bipA, insK, and yhhX were more sensitive to Cm compared to the wild-type EC100, while the mutation of rhaB, ..
  21. Pomposiello P, Bennik M, Demple B. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of the Escherichia coli responses to superoxide stress and sodium salicylate. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:3890-902 pubmed
    ..A large number of PQ- and NaSal-responsive genes have no known function, suggesting that many adaptive metabolic changes that ensue after stress remain uncharacterized. ..
  22. Ariza R, Li Z, Ringstad N, Demple B. Activation of multiple antibiotic resistance and binding of stress-inducible promoters by Escherichia coli Rob protein. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:1655-61 pubmed of proteins and are more closely related to a approximately 100-residue segment in the N terminus of Rob protein, which binds the right arm of the replication origin, oriC...
  23. Cohen S, H chler H, Levy S. Genetic and functional analysis of the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) locus in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:1484-92 pubmed
    ..The function of ORF72, designated marB, encoding the third putative protein in the operon, and that of other ORFs detected within the 7.8-kb fragment have not yet been determined...
  24. Oh J, Cajal Y, Skowronska E, Belkin S, Chen J, Van Dyk T, et al. Cationic peptide antimicrobials induce selective transcription of micF and osmY in Escherichia coli. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1463:43-54 pubmed
    ..The micF response required the presence of a functional rob gene...
  25. Ali Azam T, Iwata A, Nishimura A, Ueda S, Ishihama A. Growth phase-dependent variation in protein composition of the Escherichia coli nucleoid. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:6361-70 pubmed
    ..coli W3110, including CbpA (curved DNA-binding protein A), CbpB (curved DNA-binding protein B, also known as Rob [right origin binding protein]), DnaA (DNA-binding protein A), Dps ..
  26. Nakajima H, Kobayashi K, Kobayashi M, Asako H, Aono R. Overexpression of the robA gene increases organic solvent tolerance and multiple antibiotic and heavy metal ion resistance in Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1995;61:2302-7 pubmed
    ..Subcloning and sequence analysis showed that the plasmid contained the robA gene, whose gene product was reported to bind specifically to the right border of oriC...
  27. Skarstad K, Th ny B, Hwang D, Kornberg A. A novel binding protein of the origin of the Escherichia coli chromosome. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:5365-70 pubmed
    ..The stoichiometry of protein to DNA is about 6 to 1. Around 5000 monomers of the protein, named Rob (right oriC binding), are present per cell. The rob gene has been located near 99.8 min on the E...
  28. McLaughlin W, Berman H. Statistical models for discerning protein structures containing the DNA-binding helix-turn-helix motif. J Mol Biol. 2003;330:43-55 pubmed
  29. Pomposiello P, Koutsolioutsou A, Carrasco D, Demple B. SoxRS-regulated expression and genetic analysis of the yggX gene of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:6624-32 pubmed
    ..activation of yggX by oxidative stress or SoxS expression but not in response to the related MarA or Rob proteins...
  30. Wood T, Griffith K, Fawcett W, Jair K, Schneider T, Wolf R. Interdependence of the position and orientation of SoxS binding sites in the transcriptional activation of the class I subset of Escherichia coli superoxide-inducible promoters. Mol Microbiol. 1999;34:414-30 pubmed
    ..Analysis by molecular information theory of DNA sequences known to bind SoxS in vitro is consistent with the opposite orientation of the zwf and fpr soxboxes. ..
  31. Randall L, Woodward M. The multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) locus and its significance. Res Vet Sci. 2002;72:87-93 pubmed
    ..Other related systems include up-regulation of RobA, SoxS and AcrAB which give rise to a similar resistance phenotype to that conferred by up-regulation of MarA...
  32. Wei Y, Vollmer A, LaRossa R. In vivo titration of mitomycin C action by four Escherichia coli genomic regions on multicopy plasmids. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:2259-64 pubmed
    ..MMC resistance is caused by the presence of any of four distinct E. coli genes (mdfA, gyrl, rob, and sdiA) on high-copy-number vectors...
  33. Griffith K, Shah I, Myers T, O Neill M, Wolf R. Evidence for "pre-recruitment" as a new mechanism of transcription activation in Escherichia coli: the large excess of SoxS binding sites per cell relative to the number of SoxS molecules per cell. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;291:979-86 pubmed
    ..We name this new pathway "pre-recruitment." ..
  34. Azam T, Ishihama A. Twelve species of the nucleoid-associated protein from Escherichia coli. Sequence recognition specificity and DNA binding affinity. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:33105-13 pubmed
    ..We expressed and purified 12 species of the DNA-binding protein, i.e. CbpA (curved DNA-binding protein A), CbpB or Rob (curved DNA-binding protein B or right arm of the replication origin binding protein), DnaA (DNA-binding ..
  35. Grkovic S, Brown M, Skurray R. Regulation of bacterial drug export systems. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2002;66:671-701, table of contents pubmed
    ..Hence, in a number of important pathogens, regulatory mutations that result in drug transporter overexpression and concomitant elevated antimicrobial resistance are often observed. ..
  36. Griffith K, Wolf R. A comprehensive alanine scanning mutagenesis of the Escherichia coli transcriptional activator SoxS: identifying amino acids important for DNA binding and transcription activation. J Mol Biol. 2002;322:237-57 pubmed transcription activation represent the first positive control mutants with putative defects in protein-protein interactions with RNA polymerase among the SoxS/MarA/Rob subset of the AraC/XylS family of transcription regulators.
  37. Schneiders T, Levy S. MarA-mediated transcriptional repression of the rob promoter. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:10049-55 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that MarA down-regulates rob transcripts both in vivo and in vitro via a MarA-binding site within the rob promoter that is positioned between ..
  38. Nunoshiba T, Hidalgo E, Amábile Cuevas C, Demple B. Two-stage control of an oxidative stress regulon: the Escherichia coli SoxR protein triggers redox-inducible expression of the soxS regulatory gene. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:6054-60 pubmed
    ..The mode of SoxR binding to DNA appears to be similar to that of its homolog MerR in that the SoxR footprint spans the -10 to -35 region of the soxS promoter. ..
  39. Wu J, Weiss B. Two-stage induction of the soxRS (superoxide response) regulon of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:3915-20 pubmed
    ..It is proposed that to enhance the sensitivity of the response, the cell minimizes such potential competition by manufacturing only a small amount of this sensor protein, thereby necessitating signal amplification via induction of soxS. ..
  40. Rhee S, Martin R, Rosner J, Davies D. A novel DNA-binding motif in MarA: the first structure for an AraC family transcriptional activator. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:10413-8 pubmed
    ..Extensive interactions between the recognition helices and the DNA major groove provide the sequence specificity...
  41. Kwon H, Bennik M, Demple B, Ellenberger T. Crystal structure of the Escherichia coli Rob transcription factor in complex with DNA. Nat Struct Biol. 2000;7:424-30 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli Rob protein is a transcription factor belonging to the AraC/XylS protein family that regulates genes involved in resistance to antibiotics, organic solvents and heavy metals...
  42. Dangi B, Pelupessey P, Martin R, Rosner J, Louis J, Gronenborn A. Structure and dynamics of MarA-DNA complexes: an NMR investigation. J Mol Biol. 2001;314:113-27 pubmed
  43. Gallegos M, Schleif R, Bairoch A, Hofmann K, Ramos J. Arac/XylS family of transcriptional regulators. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 1997;61:393-410 pubmed
  44. Rosner J, Dangi B, Gronenborn A, Martin R. Posttranscriptional activation of the transcriptional activator Rob by dipyridyl in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:1407-16 pubmed
    The transcriptional activator Rob consists of an N-terminal domain (NTD) of 120 amino acids responsible for DNA binding and promoter activation and a C-terminal domain (CTD) of 169 amino acids of unknown function...
  45. Warner D, Levy S. Different effects of transcriptional regulators MarA, SoxS and Rob on susceptibility of Escherichia coli to cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs): Rob-dependent CAMP induction of the marRAB operon. Microbiology. 2010;156:570-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The roles of the Escherichia coli transcriptional regulators MarA, SoxS and Rob in susceptibility to these peptides were examined...