rho

Summary

Gene Symbol: rho
Description: transcription termination factor
Alias: ECK3775, JW3756, hdf, nitA, nusD, psuA, rnsC, sbaA, sun, tabC, tsu
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
Products:     rho

Top Publications

  1. Aldea M, Maples V, Kushner S. Generation of a detailed physical and genetic map of the ilv-metE-udp region of the Escherichia coli chromosome. J Mol Biol. 1988;200:427-38 pubmed
  2. Martinez A, Opperman T, Richardson J. Mutational analysis and secondary structure model of the RNP1-like sequence motif of transcription termination factor Rho. J Mol Biol. 1996;257:895-908 pubmed
    The function of transcription termination factor Rho from Escherichia coli is dependent upon its ability to bind to specific sites on nascent RNA molecules...
  3. Hitchens T, Zhan Y, Richardson L, Richardson J, Rule G. Sequence-specific interactions in the RNA-binding domain of Escherichia coli transcription termination factor Rho. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:33697-703 pubmed
    b>Rho factor is an essential protein that causes termination of transcription in a wide variety of bacteria by an RNA-dependent helicase activity. Rho is activated by transcripts that contain a high proportion of cytidine residues...
  4. Burns C, Nowatzke W, Richardson J. Activation of Rho-dependent transcription termination by NusG. Dependence on terminator location and acceleration of RNA release. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:5245-51 pubmed
    There is a kinetic limitation to Rho function at the first intragenic terminator in the lacZ gene (tiZ1) which can be overcome by NusG: Rho can terminate transcription with slowly moving, but not rapidly moving, RNA polymerase unless ..
  5. Modrak D, Richardson J. The RNA-binding domain of transcription termination factor rho: isolation, characterization, and determination of sequence limits. Biochemistry. 1994;33:8292-9 pubmed
    The function of transcription termination factor rho from Escherichia coli is dependent upon its ability to bind RNA...
  6. Alifano P, Rivellini F, Limauro D, Bruni C, Carlomagno M. A consensus motif common to all Rho-dependent prokaryotic transcription terminators. Cell. 1991;64:553-63 pubmed
    ..in the mutant strains, together with in vitro transcription assays, led to the identification of several cryptic Rho-dependent transcription termination elements within the his operon that are activated by the uncoupling of ..
  7. Morgan W, Bear D, Litchman B, von Hippel P. RNA sequence and secondary structure requirements for rho-dependent transcription termination. Nucleic Acids Res. 1985;13:3739-54 pubmed
    The interaction of E. coli termination factor rho with the nascent RNA transcript appears to be a central feature of the rho-dependent transcription termination process...
  8. Xu Y, Kohn H, Widger W. Mutations in the rho transcription termination factor that affect RNA tracking. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:30023-30 pubmed
    ..16 conserved positively charged amino acids that form a positive strip pointing toward the center hole of Rho. Fourteen residues were individually changed to either an alanine or a glycine and one to a glutamate...
  9. Bogden C, Fass D, Bergman N, Nichols M, Berger J. The structural basis for terminator recognition by the Rho transcription termination factor. Mol Cell. 1999;3:487-93 pubmed
    The E. coli Rho protein disengages newly transcribed RNA from its DNA template, helping terminate certain transcripts. We have determined the X-ray crystal structure of the RNA-binding domain of Rho complexed to an RNA ligand...

More Information

Publications88

  1. Geiselmann J, Seifried S, Yager T, Liang C, von Hippel P. Physical properties of the Escherichia coli transcription termination factor rho. 2. Quaternary structure of the rho hexamer. Biochemistry. 1992;31:121-32 pubmed
    Under approximately physiological conditions, the transcription termination factor rho from Escherichia coli is a hexamer of planar hexagonal geometry [Geiselmann, J., Yager, T. D., Gill, S. C., Calmettes, P., & von Hippel, P. H...
  2. Wei R, Richardson J. Mutational changes of conserved residues in the Q-loop region of transcription factor Rho greatly reduce secondary site RNA-binding. J Mol Biol. 2001;314:1007-15 pubmed
    Transcription factor Rho of Eschericia coli is a ring-shaped homohexameric protein that terminates transcripts by its action on nascent RNAs...
  3. Dolan J, Marshall N, Richardson J. Transcription termination factor rho has three distinct structural domains. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:5747-54 pubmed
    The domain structure of transcription termination factor rho was analyzed by partial trypsin cleavage and by photoaffinity labeling with ATP and oligo(C)5...
  4. Richardson J. Rho-dependent termination and ATPases in transcript termination. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1577:251-260 pubmed
    Transcription factor Rho is a ring-shaped, homohexameric protein that causes transcript termination through actions on nascent RNAs that are coupled to ATP hydrolysis...
  5. Skordalakes E, Berger J. Structural insights into RNA-dependent ring closure and ATPase activation by the Rho termination factor. Cell. 2006;127:553-64 pubmed
    ..substrates and use nucleotide hydrolysis to power molecular movement, we have determined the structure of the Rho transcription termination factor, a hexameric RNA/DNA helicase, with single-stranded RNA bound to the motor domains ..
  6. Banerjee S, Chalissery J, Bandey I, Sen R. Rho-dependent transcription termination: more questions than answers. J Microbiol. 2006;44:11-22 pubmed
    Escherichia coli protein Rho is required for the factor-dependent transcription termination by an RNA polymerase and is essential for the viability of the cell...
  7. Pereira S, Platt T. Analysis of E. coli rho factor: mutations affecting secondary-site interactions. J Mol Biol. 1995;251:30-40 pubmed
    To define and differentiate primary and secondary RNA binding sites within the linear sequence of the rho protein, we investigated two mutant alleles, rho-115 and rhosuA1...
  8. Pereira S, Platt T. A mutation in the ATP binding domain of rho alters its RNA binding properties and uncouples ATP hydrolysis from helicase activity. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:30401-7 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli mutant rho201 was originally isolated in a genetic screen for defects in rho-dependent termination...
  9. Bear D, Hicks P, Escudero K, Andrews C, McSwiggen J, von Hippel P. Interactions of Escherichia coli transcription termination factor rho with RNA. II. Electron microscopy and nuclease protection experiments. J Mol Biol. 1988;199:623-35 pubmed
    Structural aspects of the interaction between Escherichia coli transcription termination factor rho and RNA have been investigated, using nuclease protection assays and electron microscopy...
  10. Brennan C, Dombroski A, Platt T. Transcription termination factor rho is an RNA-DNA helicase. Cell. 1987;48:945-52 pubmed
    E. coli rho factor can unwind a short RNA-DNA duplex in vitro...
  11. Richardson J, Carey J. rho Factors from polarity suppressor mutants with defects in their RNA interactions. J Biol Chem. 1982;257:5767-71 pubmed
    b>rho proteins isolated from strains of Escherichia coli with the suA1, suA100, and suA120 polarity suppressor mutant alleles of the rho gene are shown to be defective in termination of T7 DNA transcription in vitro...
  12. McSwiggen J, Bear D, von Hippel P. Interactions of Escherichia coli transcription termination factor rho with RNA. I. Binding stoichiometries and free energies. J Mol Biol. 1988;199:609-22 pubmed
    In this paper we examine the binding of Escherichia coli transcription termination factor rho to single-stranded RNA...
  13. Howard B, de Crombrugghe B. ATPase activity required for termination of transcription by the Escherichia coli protein factor rho. J Biol Chem. 1976;251:2520-4 pubmed
    The relationship between the RNA-dependent beta-gamma ATPase in purified rho preparations and rho-mediated termination of transcription has been investigated...
  14. Miwa Y, Horiguchi T, Shigesada K. Structural and functional dissections of transcription termination factor rho by random mutagenesis. J Mol Biol. 1995;254:815-37 pubmed
    Transcription termination factor rho from Escherichia coli is a homohexamer of 419 amino acid subunits and catalyzes an ATP-dependent release of nascent RNA transcripts...
  15. Chen X, Stitt B. The binding of C10 oligomers to Escherichia coli transcription termination factor Rho. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:16301-10 pubmed
    The binding of C10 RNA oligomers to wild type and mutant Escherichia coli transcription termination factor Rho provides a model for the enzyme-RNA interactions that lead to transcription termination...
  16. Harinarayanan R, Gowrishankar J. Host factor titration by chromosomal R-loops as a mechanism for runaway plasmid replication in transcription termination-defective mutants of Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 2003;332:31-46 pubmed
    ..identified several links between rnhA, recG, and R-loop-dependent plasmid replication on the one hand, and genes rho and nusG involved in factor-dependent transcription termination on the other...
  17. Magyar A, Zhang X, Abdi F, Kohn H, Widger W. Identifying the bicyclomycin binding domain through biochemical analysis of antibiotic-resistant rho proteins. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:7316-24 pubmed
    Mutations M219K, S266A, and G337S in transcription termination factor Rho have been shown to confer resistance to the antibiotic bicyclomycin (BCM)...
  18. Richardson J. Loading Rho to terminate transcription. Cell. 2003;114:157-9 pubmed
    In bacteria, one of the major transcriptional termination mechanisms requires a hexameric RNA/DNA helicase known as Rho. One question that has remained unanswered is how the helicase loads onto a nascent transcript so that it can ..
  19. Jin D, Burgess R, Richardson J, Gross C. Termination efficiency at rho-dependent terminators depends on kinetic coupling between RNA polymerase and rho. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:1453-7 pubmed
    b>Rho-dependent terminators constitute one of two major classes of terminators in Escherichia coli. Termination at these sites requires the concerted action of RNA polymerase and rho protein...
  20. Geiselmann J, Yager T, von Hippel P. Functional interactions of ligand cofactors with Escherichia coli transcription termination factor rho. II. Binding of RNA. Protein Sci. 1992;1:861-73 pubmed
    The rho protein of Escherichia coli interacts with the nascent RNA transcript while RNA polymerase is paused at specific rho-dependent termination sites on the DNA template, and (in a series of steps that are still largely undefined) ..
  21. Skordalakes E, Berger J. Structure of the Rho transcription terminator: mechanism of mRNA recognition and helicase loading. Cell. 2003;114:135-46 pubmed
    In bacteria, one of the major transcriptional termination mechanisms requires a RNA/DNA helicase known as the Rho factor...
  22. Burgess B, Richardson J. RNA passes through the hole of the protein hexamer in the complex with the Escherichia coli Rho factor. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:4182-9 pubmed
    Escherichia coli transcription termination factor Rho is a ring-shaped hexameric protein that uses the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to dissociate RNA transcripts from the ternary elongation complex...
  23. Mott J, Grant R, Ho Y, Platt T. Maximizing gene expression from plasmid vectors containing the lambda PL promoter: strategies for overproducing transcription termination factor rho. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985;82:88-92 pubmed
    We have constructed two plasmids in which transcription of the rho gene from Escherichia coli K-12 is under the control of the lambda phage PL promoter...
  24. O I, Stitt B. 8-Azido-ATP inactivation of Escherichia coli transcription termination factor Rho. Modification of one subunit inactivates the hexamer. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:5009-15 pubmed
    Escherichia coli transcription termination factor Rho (EC 3.6.1.3) releases nascent RNA from transcription complexes in a reaction which requires ATP hydrolysis...
  25. Gilmour D, Fan R. Derailing the locomotive: transcription termination. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:661-4 pubmed
  26. Brown S, Albrechtsen B, Pedersen S, Klemm P. Localization and regulation of the structural gene for transcription-termination factor rho of Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 1982;162:283-98 pubmed
  27. de Smit M, Verlaan P, van Duin J, Pleij C. Intracistronic transcriptional polarity enhances translational repression: a new role for Rho. Mol Microbiol. 2008;69:1278-89 pubmed
    Transcriptional polarity in Escherichia coli occurs when cryptic Rho-dependent transcription terminators become activated as a consequence of reduced translation...
  28. Yanofsky C, Horn V. Bicyclomycin sensitivity and resistance affect Rho factor-mediated transcription termination in the tna operon of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:4451-6 pubmed
    The growth-inhibiting drug bicyclomycin, known to be an inhibitor of Rho factor activity in Escherichia coli, was shown to increase basal level expression of the tryptophanase (tna) operon and to allow growth of a tryptophan auxotroph on ..
  29. Burns C, Richardson L, Richardson J. Combinatorial effects of NusA and NusG on transcription elongation and Rho-dependent termination in Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 1998;278:307-16 pubmed
    ..factors NusA and NusG from Escherichia coli are modulators of the RNA polymerase elongation reaction and Rho-dependent transcription termination...
  30. Horiguchi T, Miwa Y, Shigesada K. The quaternary geometry of transcription termination factor rho: assignment by chemical cross-linking. J Mol Biol. 1997;269:514-28 pubmed
    Transcription termination factor rho from Escherichia coli is a ring-shaped homohexamer of 419 amino acid subunits and catalyzes an ATP-dependent release of nascent RNA transcripts...
  31. Stitt B, Revel H, Lielausis I, Wood W. Role of the host cell in bacteriophage T4 development. II. Characterization of host mutants that have pleiotropic effects on T4 growth. J Virol. 1980;35:775-89 pubmed
    ..The host mutations are cotransduced with ilv (83 min) and may lie in the gene for transcription termination factor rho.
  32. Richardson J, Ruteshouser E. rho factor-dependent transcription termination. Interference by a mutant rho. J Mol Biol. 1986;189:413-9 pubmed
    The rho protein isolated from a strain of Escherichia coli with the rho1 (suA1) mutant allele is defective in interactions with RNA that are coupled to ATP hydrolysis...
  33. Browne R, Barr E, Stitt B. Catalytic cooperativity among subunits of Escherichia coli transcription termination factor Rho. Kinetics and substrate structural requirements. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:13292-9 pubmed
    Escherichia coli transcription termination factor Rho shows a 30-fold faster rate of ATP hydrolysis when all three catalytic sites are filled with ATP than when only a single site is filled (Stitt, B. L. and Xu, Y. (1998) J. Biol. Chem...
  34. Thomsen N, Berger J. Running in reverse: the structural basis for translocation polarity in hexameric helicases. Cell. 2009;139:523-34 pubmed publisher
    ..coli Rho transcription termination factor bound to RNA and nucleotide...
  35. Chalissery J, Muteeb G, Kalarickal N, Mohan S, Jisha V, Sen R. Interaction surface of the transcription terminator Rho required to form a complex with the C-terminal domain of the antiterminator NusG. J Mol Biol. 2011;405:49-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Rho-dependent transcription termination in bacteria requires an interaction between the terminator Rho and the antiterminator NusG. The interaction surface of the Rho-NusG complex is unknown...
  36. Burgess B, Richardson J. Transcription factor Rho does not require a free end to act as an RNA-DNA helicase on an RNA. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:17106-10 pubmed
    Escherichia coli Rho factor is a ring-shaped, homohexameric protein that terminates synthesis of RNA through interactions with the nascent RNA transcript...
  37. Walmacq C, Rahmouni A, Boudvillain M. Influence of substrate composition on the helicase activity of transcription termination factor Rho: reduced processivity of Rho hexamers during unwinding of RNA-DNA hybrid regions. J Mol Biol. 2004;342:403-20 pubmed
    Transcription termination factor Rho forms ring-shaped hexameric structures that load onto segments of the nascent RNA transcript that are C-rich and mostly single-stranded...
  38. Walstrom K, Dozono J, von Hippel P. Effects of reaction conditions on RNA secondary structure and on the helicase activity of Escherichia coli transcription termination factor Rho. J Mol Biol. 1998;279:713-26 pubmed
    The ATPase and helicase activities of the Escherichia coli transcription termination protein rho have been studied under a variety of reaction conditions that alter its transcription termination activity...
  39. Ray Soni A, Bellecourt M, Landick R. Mechanisms of Bacterial Transcription Termination: All Good Things Must End. Annu Rev Biochem. 2016;85:319-47 pubmed publisher
    ..In bacteria, two mechanisms are responsible for proper transcript termination: intrinsic termination and Rho-dependent termination...
  40. Dombroski A, Platt T. Structure of rho factor: an RNA-binding domain and a separate region with strong similarity to proven ATP-binding domains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:2538-42 pubmed
    The domain structure of rho protein, a transcription termination factor of Escherichia coli, was analyzed by oligonucleotide site-directed mutagenesis and chemical modification methods...
  41. Matsumoto Y, Shigesada K, Hirano M, Imai M. Autogenous regulation of the gene for transcription termination factor rho in Escherichia coli: localization and function of its attenuators. J Bacteriol. 1986;166:945-58 pubmed
    We present evidence that the expression of rho is regulated by rho-dependent attenuation of transcription...
  42. Park H, Zhang X, Moon H, Zwiefka A, Cox K, Gaskell S, et al. Bicyclomycin and dihydrobicyclomycin inhibition kinetics of Escherichia coli rho-dependent transcription termination factor ATPase activity. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1995;323:447-54 pubmed
    The primary site of action for the novel antibiotic, bicyclomycin, in Escherichia coli has been identified to be the rho transcription termination factor...
  43. Shigesada K, Tsurushita N, Matsumoto Y, Imai M. Overproduction of transcription termination factor Rho in Escherichia coli. Gene. 1984;29:199-209 pubmed
    A plasmid system has been constructed which allows high-level expression of the rho gene of Escherichia coli under the control of the pL promoter and the N-antitermination regulatory system of bacteriophage lambda...
  44. Das A, Court D, Adhya S. Isolation and characterization of conditional lethal mutants of Escherichia coli defective in transcription termination factor rho. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1976;73:1959-63 pubmed
    ..coli K12. The mutations map between the ilv and cya loci of the E. coli chromosome. Rho factor isolated from one of these ts mutants does not show transcription termination activity at any temperature ..
  45. Joyce S, Dorman C. A Rho-dependent phase-variable transcription terminator controls expression of the FimE recombinase in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2002;45:1107-17 pubmed
    ..This termination is Rho dependent and is abolished in a rho mutant...
  46. Schwartz A, Margeat E, Rahmouni A, Boudvillain M. Transcription termination factor rho can displace streptavidin from biotinylated RNA. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:31469-76 pubmed
    In Escherichia coli, binding of the hexameric Rho protein to naked C-rich Rut (Rho utilization) regions of nascent RNA transcripts initiates Rho-dependent termination of transcription...
  47. Sharp J, Platt T. Rho-dependent termination and concomitant NTPase activity requires a specific, intact RNA region. J Biol Chem. 1984;259:2268-73 pubmed
    We have investigated the specific DNA and RNA requirements for rho-dependent transcription termination in vitro. As a model, we have used templates containing the rho-dependent terminator of the Escherichia coli trp operon, trp t'...
  48. Ohta M, Ina K, Kusuzaki K, Kido N, Arakawa Y, Kato N. Cloning and expression of the rfe-rff gene cluster of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1991;5:1853-62 pubmed
    ..Using Tn5 insertion inactivation, the rfe gene was localized at the 1.5 kb HindIII-EcoRI region flanking the rho gene. We constructed an rfe-deficient E...
  49. Sukhodolets V, Mironov A, Lin kova E. [Disturbance of the tandem promotor functioning of the Escherichia coli K-12 deo-operon in the genome of the rho15(ts) mutant for the transcription termination factor]. Genetika. 1981;17:1719-29 pubmed
    ..activity, while the deoxyriboaldolase activity controlled by the proximal deoC gene almost does not differ in the rho+ and rho15 strains...
  50. Galloway J, Platt T. Signals sufficient for rho-dependent transcription termination at trp t' span a region centered 60 base pairs upstream of the earliest 3' end point. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:1761-7 pubmed
    ..characterized the functional attributes of a 211-base pair region containing the Escherichia coli tryptophan operon rho-dependent terminator trp t', utilizing a series of constructs that alter the orientation, location, or extent of ..
  51. Shigesada K, Imai M. [The mechanism of the termination of transcription and the role of rho factor in Escherichia coli (author's transl)]. Tanpakushitsu Kakusan Koso. 1977;22:1076-90 pubmed
  52. Nakano H, Goto S, Nakayashiki T, Inokuchi H. Temperature-sensitive mutations in various genes of Escherichia coli K12 can be suppressed by the ssrA gene for 10Sa RNA (tmRNA). Mol Genet Genomics. 2001;265:615-21 pubmed
    ..Considering the fact that ssrA-suppressible mutants could be isolated as temperature-sensitive mutants with mutations in different genes, it seems evident that trans-translation can occur on mRNA that is not lacking its stop codon. ..
  53. Brennan C, Platt T. Mutations in an RNP1 consensus sequence of Rho protein reduce RNA binding affinity but facilitate helicase turnover. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:17296-305 pubmed
    Escherichia coli rho protein facilitates transcription termination by a mechanism that involves rho binding to the nascent RNA, activation of rho's RNA-dependent ATPase activity, and release of the mRNA from the DNA template...
  54. Mooney R, Davis S, Peters J, Rowland J, Ansari A, Landick R. Regulator trafficking on bacterial transcription units in vivo. Mol Cell. 2009;33:97-108 pubmed publisher
    The trafficking patterns of the bacterial regulators of transcript elongation sigma(70), rho, NusA, and NusG on genes in vivo and the explanation for promoter-proximal peaks of RNA polymerase (RNAP) are unknown. Genome-wide, E...
  55. Balasubramanian K, Stitt B. Evidence for amino acid roles in the chemistry of ATP hydrolysis in Escherichia coli Rho. J Mol Biol. 2010;404:587-99 pubmed publisher
    ..We mutated four candidate residues for these roles in the Escherichia coli transcription termination factor Rho, E211, R366, R212, and D265, and characterized the resulting proteins for oligomerization state, ligand binding, ..
  56. Klumpp S, Hwa T. Stochasticity and traffic jams in the transcription of ribosomal RNA: Intriguing role of termination and antitermination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:18159-64 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the termination factor Rho can remove the nonantiterminated RNAPs and restore fast transcription...
  57. Dombroski A, Platt T. Mutations in the ATP-binding domain of Escherichia coli rho factor affect transcription termination in vivo. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:2477-84 pubmed
    Five mutant rho proteins, representing alterations at three different locations in the Escherichia coli rho gene that affect ATP hydrolytic activity but not RNA binding, were examined in vivo for function at the rho-dependent IS2 and ..
  58. Mori H, Imai M, Shigesada K. Mutant rho factors with increased transcription termination activities. II. Identification and functional dissection of amino acid changes. J Mol Biol. 1989;210:39-49 pubmed
    We have determined the nucleotide sequences of three mutant rho genes encoding hyperfunctional rho proteins (rho S) together with their parent allele, rho-ts702...
  59. Pasman Z, von Hippel P. Regulation of rho-dependent transcription termination by NusG is specific to the Escherichia coli elongation complex. Biochemistry. 2000;39:5573-85 pubmed
    To terminate transcription in E. coli, Rho protein binds an RNA loading site on the nascent transcript, translocates 5'--> 3' along the RNA in an ATP-driven process, and, upon reaching the transcription elongation complex, brings ..
  60. Walstrom K, Dozono J, Robic S, von Hippel P. Kinetics of the RNA-DNA helicase activity of Escherichia coli transcription termination factor rho. 1. Characterization and analysis of the reaction. Biochemistry. 1997;36:7980-92 pubmed
    The kinetics of the ATP-dependent RNA-DNA helicase activity of Escherichia colitranscription termination factor rho have been analyzed...
  61. Sozhamannan S, Morris J, Stitt B. Instability of pUC19 in Escherichia coli transcription termination factor mutant, rho026. Plasmid. 1999;41:63-9 pubmed
    ..pUC19, unlike pBR322, fails to transform E. coli rho mutant rho026 cells. Here we identify two features of pUC19 that contribute to this transformation defect...
  62. Bear D, Andrews C, Singer J, Morgan W, Grant R, von Hippel P, et al. Escherichia coli transcription termination factor rho has a two-domain structure in its activated form. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985;82:1911-5 pubmed
    Limited tryptic digestion of Escherichia coli transcription termination factor rho [an RNA-dependent nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase)] yields predominantly two fragments (f1 and f2) when the protein is bound to both poly(C) and ATP...
  63. Bubunenko M, Baker T, Court D. Essentiality of ribosomal and transcription antitermination proteins analyzed by systematic gene replacement in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:2844-53 pubmed
    ..The transcription elongation Nus proteins and termination factor Rho, which are involved in rRNA antitermination, the ribosomal proteins of the small 30S ribosome subunit, and minor ..
  64. Espeli O, Moulin L, Boccard F. Transcription attenuation associated with bacterial repetitive extragenic BIME elements. J Mol Biol. 2001;314:375-86 pubmed
    ..The transcription termination factor Rho is required for attenuation in association with BIMEs, thus revealing a new role for Rho as a BIMEs-dependent ..
  65. Seifried S, Easton J, von Hippel P. ATPase activity of transcription-termination factor rho: functional dimer model. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:10454-8 pubmed
    Transcription-termination factor rho of Escherichia coli functions as an RNA-dependent ATPase that causes transcript release at specific rho-dependent termination sites on the DNA template...
  66. Seifried S, Wang Y, von Hippel P. Fluorescent modification of the cysteine 202 residue of Escherichia coli transcription termination factor rho. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:13511-4 pubmed
    The lone cysteine residue (Cys-202) of transcription termination factor rho has been modified with the sulfhydryl-specific dyes 5-iodoacetamidofluorescein and 5-(2-[iodoacetyl)amino)ethyl)aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid...
  67. Sullivan S, Ward D, Gottesman M. Effect of Escherichia coli nusG function on lambda N-mediated transcription antitermination. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:1339-44 pubmed
    ..However, nusG+ expressed from a multicopy plasmid suppressed nusD026 and related rho mutants for both lambda and phage T4 growth...
  68. Gogol E, Seifried S, von Hippel P. Structure and assembly of the Escherichia coli transcription termination factor rho and its interaction with RNA. I. Cryoelectron microscopic studies. J Mol Biol. 1991;221:1127-38 pubmed
    Cryoelectron microscopy has been used to visualize the Escherichia coli transcription termination protein rho in a vitreously frozen state, without the use of strains, fixatives or other chemical perturbants...
  69. Browne R, Stitt B. Active site occupancy required for catalytic cooperativity by Escherichia coli transcription termination factor Rho. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:13300-3 pubmed
    Escherichia coli transcription termination factor Rho exhibits the phenomenon of catalytic cooperativity...
  70. Zwiefka A, Kohn H, Widger W. Transcription termination factor rho: the site of bicyclomycin inhibition in Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 1993;32:3564-70 pubmed
    ..plasmids that confer drug resistance, which contained the gene encoding the transcription termination factor, rho. These mutant rho genes contained single base changes at nucleotide positions 656, 796, and 1009...
  71. King R, Weisberg R. Suppression of factor-dependent transcription termination by antiterminator RNA. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:7085-91 pubmed
    ..also suppresses termination in vivo at two factor-dependent terminators, one that depends on the bacterial Rho protein and a second that depends on the HK022-encoded Nun protein...
  72. Saxena S, Gowrishankar J. Modulation of Rho-dependent transcription termination in Escherichia coli by the H-NS family of proteins. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:3832-41 pubmed publisher
    ..are subject to a factor-dependent mechanism of termination (also termed a polarity) that involves the proteins Rho and NusG...
  73. Stitt B, Kempner E. Structure-function relationships in Escherichia coli transcription termination protein Rho revealed by radiation target analysis. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1996;334:268-76 pubmed
    ..sizes for inactivation of the RNA-dependent ATPase activity of Escherichia coli transcription termination factor Rho, for its ATP binding ability, and for its physical destruction...
  74. Shigesada K, Imai M. Function of transcription termination factor rho in a model transcription system using synthetic deoxyribonucleic acid as template. Biochemistry. 1982;21:5849-56 pubmed
    The function of a transcription termination factor, rho, has been studied by using several synthetic DNAs with simple repetitive base sequences as templates for transcription...
  75. Weber T, Widger W, Kohn H. Metal-1,4-dithio-2,3-dihydroxybutane chelates: novel inhibitors of the Rho transcription termination factor. Biochemistry. 2003;42:9121-6 pubmed
    b>Rho is an enzyme that is essential for the growth and survival of Escherichia coli, and bicyclomycin (1) is its only known selective inhibitor...
  76. Vincent F, Openshaw M, Trautwein M, Gaskell S, Kohn H, Widger W. Rho transcription factor: symmetry and binding of bicyclomycin. Biochemistry. 2000;39:9077-83 pubmed
    The antibiotic bicyclomycin inhibits rho-dependent termination processes by interfering with RNA translocation by preventing RNA binding at the translocation site or by uncoupling the translocation process from ATP hydrolysis...
  77. Allison T, Wood T, Briercheck D, Rastinejad F, Richardson J, Rule G. Crystal structure of the RNA-binding domain from transcription termination factor rho. Nat Struct Biol. 1998;5:352-6 pubmed
    Transcription termination factor rho is an ATP-dependent hexameric helicase found in most eubacterial species...
  78. Sharp J, Guterman S, Platt T. The rho-115 mutation in transcription termination factor rho affects its primary polynucleotide binding site. J Biol Chem. 1986;261:2524-8 pubmed
    We have investigated the effect of the rho-115 mutation on the catalytic properties of the Escherichia coli termination protein, rho...
  79. Lohman T. Escherichia coli DNA helicases: mechanisms of DNA unwinding. Mol Microbiol. 1992;6:5-14 pubmed
    ..coli Rep, RecBCD and phage T7 gene 4 helicases. ..