Gene Symbol: rmf
Description: ribosome modulation factor
Alias: ECK0944, JW0936
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Yamagishi M, Matsushima H, Wada A, Sakagami M, Fujita N, Ishihama A. Regulation of the Escherichia coli rmf gene encoding the ribosome modulation factor: growth phase- and growth rate-dependent control. EMBO J. 1993;12:625-30 pubmed
    Ribosome modulation factor (RMF) is a protein specifically associated with 100S ribosome dimers which start to accumulate in Escherichia coli cells upon growth transition from exponential to stationary phase...
  2. El Sharoud W. Ribosome inactivation for preservation: concepts and reservations. Sci Prog. 2004;87:137-52 pubmed
    ..This was found to aid the survival of bacteria in this phase. Such proteins include ribosome modulation factor (RMF), YfiA and YhbH. Examining the influence of RMF on the survival of E...
  3. Bubunenko M, Baker T, Court D. Essentiality of ribosomal and transcription antitermination proteins analyzed by systematic gene replacement in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:2844-53 pubmed
    ..antitermination proteins are essential, while all four of the minor ribosome-associated proteins examined (RMF, SRA, YfiA, and YhbH), unlike most ribosomal proteins, are dispensable...
  4. Ueta M, Ohniwa R, Yoshida H, Maki Y, Wada C, Wada A. Role of HPF (hibernation promoting factor) in translational activity in Escherichia coli. J Biochem. 2008;143:425-33 pubmed publisher
    During the stationary phase of growth in Escherichia coli, ribosome modulation factor (RMF) and hibernation promoting factor (HPF) dimerize most 70S ribosomes to form 100S ribosomes...
  5. Imaizumi A, Koseki C, Matsui K, Kojima H. Improved production of enzymes, which are expressed under the Pho regulon promoter, in the rmf gene (encoding ribosome modulation factor) disruptant of Escherichia coli. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006;70:949-57 pubmed
    Using a DNA macroarray, we investigated the effects of rmf gene (encoding ribosome modulation factor) disruption on gene expression profiles in Escherichia coli...
  6. Izutsu K, Wada A, Wada C. Expression of ribosome modulation factor (RMF) in Escherichia coli requires ppGpp. Genes Cells. 2001;6:665-76 pubmed
    ..Ribosome Modulation Factor (RMF) is induced during the stationary phase and binds to the 50S ribosomal subunit, which directs the dimerization of ..
  7. El Sharoud W, Niven G. The activity of ribosome modulation factor during growth of Escherichia coli under acidic conditions. Arch Microbiol. 2005;184:18-24 pubmed
    Expression of the gene encoding ribosome modulation factor (RMF), as measured using an rmf-lacZ gene fusion, increased with decreasing pH in exponential phase cultures of Escherichia coli...
  8. Imaizumi A, Takikawa R, Koseki C, Usuda Y, Yasueda H, Kojima H, et al. Improved production of L-lysine by disruption of stationary phase-specific rmf gene in Escherichia coli. J Biotechnol. 2005;117:111-8 pubmed
    ..We focused on the rmf gene, which encodes the ribosome modulation factor protein, as a target for strain modification in order to improve ..
  9. Aiso T, Yoshida H, Wada A, Ohki R. Modulation of mRNA stability participates in stationary-phase-specific expression of ribosome modulation factor. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:1951-8 pubmed
    The expression of ribosome modulation factor (RMF) is induced during stationary phase in Escherichia coli...

More Information


  1. Yoshida H, Yamamoto H, Uchiumi T, Wada A. RMF inactivates ribosomes by covering the peptidyl transferase centre and entrance of peptide exit tunnel. Genes Cells. 2004;9:271-8 pubmed
    ..The 100S ribosome, a dimer of 70S ribosomes, is formed by ribosome modulation factor (RMF) binding to the 70S ribosomes...
  2. Guido N, Lee P, Wang X, Elston T, Collins J. A pathway and genetic factors contributing to elevated gene expression noise in stationary phase. Biophys J. 2007;93:L55-7 pubmed
    ..Here we present evidence for a pathway and associated genetic factors (namely, the ribosome modulation factor RMF and ppGpp) in Escherichia coli that contribute to heightened levels of gene expression noise during stationary ..
  3. Yoshida H, Maki Y, Kato H, Fujisawa H, Izutsu K, Wada C, et al. The ribosome modulation factor (RMF) binding site on the 100S ribosome of Escherichia coli. J Biochem. 2002;132:983-9 pubmed
    ..This conversion is caused by the binding of the ribosome modulation factor (RMF) to 70S ribosomes...
  4. Bürk J, Weiche B, Wenk M, Boy D, Nestel S, Heimrich B, et al. Depletion of the signal recognition particle receptor inactivates ribosomes in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:7017-26 pubmed publisher
    ..response that includes the upregulation of the ribosome-inactivating protein ribosome modulation factor (RMF). Although the consequences of these responses in E...
  5. Wada A, Igarashi K, Yoshimura S, Aimoto S, Ishihama A. Ribosome modulation factor: stationary growth phase-specific inhibitor of ribosome functions from Escherichia coli. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995;214:410-7 pubmed
    Ribosome modulation factor (RMF) is an Escherichia coli protein associated with 100S ribosome dimers, which are formed at stationary growth phase or in slowly growing cells...
  6. Fukuchi J, Kashiwagi K, Yamagishi M, Ishihama A, Igarashi K. Decrease in cell viability due to the accumulation of spermidine in spermidine acetyltransferase-deficient mutant of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:18831-5 pubmed
    ..1993) EMBO J. 12, 625-630), the decrease in the protein was thought to be one of the reasons for the decrease in cell viability. The decrease in the ribosome modulation factor mainly occurred at the translational level. ..
  7. Polikanov Y, Blaha G, Steitz T. How hibernation factors RMF, HPF, and YfiA turn off protein synthesis. Science. 2012;336:915-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In Escherichia coli, 100S dimer formation is mediated by ribosome modulation factor (RMF) and hibernation promoting factor (HPF), or alternatively, the YfiA protein inactivates ribosomes as 70S monomers...
  8. Yoshida H, Ueta M, Maki Y, Sakai A, Wada A. Activities of Escherichia coli ribosomes in IF3 and RMF change to prepare 100S ribosome formation on entering the stationary growth phase. Genes Cells. 2009;14:271-80 pubmed publisher
    ..that Escherichia coli ribosomes are dimerized (100S ribosome formation) by binding ribosome modulation factor (RMF) and hibernation promoting factor (HPF), leading to a hibernation stage...
  9. Shimada T, Yoshida H, Ishihama A. Involvement of cyclic AMP receptor protein in regulation of the rmf gene encoding the ribosome modulation factor in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2013;195:2212-9 pubmed publisher
    ..accompanied with the formation of functionally inactive 100S ribosomes mediated by the ribosome modulation factor (RMF). At present, however, little is known regarding the regulation of stationary-phase-coupled RMF expression...
  10. Moen B, Janbu A, Langsrud S, Langsrud O, Hobman J, Constantinidou C, et al. Global responses of Escherichia coli to adverse conditions determined by microarrays and FT-IR spectroscopy. Can J Microbiol. 2009;55:714-28 pubmed publisher
    ..There were, however, only 3 genes (ygaW (unknown function), rmf (encoding a ribosomal modification factor), and ghrA (encoding a glyoxylate/hydroxypyruvate reductase)) that ..
  11. El Sharoud W, Niven G. The influence of ribosome modulation factor on the survival of stationary-phase Escherichia coli during acid stress. Microbiology. 2007;153:247-53 pubmed
    Ribosome modulation factor (RMF) was shown to have an influence on the survival of Escherichia coli under acid stress during stationary phase, since the viability of cultures of a mutant strain lacking functional RMF decreased more ..
  12. Niven G. Ribosome modulation factor protects Escherichia coli during heat stress, but this may not be dependent on ribosome dimerisation. Arch Microbiol. 2004;182:60-6 pubmed
    The role of ribosome modulation factor (RMF) in protecting heat-stressed Escherichia coli cells was identified by the observation that cultures of a mutant strain lacking functional RMF (HMY15) were highly heat sensitive in stationary ..
  13. Samuel Raj V, Füll C, Yoshida M, Sakata K, Kashiwagi K, Ishihama A, et al. Decrease in cell viability in an RMF, sigma(38), and OmpC triple mutant of Escherichia coli. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;299:252-7 pubmed
    ..There were parallel decreases in the levels of ribosome modulation factor (RMF), the sigma(38) subunit of RNA polymerase, and the outer membrane protein C (OmpC)...
  14. Azam T, Hiraga S, Ishihama A. Two types of localization of the DNA-binding proteins within the Escherichia coli nucleoid. Genes Cells. 2000;5:613-26 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the majority of Hfq is present in cytoplasm together with ribosomal proteins L7/L12 and RMF. The DNA-binding proteins of E. coli could be classified into two groups...
  15. Cronan J, Li W, Coleman R, Narasimhan M, de Mendoza D, Schwab J. Derived amino acid sequence and identification of active site residues of Escherichia coli beta-hydroxydecanoyl thioester dehydrase. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:4641-6 pubmed
    ..We also report a simplified purification process for the dehydrase beginning with extracts of a brain which greatly overproduces the enzyme. ..
  16. Wada A, Yamazaki Y, Fujita N, Ishihama A. Structure and probable genetic location of a "ribosome modulation factor" associated with 100S ribosomes in stationary-phase Escherichia coli cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:2657-61 pubmed
    ..From the results, we propose that protein E is a "ribosome modulation factor" (RMF), which associates with 70S ribosomes and converts them to a dimeric form...