rfaH

Summary

Gene Symbol: rfaH
Description: transcription antitermination protein
Alias: ECK3834, JW3818, hlyT, sfrB
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. Artsimovitch I, Landick R. The transcriptional regulator RfaH stimulates RNA chain synthesis after recruitment to elongation complexes by the exposed nontemplate DNA strand. Cell. 2002;109:193-203 pubmed
    The transcriptional regulatory protein RfaH controls expression of several operons that encode extracytoplasmic components in bacteria...
  2. Belogurov G, Sevostyanova A, Svetlov V, Artsimovitch I. Functional regions of the N-terminal domain of the antiterminator RfaH. Mol Microbiol. 2010;76:286-301 pubmed publisher
    b>RfaH is a bacterial elongation factor that increases expression of distal genes in several long, horizontally acquired operons...
  3. Belogurov G, Mooney R, Svetlov V, Landick R, Artsimovitch I. Functional specialization of transcription elongation factors. EMBO J. 2009;28:112-22 pubmed publisher
    Elongation factors NusG and RfaH evolved from a common ancestor and utilize the same binding site on RNA polymerase (RNAP) to modulate transcription...
  4. Creeger E, Schulte T, Rothfield L. Regulation of membrane glycosyltransferases by the sfrB and rfaH genes of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. J Biol Chem. 1984;259:3064-9 pubmed
    The role of sfrB and rfaH genes in the regulation of expression of membrane glycosyltransferases was studied in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium...
  5. Bailey M, Hughes C, Koronakis V. RfaH and the ops element, components of a novel system controlling bacterial transcription elongation. Mol Microbiol. 1997;26:845-51 pubmed
    The RfaH protein controls the transcription of a specialized group of Escherichia coli and Salmonella operons that direct the synthesis, assembly and export of the lipopolysaccharide core, exopolysaccharide, F conjugation pilus and ..
  6. Bailey M, Hughes C, Koronakis V. Increased distal gene transcription by the elongation factor RfaH, a specialized homologue of NusG. Mol Microbiol. 1996;22:729-37 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli RfaH protein is required for the expression of operons directing synthesis and export of the toxin haemolysin, the lipopolysaccharide core, and the F-factor sex pilus...
  7. Farewell A, Brazas R, Davie E, Mason J, Rothfield L. Suppression of the abnormal phenotype of Salmonella typhimurium rfaH mutants by mutations in the gene for transcription termination factor Rho. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:5188-93 pubmed
    Mutations in the rfaH gene have previously been shown to cause premature termination of transcription of the traYZ operon of the F factor and also to prevent expression of the rfaGBIJ gene cluster of Salmonella typhimurium...
  8. Beloin C, Michaelis K, Lindner K, Landini P, Hacker J, Ghigo J, et al. The transcriptional antiterminator RfaH represses biofilm formation in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:1316-31 pubmed
    We investigated the influence of regulatory and pathogenicity island-associated factors (Hha, RpoS, LuxS, EvgA, RfaH, and tRNA5Leu) on biofilm formation by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strain 536...
  9. Nagy G, Dobrindt U, Schneider G, Khan A, Hacker J, Emody L. Loss of regulatory protein RfaH attenuates virulence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Infect Immun. 2002;70:4406-13 pubmed
    b>RfaH is a regulatory protein in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium...

More Information

Publications41

  1. Santangelo T, Roberts J. RfaH, a bacterial transcription antiterminator. Mol Cell. 2002;9:698-700 pubmed
    The bacterial transcription antiterminator RfaH has been shown to act, in a purified biochemical system, by binding both RNA polymerase and the nontemplate strand of DNA at the regulatory site ops.
  2. Bailey M, Hughes C, Koronakis V. In vitro recruitment of the RfaH regulatory protein into a specialised transcription complex, directed by the nucleic acid ops element. Mol Gen Genet. 2000;262:1052-9 pubmed
    ..elongation in long fertility and virulence operons in bacteria is effected by two specialised components, the RfaH protein and the nucleic acid ops element...
  3. Nieto J, Bailey M, Hughes C, Koronakis V. Suppression of transcription polarity in the Escherichia coli haemolysin operon by a short upstream element shared by polysaccharide and DNA transfer determinants. Mol Microbiol. 1996;19:705-13 pubmed
    ..We name it the ops element for operon polarity suppressor. ..
  4. Bailey M, Koronakis V, Schmoll T, Hughes C. Escherichia coli HlyT protein, a transcriptional activator of haemolysin synthesis and secretion, is encoded by the rfaH (sfrB) locus required for expression of sex factor and lipopolysaccharide genes. Mol Microbiol. 1992;6:1003-12 pubmed
    ..3680 kbp (minute 87) on the chromosome adjacent to the fadBA operon, and identified it specifically as the rfaH (sfrB) locus which is required for transcription of the genes encoding synthesis of the sex pilus and also the ..
  5. Belogurov G, Vassylyeva M, Svetlov V, Klyuyev S, Grishin N, Vassylyev D, et al. Structural basis for converting a general transcription factor into an operon-specific virulence regulator. Mol Cell. 2007;26:117-29 pubmed
    b>RfaH, a paralog of the general transcription factor NusG, is recruited to elongating RNA polymerase at specific regulatory sites. The X-ray structure of Escherichia coli RfaH reported here reveals two domains...
  6. Burmann B, Knauer S, Sevostyanova A, Schweimer K, Mooney R, Landick R, et al. An ? helix to ? barrel domain switch transforms the transcription factor RfaH into a translation factor. Cell. 2012;150:291-303 pubmed publisher
    ..The Escherichia coli (E. coli) two-domain paralogs NusG and RfaH have conformationally identical N-terminal domains (NTDs) but dramatically different carboxy-terminal domains (CTDs)..
  7. Svetlov V, Belogurov G, Shabrova E, Vassylyev D, Artsimovitch I. Allosteric control of the RNA polymerase by the elongation factor RfaH. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:5694-705 pubmed
    ..b>RfaH is a cellular elongation factor that acts as a polarity suppressor by increasing RNA polymerase (RNAP) processivity...
  8. Leeds J, Welch R. RfaH enhances elongation of Escherichia coli hlyCABD mRNA. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:1850-7 pubmed
    ..Previous reports suggested that the E. coli protein RfaH is required for wild-type hemolysin expression, either by positively activating hly transcript initiation (M. J. A...
  9. Pradel E, Schnaitman C. Effect of rfaH (sfrB) and temperature on expression of rfa genes of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:6428-31 pubmed
    ..and was restored to wild-type levels when these strains were lysogenized with a lambda phage carrying wild-type rfaH. This indicates that the positive regulatory function encoded by rfaH is required throughout this block of genes...
  10. Bittner M, Saldías S, Estévez C, Zaldivar M, Marolda C, Valvano M, et al. O-antigen expression in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is regulated by nitrogen availability through RpoN-mediated transcriptional control of the rfaH gene. Microbiology. 2002;148:3789-99 pubmed
    The authors previously reported increased expression of the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. typhi) rfaH gene when the bacterial cells reach stationary phase...
  11. Beutin L, Manning P, Achtman M, Willetts N. sfrA and sfrB products of Escherichia coli K-12 are transcriptional control factors. J Bacteriol. 1981;145:840-4 pubmed
    The mechanisms whereby mutations in Escherichia coli K-12 genes sfrA and sfrB reduce expression of the transfer functions of sex factor F have been examined by assaying the levels of tra messenger ribonucleic acid and of tra proteins...
  12. Gc J, Bhandari Y, Gerstman B, Chapagain P. Molecular dynamics investigations of the ?-helix to ?-barrel conformational transformation in the RfaH transcription factor. J Phys Chem B. 2014;118:5101-8 pubmed publisher
    The C-terminal domain (CTD) of the transcription antiterminator RfaH folds to an ?-helix bundle when it interacts with its N-terminal domain (NTD) but it undergoes an all-? to all-? conformational transformation when it does not interact ..
  13. Tomar S, Knauer S, Nandymazumdar M, Rosch P, Artsimovitch I. Interdomain contacts control folding of transcription factor RfaH. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:10077-85 pubmed publisher
    Escherichia coli RfaH activates gene expression by tethering the elongating RNA polymerase to the ribosome...
  14. Rojas G, Saldías S, Bittner M, Zaldivar M, Contreras I. The rfaH gene, which affects lipopolysaccharide synthesis in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, is differentially expressed during the bacterial growth phase. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001;204:123-8 pubmed
    We have cloned and sequenced the rfaH gene from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain Ty2. The gene showed a high degree of similarity to the rfaH genes from Escherichia coli K-12 and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium...
  15. Gaffney D, Skurray R, Willetts N. Regulation of the F conjugation genes studied by hybridization and tra-lacZ fusion. J Mol Biol. 1983;168:103-22 pubmed
    ..The chromosomal sfrA gene product may be required to prevent premature termination of traJ transcription, while the sfrB gene product prevents premature termination at two sites within the traY-Z operon...
  16. Shi D, Svetlov D, Abagyan R, Artsimovitch I. Flipping states: a few key residues decide the winning conformation of the only universally conserved transcription factor. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:8835-8843 pubmed publisher
    ..Escherichia coli RfaH is the exemplar of this regulatory mechanism...
  17. Vassylyeva M, Svetlov V, Klyuyev S, Devedjiev Y, Artsimovitch I, Vassylyev D. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the transcriptional regulator RfaH from Escherichia coli and its complex with ops DNA. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2006;62:1027-30 pubmed
    The bacterial transcriptional factor and virulence regulator RfaH binds to rapidly moving transcription elongation complexes through specific interactions with the exposed segment of the non-template DNA strand...
  18. Wang L, Jensen S, Hallman R, Reeves P. Expression of the O antigen gene cluster is regulated by RfaH through the JUMPstart sequence. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1998;165:201-6 pubmed
    ..b>RfaH is known to regulate the expression of E...
  19. Bittner M, Saldías S, Altamirano F, Valvano M, Contreras I. RpoS and RpoN are involved in the growth-dependent regulation of rfaH transcription and O antigen expression in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Microb Pathog. 2004;36:19-24 pubmed
    ..typhi) increases at the onset of stationary phase and correlates with a growth-regulated expression of the rfaH gene under the control of the alternative sigma factor RpoN (Microbiology 148 (2002) 3789)...
  20. Leeds J, Welch R. Enhancing transcription through the Escherichia coli hemolysin operon, hlyCABD: RfaH and upstream JUMPStart DNA sequences function together via a postinitiation mechanism. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:3519-27 pubmed
    ..The E. coli protein RfaH is required for wild-type hemolysin expression at the level of hlyCABD transcript elongation (J. A. Leeds and R. A...
  21. Ralling G, Linn T. Evidence that Rho and NusA are involved in termination in the rplL-rpoB intercistronic region. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:2277-80 pubmed
    ..The results of our study suggest that Rho increases and that both NusA and the product of sfrB decrease termination frequency in the rplL-rpoB intercistronic region.
  22. Kolb K, Hein P, Landick R. Antisense oligonucleotide-stimulated transcriptional pausing reveals RNA exit channel specificity of RNA polymerase and mechanistic contributions of NusA and RfaH. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:1151-63 pubmed publisher
    ..at pause sites by open versus closed positions of the RNAP clamp domain, pause-suppressing regulators like NusG and RfaH that stabilize the closed-clampRNAP conformation, and pause-enhancing regulators like NusA and exit channel nascent ..
  23. Nagy G, Dobrindt U, Grozdanov L, Hacker J, Emody L. Transcriptional regulation through RfaH contributes to intestinal colonization by Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2005;244:173-80 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli regulatory protein RfaH contributes to efficient colonization of the mouse gut. Extraintestinal pathogenic (ExPEC) as well as non-pathogenic probiotic E...
  24. Vicari D, Artsimovitch I. Virulence regulators RfaH and YaeQ do not operate in the same pathway. Mol Genet Genomics. 2004;272:489-96 pubmed
    ..such as hemolysin and lipopolysaccharides in Proteobacteria is regulated by the transcription elongation factor RfaH. RfaH reduces pausing and termination at intergenic sites, and thus allows RNA polymerase to conclude transcription ..
  25. Balasco N, Barone D, Vitagliano L. Structural conversion of the transformer protein RfaH: new insights derived from protein structure prediction and molecular dynamics simulations. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2015;33:2173-9 pubmed publisher
    Recent structural investigations have shown that the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the transcription factor RfaH undergoes unique structural modifications that have a profound impact into its functional properties...
  26. Beutin L, Achtman M. Two Escherichia coli chromosomal cistrons, sfrA and sfrB, which are needed for expression of F factor tra functions. J Bacteriol. 1979;139:730-7 pubmed
    ..Six of the mutants carry sfrA mutations, and six carry sfrB mutations. sfrA and sfrB are cistrons mapping near thr and metE, respectively...
  27. Moores A, Chipper Keating S, Sun L, McVicker G, Wales L, Gashi K, et al. RfaH suppresses small RNA MicA inhibition of fimB expression in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 2014;196:148-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that RfaH activates expression of a FimB-LacZ protein fusion while having a modest inhibitory effect on a comparable fimB-..
  28. Sanderson K, Stocker B. Gene rfaH, which affects lipopolysaccharide core structure in Salmonella typhimurium, is required also for expression of F-factor functions. J Bacteriol. 1981;146:535-41 pubmed
    Mutations in gene rfaH of Salmonella typhimurium at 84 units on the linkage map make lipopolysaccharide of chemotypes Ra, Rb2, Rb3, and Rc (A. A. Lindberg and C. G. Hellerqvist, J. Gen. Microbiol, 116:25--32, 1980)...
  29. Xiong L, Liu Z. Molecular dynamics study on folding and allostery in RfaH. Proteins. 2015;83:1582-92 pubmed publisher
    ..the C-terminal domain (CTD) switches from α-helix conformation to β-barrel conformation, which converts RfaH from a transcription factor into an activator of translation...
  30. Rehemtulla A, Kadam S, Sanderson K. Cloning and analysis of the sfrB (sex factor repression) gene of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1986;166:651-7 pubmed
    The sfrB gene of Escherichia coli K-12 and the rfaH gene of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 are homologous, controlling expression of the tra operon of F and the rfa genes for lipopolysaccharide synthesis...
  31. Knauer S, Rosch P, Artsimovitch I. Transformation: the next level of regulation. RNA Biol. 2012;9:1418-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Our recent studies revealed that the transcription factor RfaH simultaneously changes its topology and function...
  32. Schnaitman C, Klena J. Genetics of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in enteric bacteria. Microbiol Rev. 1993;57:655-82 pubmed