recA

Summary

Gene Symbol: recA
Description: DNA recombination and repair protein; ssDNA-dependent ATPase; synaptase; ssDNA and dsDNA binding protein; ATP-dependent homologous DNA strand exchanger; recombinase A; LexA autocleavage cofactor
Alias: ECK2694, JW2669, lexB, recH, rnmB, srf, tif, umuB, umuR, zab
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655
Products:     recA

Top Publications

  1. Uhlin B, Volkert M, Clark A, Sancar A, Rupp W. Nucleotide sequence of a recA operator mutation. LexA/operator-repressor binding/inducible repair. Mol Gen Genet. 1982;185:251-4 pubmed
  2. Chen Z, Yang H, Pavletich N. Mechanism of homologous recombination from the RecA-ssDNA/dsDNA structures. Nature. 2008;453:489-4 pubmed publisher
    The RecA family of ATPases mediates homologous recombination, a reaction essential for maintaining genomic integrity and for generating genetic diversity...
  3. Meddows T, Savory A, Lloyd R. RecG helicase promotes DNA double-strand break repair. Mol Microbiol. 2004;52:119-32 pubmed
    ..In Escherichia coli, repair relies on the RecBCD and RecA proteins, the combined ability of which to initiate recombination and form joint-molecule intermediates is well ..
  4. Kuzminov A. Recombinational repair of DNA damage in Escherichia coli and bacteriophage lambda. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 1999;63:751-813, table of contents pubmed
    ..Putting our knowledge about recombinational repair in the broader context of DNA replication will guide future experimentation. ..
  5. Handa N, Morimatsu K, Lovett S, Kowalczykowski S. Reconstitution of initial steps of dsDNA break repair by the RecF pathway of E. coli. Genes Dev. 2009;23:1234-45 pubmed publisher
    ..reconstitute in vitro a seven-protein reaction that recapitulates early steps of dsDNA break repair using purified RecA, RecF, RecO, RecR, RecQ, RecJ, and SSB proteins, components of the RecF system...
  6. Courcelle J, Carswell Crumpton C, Hanawalt P. recF and recR are required for the resumption of replication at DNA replication forks in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:3714-9 pubmed
    ..Current biochemical and genetic data on the conditions under which recF-mediated recombination occurs suggest that the recombinational intermediate also may mimic the structure of a disrupted replication fork. ..
  7. Stohl E, Brockman J, Burkle K, Morimatsu K, Kowalczykowski S, Seifert H. Escherichia coli RecX inhibits RecA recombinase and coprotease activities in vitro and in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:2278-85 pubmed
    In Escherichia coli the RecA protein plays a pivotal role in homologous recombination, DNA repair, and SOS repair and mutagenesis. A gene designated recX (or oraA) is present directly downstream of recA in E...
  8. Fernandez de Henestrosa A, Ogi T, Aoyagi S, Chafin D, Hayes J, Ohmori H, et al. Identification of additional genes belonging to the LexA regulon in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2000;35:1560-72 pubmed
    ..These experiments have allowed us to identify seven new LexA-regulated genes, thus bringing the present number of genes in the E. coli LexA regulon to 31. The potential function of each newly identified LexA-regulated gene is discussed. ..
  9. Shan Q, Bork J, Webb B, Inman R, Cox M. RecA protein filaments: end-dependent dissociation from ssDNA and stabilization by RecO and RecR proteins. J Mol Biol. 1997;265:519-40 pubmed
    b>RecA protein filaments formed on circular (ssDNA) in the presence of ssDNA binding protein (SSB) are generally stable as long as ATP is regenerated...
  10. Galkin V, Yu X, Bielnicki J, Ndjonka D, Bell C, Egelman E. Cleavage of bacteriophage lambda cI repressor involves the RecA C-terminal domain. J Mol Biol. 2009;385:779-87 pubmed publisher
    ..of these genes occurs when the LexA repressor cleaves itself, a reaction catalyzed by an active, extended RecA filament formed on DNA...

Detail Information

Publications88

  1. Uhlin B, Volkert M, Clark A, Sancar A, Rupp W. Nucleotide sequence of a recA operator mutation. LexA/operator-repressor binding/inducible repair. Mol Gen Genet. 1982;185:251-4 pubmed
  2. Chen Z, Yang H, Pavletich N. Mechanism of homologous recombination from the RecA-ssDNA/dsDNA structures. Nature. 2008;453:489-4 pubmed publisher
    The RecA family of ATPases mediates homologous recombination, a reaction essential for maintaining genomic integrity and for generating genetic diversity...
  3. Meddows T, Savory A, Lloyd R. RecG helicase promotes DNA double-strand break repair. Mol Microbiol. 2004;52:119-32 pubmed
    ..In Escherichia coli, repair relies on the RecBCD and RecA proteins, the combined ability of which to initiate recombination and form joint-molecule intermediates is well ..
  4. Kuzminov A. Recombinational repair of DNA damage in Escherichia coli and bacteriophage lambda. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 1999;63:751-813, table of contents pubmed
    ..Putting our knowledge about recombinational repair in the broader context of DNA replication will guide future experimentation. ..
  5. Handa N, Morimatsu K, Lovett S, Kowalczykowski S. Reconstitution of initial steps of dsDNA break repair by the RecF pathway of E. coli. Genes Dev. 2009;23:1234-45 pubmed publisher
    ..reconstitute in vitro a seven-protein reaction that recapitulates early steps of dsDNA break repair using purified RecA, RecF, RecO, RecR, RecQ, RecJ, and SSB proteins, components of the RecF system...
  6. Courcelle J, Carswell Crumpton C, Hanawalt P. recF and recR are required for the resumption of replication at DNA replication forks in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:3714-9 pubmed
    ..Current biochemical and genetic data on the conditions under which recF-mediated recombination occurs suggest that the recombinational intermediate also may mimic the structure of a disrupted replication fork. ..
  7. Stohl E, Brockman J, Burkle K, Morimatsu K, Kowalczykowski S, Seifert H. Escherichia coli RecX inhibits RecA recombinase and coprotease activities in vitro and in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:2278-85 pubmed
    In Escherichia coli the RecA protein plays a pivotal role in homologous recombination, DNA repair, and SOS repair and mutagenesis. A gene designated recX (or oraA) is present directly downstream of recA in E...
  8. Fernandez de Henestrosa A, Ogi T, Aoyagi S, Chafin D, Hayes J, Ohmori H, et al. Identification of additional genes belonging to the LexA regulon in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2000;35:1560-72 pubmed
    ..These experiments have allowed us to identify seven new LexA-regulated genes, thus bringing the present number of genes in the E. coli LexA regulon to 31. The potential function of each newly identified LexA-regulated gene is discussed. ..
  9. Shan Q, Bork J, Webb B, Inman R, Cox M. RecA protein filaments: end-dependent dissociation from ssDNA and stabilization by RecO and RecR proteins. J Mol Biol. 1997;265:519-40 pubmed
    b>RecA protein filaments formed on circular (ssDNA) in the presence of ssDNA binding protein (SSB) are generally stable as long as ATP is regenerated...
  10. Galkin V, Yu X, Bielnicki J, Ndjonka D, Bell C, Egelman E. Cleavage of bacteriophage lambda cI repressor involves the RecA C-terminal domain. J Mol Biol. 2009;385:779-87 pubmed publisher
    ..of these genes occurs when the LexA repressor cleaves itself, a reaction catalyzed by an active, extended RecA filament formed on DNA...
  11. Hishida T, Han Y, Shibata T, Kubota Y, Ishino Y, Iwasaki H, et al. Role of the Escherichia coli RecQ DNA helicase in SOS signaling and genome stabilization at stalled replication forks. Genes Dev. 2004;18:1886-97 pubmed
    ..Cells that carry dnaE486, a mutation in the DNA polymerase III alpha-catalytic subunit, induce an RecA-dependent SOS response and become highly filamented at the semirestrictive temperature (38 degrees C)...
  12. Delmas S, Matic I. Cellular response to horizontally transferred DNA in Escherichia coli is tuned by DNA repair systems. DNA Repair (Amst). 2005;4:221-9 pubmed
    ..and frequency of recombination, suggest that the level of SOS induction precisely reflects the difficulty of RecA protein to initiate a productive strand exchange process...
  13. Dutra B, Sutera V, Lovett S. RecA-independent recombination is efficient but limited by exonucleases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:216-21 pubmed
    Genetic recombination in bacteria is facilitated by the RecA strand transfer protein and strongly depends on the homology between interacting sequences...
  14. Nowosielska A, Calmann M, Zdraveski Z, Essigmann J, Marinus M. Spontaneous and cisplatin-induced recombination in Escherichia coli. DNA Repair (Amst). 2004;3:719-28 pubmed
    ..Lac+ formation for both spontaneous and cisplatin-induced recombination requires the products of the recA, recBC, ruvA, ruvB, ruvC, priA and polA genes...
  15. Mazin A, Kowalczykowski S. The function of the secondary DNA-binding site of RecA protein during DNA strand exchange. EMBO J. 1998;17:1161-8 pubmed
    b>RecA protein features two distinct DNA-binding sites. During DNA strand exchange, the primary site binds to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), forming the helical RecA nucleoprotein filament...
  16. Umezu K, Kolodner R. Protein interactions in genetic recombination in Escherichia coli. Interactions involving RecO and RecR overcome the inhibition of RecA by single-stranded DNA-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:30005-13 pubmed
    b>RecA promotes homologous pairing of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). This reaction occurs inefficiently if the ssDNA substrate is preincubated with Escherichia coli ssDNA-binding protein (SSB)...
  17. Cox M. The bacterial RecA protein as a motor protein. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2003;57:551-77 pubmed
    The bacterial RecA protein plays a central role in the repair of stalled replication forks, double-strand break repair, general recombination, induction of the SOS response, and SOS mutagenesis...
  18. Willetts N, Clark A. Characteristics of some multiply recombination-deficient strains of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1969;100:231-9 pubmed
    ..The following genotypes were constructed and verified: recC22 recB21 recA(+), recC22 recB21 recA13, recC22 recB(+)recA13, and recC(+)recB21 recA13...
  19. Umezu K, Chi N, Kolodner R. Biochemical interaction of the Escherichia coli RecF, RecO, and RecR proteins with RecA protein and single-stranded DNA binding protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:3875-9 pubmed
    The Escherichia coli RecF, RecO, and RecR proteins were analyzed for their effect on RecA-mediated pairing of single-stranded circular DNA and homologous linear duplex DNA substrates...
  20. Hebert M, Spitz L, Wells R. DNA double-strand breaks induce deletion of CTG.CAG repeats in an orientation-dependent manner in Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 2004;336:655-72 pubmed
    ..CCG repeats were linearized in vitro near the center of the repeats and were transformed into parental, RecA-dependent homologous recombination-deficient, or RecBC exonuclease-deficient Escherichia coli...
  21. Sommer S, Coste G, Bailone A. Specific amino acid changes enhance the anti-recombination activity of the UmuD'C complex. Mol Microbiol. 2000;35:1443-53 pubmed
    ..the UmuD'C complex sensitizes recA+ bacteria to DNA damage, whereas it has no effect on bacteria expressing a RecA [UmuR] protein that overcomes recombination inhibition...
  22. Lusetti S, Shaw J, Cox M. Magnesium ion-dependent activation of the RecA protein involves the C terminus. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:16381-8 pubmed
    Optimal conditions for RecA protein-mediated DNA strand exchange include 6-8 mm Mg(2+) in excess of that required to form complexes with ATP...
  23. Bianco P, Tracy R, Kowalczykowski S. DNA strand exchange proteins: a biochemical and physical comparison. Front Biosci. 1998;3:D570-603 pubmed
    ..In Escherichia coli, the RecA protein is essential to recombination, and biochemical analysis demonstrates that it is responsible for the crucial ..
  24. Kowalczykowski S, Dixon D, Eggleston A, Lauder S, Rehrauer W. Biochemistry of homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. Microbiol Rev. 1994;58:401-65 pubmed
    ..At least 25 gene products are involved in promoting genetic exchange. At present, this includes the RecA, RecBCD (exonuclease V), RecE (exonuclease VIII), RecF, RecG, RecJ, RecN, RecOR, RecQ, RecT, RuvAB, RuvC, SbcCD, ..
  25. Lusetti S, Voloshin O, Inman R, Camerini Otero R, Cox M. The DinI protein stabilizes RecA protein filaments. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:30037-46 pubmed
    When DinI is present at concentrations that are stoichiometric with those of RecA or somewhat greater, DinI has a substantial stabilizing effect on RecA filaments bound to DNA...
  26. Roy R, Kozlov A, Lohman T, Ha T. SSB protein diffusion on single-stranded DNA stimulates RecA filament formation. Nature. 2009;461:1092-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Diffusional migration of SSB helps in the local displacement of SSB by an elongating RecA filament...
  27. Schlacher K, Cox M, Woodgate R, Goodman M. RecA acts in trans to allow replication of damaged DNA by DNA polymerase V. Nature. 2006;442:883-7 pubmed
    The DNA polymerase V (pol V) and RecA proteins are essential components of a mutagenic translesion synthesis pathway in Escherichia coli designed to cope with DNA damage...
  28. Seigneur M, Ehrlich S, Michel B. RuvABC-dependent double-strand breaks in dnaBts mutants require recA. Mol Microbiol. 2000;38:565-74 pubmed
    ..that, in the rep mutant, RuvABC-mediated breakage occurs in the absence of the homologous recombination protein RecA. In contrast, in dnaBts mutants, most of the RuvABC-mediated breakage depends on the presence of RecA, which ..
  29. Xing X, Bell C. Crystal structures of Escherichia coli RecA in complex with MgADP and MnAMP-PNP. Biochemistry. 2004;43:16142-52 pubmed
    b>RecA catalyzes the DNA pairing and strand-exchange steps of homologous recombination, an important mechanism for repair of double-stranded DNA breaks. The binding of RecA to DNA is modulated by adenosine nucleotides...
  30. Harris D, Pollock S, Wood E, Goiffon R, Klingele A, Cabot E, et al. Directed evolution of ionizing radiation resistance in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:5240-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Several mutations in the recA gene and a deletion of the e14 prophage both demonstrably contribute to and partially explain the new phenotype...
  31. Yoshimasu M, Aihara H, Ito Y, Rajesh S, Ishibe S, Mikawa T, et al. An NMR study on the interaction of Escherichia coli DinI with RecA-ssDNA complexes. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:1735-43 pubmed
    ..that include DNA damage-induced replication arrest, and is positively regulated by the co- protease activity of RecA. Escherichia coli DinI, a LexA-regulated SOS gene product, shuts off the initiation of the SOS response when ..
  32. Pugh B, Cox M. General mechanism for RecA protein binding to duplex DNA. J Mol Biol. 1988;203:479-93 pubmed
    b>RecA protein binding to duplex DNA occurs by a multi-step process...
  33. Story R, Steitz T. Structure of the recA protein-ADP complex. Nature. 1992;355:374-6 pubmed
    The recA protein catalyses the ATP-driven homologous pairing and strand exchange of DNA molecules...
  34. Calmann M, Marinus M. MutS inhibits RecA-mediated strand exchange with platinated DNA substrates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:14174-9 pubmed
    ..We used RecA-mediated strand exchange between homologous phiX174 molecules, one that was platinated and the other that was ..
  35. Schlacher K, Leslie K, Wyman C, Woodgate R, Cox M, Goodman M. DNA polymerase V and RecA protein, a minimal mutasome. Mol Cell. 2005;17:561-72 pubmed
    ..TLS requires DNA polymerase V (UmuD'2C) and RecA. Here, we show that pol V and RecA interact by two distinct mechanisms...
  36. Jiang Q, Karata K, Woodgate R, Cox M, Goodman M. The active form of DNA polymerase V is UmuD'(2)C-RecA-ATP. Nature. 2009;460:359-63 pubmed publisher
    DNA-damage-induced SOS mutations arise when Escherichia coli DNA polymerase (pol) V, activated by a RecA nucleoprotein filament (RecA*), catalyses translesion DNA synthesis...
  37. Mirshad J, Kowalczykowski S. Biochemical characterization of a mutant RecA protein altered in DNA-binding loop 1. Biochemistry. 2003;42:5945-54 pubmed
    The double substitution of Glu156 with Leu and Gly157 with Val in the Escherichia coli RecA protein results in a severely reduced level of recombination and constitutive coprotease behavior...
  38. Arnold D, Handa N, Kobayashi I, Kowalczykowski S. A novel, 11 nucleotide variant of chi, chi*: one of a class of sequences defining the Escherichia coli recombination hotspot chi. J Mol Biol. 2000;300:469-79 pubmed
    ..This is manifest by both a greater modification of nuclease activity and a higher stimulation of RecA protein-mediated joint molecule formation at chi* than at chi...
  39. Fujii S, Gasser V, Fuchs R. The biochemical requirements of DNA polymerase V-mediated translesion synthesis revisited. J Mol Biol. 2004;341:405-17 pubmed
    ..In addition, RecA protein and the replication processivity factor, the beta-clamp, were genetically found to be essential co-factors ..
  40. McCool J, Long E, Petrosino J, Sandler H, Rosenberg S, Sandler S. Measurement of SOS expression in individual Escherichia coli K-12 cells using fluorescence microscopy. Mol Microbiol. 2004;53:1343-57 pubmed
    ..It is shown that the fluorescence in sulAp-gfp cells is regulated by RecA and LexA. This system was then used to distinguish between the two models for several mutants...
  41. Rangarajan S, Woodgate R, Goodman M. Replication restart in UV-irradiated Escherichia coli involving pols II, III, V, PriA, RecA and RecFOR proteins. Mol Microbiol. 2002;43:617-28 pubmed
    ..we have analysed the time dependence of replication restart in strains carrying a combination of mutations in lexA, recA, polB (pol II), umuDC (pol V), priA, dnaC, recF, recO or recR...
  42. Pennington J, Rosenberg S. Spontaneous DNA breakage in single living Escherichia coli cells. Nat Genet. 2007;39:797-802 pubmed
    ..Finally, FACS demonstrated two main cell fates after spontaneous DNA damage: viability with or without resumption of proliferation. ..
  43. Ramirez B, Voloshin O, Camerini Otero R, Bax A. Solution structure of DinI provides insight into its mode of RecA inactivation. Protein Sci. 2000;9:2161-9 pubmed publisher
    The Escherichia coli RecA protein triggers both DNA repair and mutagenesis in a process known as the SOS response. The 81-residue E. coli protein DinI inhibits activity of RecA in vivo...
  44. Hashem V, Rosche W, Sinden R. Genetic recombination destabilizes (CTG)n.(CAG)n repeats in E. coli. Mutat Res. 2004;554:95-109 pubmed
    ..Using a genetic assay for repeat deletion in E. coli, the effect of mutations in the recA, recB, and lexA genes on the rate of deletion of (CTG)n.(CAG)n repeats of varying lengths were examined...
  45. Godoy V, Jarosz D, Simon S, Abyzov A, Ilyin V, Walker G. UmuD and RecA directly modulate the mutagenic potential of the Y family DNA polymerase DinB. Mol Cell. 2007;28:1058-70 pubmed
    ..We show that the DNA damage-inducible proteins UmuD(2) and RecA act in concert to modulate this mutagenic activity...
  46. Maul R, Sutton M. Roles of the Escherichia coli RecA protein and the global SOS response in effecting DNA polymerase selection in vivo. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:7607-18 pubmed
    ..In contrast, chronically activated RecA protein, expressed from the recA730 allele, is lethal to the dnaN159 strain, and this lethality is suppressed by ..
  47. Dutreix M, Burnett B, Bailone A, Radding C, Devoret R. A partially deficient mutant, recA1730, that fails to form normal nucleoprotein filaments. Mol Gen Genet. 1992;232:489-97 pubmed
    ..ssDNA equally well on nitrocellulose filters; this activity was specifically inhibited by a monoclonal anti-RecA antibody...
  48. Courcelle J, Hanawalt P. RecA-dependent recovery of arrested DNA replication forks. Annu Rev Genet. 2003;37:611-46 pubmed
    ..The RecA protein of Escherichia coli is essential for survival in this situation: It maintains the integrity of the arrested ..
  49. Karlin S, Brocchieri L. Evolutionary conservation of RecA genes in relation to protein structure and function. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:1881-94 pubmed
    ..R ecA protein crystal structure and mutation studies are evaluated in terms of evolutionary conservation across 63 RecA eubacterial sequences...
  50. Roca A, Cox M. RecA protein: structure, function, and role in recombinational DNA repair. Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol. 1997;56:129-223 pubmed
  51. Morimatsu K, Kowalczykowski S. RecFOR proteins load RecA protein onto gapped DNA to accelerate DNA strand exchange: a universal step of recombinational repair. Mol Cell. 2003;11:1337-47 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the concerted action of the RecFOR complex directs the loading of RecA protein specifically onto gapped DNA that is coated with single-stranded DNA binding (SSB) protein, thereby ..
  52. VanLoock M, Yu X, Yang S, Lai A, Low C, Campbell M, et al. ATP-mediated conformational changes in the RecA filament. Structure. 2003;11:187-96 pubmed
    The crystal structure of the E. coli RecA protein was solved more than 10 years ago, but it has provided limited insight into the mechanism of homologous genetic recombination...
  53. Willetts N, Clark A, Low B. Genetic location of certain mutations conferring recombination deficiency in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1969;97:244-9 pubmed
    ..All four mutations map at similar distances from cysC and pheA and, despite the different degrees of apparent dominance, all may lie in the recA gene.
  54. Ragone S, Maman J, Furnham N, Pellegrini L. Structural basis for inhibition of homologous recombination by the RecX protein. EMBO J. 2008;27:2259-69 pubmed publisher
    The RecA/RAD51 nucleoprotein filament is central to the reaction of homologous recombination (HR). Filament activity must be tightly regulated in vivo as unrestrained HR can cause genomic instability...
  55. Pham P, Seitz E, Saveliev S, Shen X, Woodgate R, Cox M, et al. Two distinct modes of RecA action are required for DNA polymerase V-catalyzed translesion synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:11061-6 pubmed
    SOS mutagenesis in Escherichia coli requires DNA polymerase V (pol V) and RecA protein to copy damaged DNA templates...
  56. Bell J, Plank J, Dombrowski C, Kowalczykowski S. Direct imaging of RecA nucleation and growth on single molecules of SSB-coated ssDNA. Nature. 2012;491:274-8 pubmed publisher
    Escherichia coli RecA is the defining member of a ubiquitous class of DNA strand-exchange proteins that are essential for homologous recombination, a pathway that maintains genomic integrity by repairing broken DNA...
  57. Story R, Weber I, Steitz T. The structure of the E. coli recA protein monomer and polymer. Nature. 1992;355:318-25 pubmed
    The crystal structure of the recA protein from Escherichia coli at 2.3-A resolution reveals a major domain that binds ADP and probably single- and double-stranded DNA...
  58. Gruenig M, Renzette N, Long E, Chitteni Pattu S, Inman R, Cox M, et al. RecA-mediated SOS induction requires an extended filament conformation but no ATP hydrolysis. Mol Microbiol. 2008;69:1165-79 pubmed publisher
    The Escherichia coli SOS response to DNA damage is modulated by the RecA protein, a recombinase that forms an extended filament on single-stranded DNA and hydrolyzes ATP...
  59. Zaitsev E, Kowalczykowski S. Essential monomer-monomer contacts define the minimal length for the N-terminus of RecA protein. Mol Microbiol. 1998;29:1317-8 pubmed
  60. Gill R, Valdes J, Bentley W. A comparative study of global stress gene regulation in response to overexpression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. Metab Eng. 2000;2:178-89 pubmed
    ..increased upregulation of heat shock (ftsH, clpP, lon, ompT, degP, groEL, aceA, ibpA), SOS/DNA damage (recA, lon, IS5 transposase), stationary phase (rpoS, aceA), and bacteriophage life cycle (ftsH, recA) genes...
  61. Pages V, Koffel Schwartz N, Fuchs R. recX, a new SOS gene that is co-transcribed with the recA gene in Escherichia coli. DNA Repair (Amst). 2003;2:273-84 pubmed
    recX is a small open reading frame located downstream of recA that is conserved in many bacteria. In Escherichia coli, the recX gene (also named oraA) is a 501 bp open reading frame that encodes a predicted basic protein...
  62. Drees J, Lusetti S, Chitteni Pattu S, Inman R, Cox M. A RecA filament capping mechanism for RecX protein. Mol Cell. 2004;15:789-98 pubmed
    The RecX protein is a potent inhibitor of RecA protein activities. RecX functions by specifically blocking the extension of RecA filaments. In vitro, this leads to a net disassembly of RecA protein from circular single-stranded DNA...
  63. Xing X, Bell C. Crystal structures of Escherichia coli RecA in a compressed helical filament. J Mol Biol. 2004;342:1471-85 pubmed
    The X-ray crystal structure of uncomplexed Escherichia coli RecA protein has been determined in three new crystal forms at resolutions of 1.9 A, 2.0 A, and 2.6 A...
  64. Bork J, Cox M, Inman R. The RecOR proteins modulate RecA protein function at 5' ends of single-stranded DNA. EMBO J. 2001;20:7313-22 pubmed
    ..The RecOR-facilitated binding of RecA protein to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) that is bound by single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB) is much faster if ..
  65. Bork J, Cox M, Inman R. RecA protein filaments disassemble in the 5' to 3' direction on single-stranded DNA. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:45740-3 pubmed
    b>RecA protein forms filaments on both single- and double-stranded DNA. Several studies confirm that filament extension occurs in the 5' to 3' direction on single-stranded DNA...
  66. Veaute X, Delmas S, Selva M, Jeusset J, Le Cam E, Matic I, et al. UvrD helicase, unlike Rep helicase, dismantles RecA nucleoprotein filaments in Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 2005;24:180-9 pubmed
    ..In addition to RecFOR, we provide evidence that RecA contributes to toxicity in the rep uvrD mutant...
  67. Gillen J, Willis D, Clark A. Genetic analysis of the RecE pathway of genetic recombination in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1981;145:521-32 pubmed
    ..In addition, strain construction and mutagenesis revealed the dependence of the RecE pathway on recA+ and on recF+. Dependence on a fourth gene was shown by a mutation (rec-77) which does not map near the other genes...
  68. Little J, Edmiston S, Pacelli L, Mount D. Cleavage of the Escherichia coli lexA protein by the recA protease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980;77:3225-9 pubmed
    The recA and lexA proteins of EScherichia coli are involved in a complex regulatory circuit that allows the expression of a diverse set of functions after DNA damage or inhibition of DNA replication...
  69. Brendel V, Brocchieri L, Sandler S, Clark A, Karlin S. Evolutionary comparisons of RecA-like proteins across all major kingdoms of living organisms. J Mol Evol. 1997;44:528-41 pubmed
    Protein sequences with similarities to Escherichia coli RecA were compared across the major kingdoms of eubacteria, archaebacteria, and eukaryotes...
  70. Singleton S, Simonette R, Sharma N, Roca A. Intein-mediated affinity-fusion purification of the Escherichia coli RecA protein. Protein Expr Purif. 2002;26:476-88 pubmed
    The RecA protein of Escherichia coli plays important roles in homologous recombination, recombinational DNA repair, and SOS induction...
  71. Yu X, VanLoock M, Yang S, Reese J, Egelman E. What is the structure of the RecA-DNA filament?. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2004;5:73-9 pubmed
    The bacterial RecA protein has been a model system for understanding how a protein can catalyze homologous genetic recombination. RecA-like proteins have now been characterized from many organisms, from bacteriophage to humans...
  72. Courcelle J, Donaldson J, Chow K, Courcelle C. DNA damage-induced replication fork regression and processing in Escherichia coli. Science. 2003;299:1064-7 pubmed
    ..After ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damage in Escherichia coli, replication recovery requires RecA and several other recF pathway proteins...
  73. Michel B, Ehrlich S, Uzest M. DNA double-strand breaks caused by replication arrest. EMBO J. 1997;16:430-8 pubmed
    ..In wild-type E. coli, linear DNA was detected in the absence of RecBC or of both RecA and RecD. This reveals the existence of a significant amount of spontaneous DSBs...
  74. Venkatesh R, Ganesh N, Guhan N, Reddy M, Chandrasekhar T, Muniyappa K. RecX protein abrogates ATP hydrolysis and strand exchange promoted by RecA: insights into negative regulation of homologous recombination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:12091-6 pubmed
    In many eubacteria, coexpression of recX with recA is essential for attenuation of the deleterious effects of recA overexpression; however, the molecular mechanism has remained enigmatic...
  75. Galletto R, Amitani I, Baskin R, Kowalczykowski S. Direct observation of individual RecA filaments assembling on single DNA molecules. Nature. 2006;443:875-8 pubmed
    Escherichia coli RecA is essential for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks by homologous recombination. Repair requires the formation of a RecA nucleoprotein filament...
  76. Lusetti S, Hobbs M, Stohl E, Chitteni Pattu S, Inman R, Seifert H, et al. The RecF protein antagonizes RecX function via direct interaction. Mol Cell. 2006;21:41-50 pubmed
    The RecX protein inhibits RecA filament extension, leading to net filament disassembly. The RecF protein physically interacts with the RecX protein and protects RecA from the inhibitory effects of RecX...
  77. Arenson T, Tsodikov O, Cox M. Quantitative analysis of the kinetics of end-dependent disassembly of RecA filaments from ssDNA. J Mol Biol. 1999;288:391-401 pubmed
    On linear single-stranded DNA, RecA filaments assemble and disassemble in the 5' to 3' direction. Monomers (or other units) associate at one end and dissociate from the other. ATP hydrolysis occurs throughout the filament...
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